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and, soon after the accession of James to the throne, he thus speaks of the Queen.

"She was a princess that if Plutarch were now alive to write lives by parallels, would trouble him, I think, to find for her a parallel amongst women. This lady was endued with learning in her sex singular and rare even amongst masculine princes; whether we speak of learning, language, or of science, modern or ancient, divinity or humanity: and, unto the very last year of her life, she was accustomed to appoint set hours for reading, scarcely any young student in an university more daily or more duly. As for her government, I assure myself, I shall not exceed, if I do affirm that this part of the island never had forty-five years of better times, and yet not through the calmness of the season, but through the wisdom of her regimen. For if there be considered of the one side, the truth of religion established; the constant peace and security; the good administration of justice; the temperate use of the prerogative, not slackened, nor much strained; the flourishing state of learning, suitable to so excellent a patroness; the convenient estate of wealth and means, both of crown and subject; the habit of obedience, and the moderation of discontents; and there be considered, on the other side, the differences of religion, the troubles of neighbour countries, the ambition of Spain, and opposition of Rome; and then that she was solitary and of herself; these things I say considered, I could not have chosen a more remarkable instance of the conjunction of learning in the prince, with felicity in the people."

End of Pazt I.



From the Death of Elizabeth to the Death of Bacon.



1603 to 1610.

UPON the death of the Queen, Bacon had every thing to expect from the disposition of her successor, who was a lover of letters, was desirous to be considered the patron of learning and learned men, was well acquainted with the attainments of Bacon, and his reputation both at home and abroad, and was greatly prepossessed in his favour by his brother Anthony, who was much esteemed by the King. (a)

But neither the consciousness of his own powers or of the King's discernment rendered Bacon inert or passive. He used all his influence, both in England and in Scotland, to insure the protection of James. (b) He wrote to the Earl

(a) See Rymer, vol. xvi. p. 596, and note TTT at the end.

(b) He wrote to Mr. Foules, see vol. xii. page 114; to Sir Thomas Challoner, see vol. xii. page 113; to his friend, Tobie Mathew, see vol. xii. page 230; to Dr. Morrison, a Scottish physician, see vol. xiii. page 61; to Lord Kinlose, see vol. xii. page 101.

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1603. Æt. 43.

of Northumberland, (c) and to Lord Southampton, (e) who was imprisoned and tried with Essex, using these remarkable words, "I may safely be that to you now, which I was truly before."

Upon the approach of the King he addressed his majesty in a letter written in the style of the times: (a) and he

(c) He wrote to the Earl of Northumberland, see vol. xii. pages 103 and 116; to Mr. Kempe, see vol. xii. page 25; to Mr. Davis, see vol. xii. page 115; and it is remarkable that he applied to the Earl of Southampton, the fellow prisoner and convict with Lord Essex. In his letter to Mr. Kempe he says, "My lord of Southampton expecteth release by the next dispatch, and is already much visited, and much well wished. There is continual posting by men of good quality towards the king; the rather, I think, because this spring time it is but a kind of sport. It is hoped that as the state here hath performed the part of good attorneys, to deliver the King quiet possession of his kingdoms, so the King will re-deliver them quiet possession of their places; rather filling places void, than removing men placed. So, &c."

The following is his letter to Lord Southampton:

"It may please your Lordship,-I would have been very glad to have presented my humble service to your lordship by my attendance, if I could have foreseen that it should not have been unpleasing unto you. And therefore, because I would be sure to commit no error, I chose to write; assuring your lordship, how little soever it may seem credible to you at first, yet it is as true as a thing that God knoweth ; that this great change hath wrought in me no other change towards your lordship than this, that I may safely be that to you now, which I was truly before. And so craving no other pardon, than for troubling you with my letter, I do not now begin to be, but continue to be your Lordship's humble and much devoted


See vol. xii. page 115.


(a) It may please your most excellent Majesty,

It is observed by some, upon a place in the Canticles, Ego, sum flos campi, et lilium convallium, that, a dispari, it is not said, Ego sum flos horti, et lilium montium; because the majesty of that person is not inclosed for a few, nor appropriated to the great. And yet, notwith

submitted to the Earl of Northumberland, for the King's consideration, a proclamation, recommending "the union of England and Scotland; attention to the sufferings of

standing, this royal virtue of access, which both nature and judgment have planted in your majesty's mind, as the portal of all the rest, could not of itself, my imperfections considered, have animated me to make oblation of myself immediately to your majesty, had it not been joined with an habit of the like liberty which I enjoyed with my late dear sovereign mistress; a princess happy in all things else, but most happy in such a successor. And yet farther, and more nearly, I was not a little encouraged, not only upon a supposal, that unto your majesty's sacred ear, open to the air of all virtues, there might perhaps have come some small breath of the good memory of my father, so long a principal counsellor in your kingdom; but also a more particular knowledge of the infinite devotion and incessant endeavours, beyond the strength of his body, and the nature of the times, which appeared in my good brother, Mr. Anthony Bacon, towards your majesty's service; and were, on your majesty's part, through your singular benignity, by many most gracious and lively significations and favours accepted and acknowledged, beyond the merit of any thing he could effect: which endeavours and duties, for the most part, were common to myself with him, though by design, as between brethren, dissembled. And therefore, most high and mighty king, my most dear and dread sovereign lord, since now the cornerstone is laid of the mightiest monarchy in Europe; and that God above, who hath ever a hand in bridling the floods and motions both of the seas and of people's hearts, hath by the miraculous and universal consent, the more strange, because it proceedeth from such diversity of causes, in your coming in, given a sign and token of great happiness in the continuance of your reign; I think there

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