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guage, in which he was pre-eminently skilled, both publicly in the university, and privátely in his own college. His pupils are said to have made an extraordinary proficiency; and one of them (William Grindal) from his recommendation, was engaged by sir John Cheke, as tutor to the lady Elizabeth.

Ascham was particularly fond of archerya diversion to which he frequently resorted as a relaxation from study. But his conduct, in this respect, exciting the malicious censure of some persons, he defended himself by a small treatise, which he entitled, "Toxophilus," published in 1544, and dedicated to Henry VIII. In consequence of this, the king, at the instance of sir William Paget, settled a small pension upon him, which, though discontinued for a time after Henry's death, was at length restored to him by Edward VI. during pleasure, and also confirmed by Mary, with an addition of ten pounds a


The same year in which he published this book, he was chosen university orator in the room of Cheke. On the death of his pupil, Mr. Grindal, in 1548, he was invited to court to become preceptor of the learned languages

to the lady Elizabeth - an office he discharged during two years with great credit and satisfaction to himself and his illustrious pupil. But taking umbrage at some ill-founded rumours maliciously propagated against him, he abruptly quitted the court in disgust, returned to the university, and resumed his studies, with his office of public orator.

While he was on a visit to his relations in Yorkshire, in 1550, he was recalled to court, to attend sir Richard Morison, about to depart for Germany as ambassador to Charles V. On his road to London, he visited the lady Jane Gray, at her father's house, at Broadgate, in Leicestershire; and on this occasion it was that he surprised her reading Plato's Phado, in Greek. He continued three years in Germany, during which he wrote an account" of the Affairs and State of Germany," &c. In the mean while, his friends in England procured for him the office of Latin secretary to Edward VI.; but on the death of the king, losing all his places and pensions, together with all expectation of further favours at court, he retired again to the university. His friend, however, the lord Paget, recommending him to Gardiner bishop of Winches

ter, then lord high chancellor, he was courteously received by that celebrated prelate, who re-obtained for him his pension, and the post of Latin secretary to the king and queen. In 1554, he married Mrs. Margaret Howe, a lady of family and fortune.

On the accession of Elizabeth, he was immediately distinguished, and read with the queen some hours every day in the Latin and Greek languages. In this office, and in that of Latin secretary, he continued at court for the remainder of his life. It does not appear, however, that his fortune was ever proportional to his station, or to his literary eminence. Grant, who pronounced his funeral oration, attributes this to his contempt of money, which prevented his solicitation of favours; though Camden imputes his narrowness of condition to his want of frugality, and to his love of dice and cock-fighting. Johnson remarks-"We may easily discover from his Schoolmaster, that he felt his wants, though he might neglect to supply them; and we are left to suspect, that he shewed his contempt of money only by losing it at play. If this was his practice (says he) we may excuse Elizabeth, who knew the domestic character of

her servants, if she did not give much to him who was lavish of a little." Johnson adds"However he might fail in his economy, it were indecent to treat with wanton levity the memory of a man, who shared his frailties with all; but whose learning or virtues few can attain, and by whose excellencies many may be improved, while himself only suffered by his faults." He died in December, 1568. The queen was much concerned at his death, and was heard to say, that she had rather have lost ten thousand pounds, than her tutor Ascham.

The only other works of Ascham are, 1. His Schoolmaster. 2. His Epistles, which were collected and published after his death by Mr. Grant, master of Westminster school, and dedicated to queen Elizabeth, with the intention of recommending his son, Giles Ascham, to her patronage. The Schoolmaster was printed by his widow. The Toxophilus, and the account of Germany, alone were published by himself.

His design in writing his Toxophilus was, according to his own account, not merely to vindicate himself from the imputation of spending too much time in archery; but, as stated by Dr. Johnson, "to give an example

of diction more natural and more truly. English, than was used by the common writers of that age, whom he censures for mingling exotic terms with their native language, and of whom he complains, that they were made authors not by skill or education, but by arrogance and temerity.-He has not failed (says Johnson) in either of his purposes. He has sufficiently vindicated archery as an innonocent, salutary, useful, and liberal diversion; and if his precepts are of no use, he has only shewn by one example among many, how little the hand can derive from the mind, how little intelligence can contribute to dexterity.

In every art, practice is much; in arts manual, practice is almost the whole. Precept can at most but warn against error, it can never bestow excellence." This work has been lately published separately in a small volume.

The following passage is curious, as it shews the state of the language at the time of his writing.

If any man would blame me either for taking such a matter in hand, or else for writing it in the English tongue, this answer I may make him, that when the best of the realm think it honest for them to use, I, one of the meanest sort, ought not to

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