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and to the Lord Keeper. (a)

It had scarcely been published when he felt and expressed anxiety that it should be translated into Latin, "as these modern languages will, at one time or other, play the bankrupts with books; and, since I have lost much time with this age, I would be glad, as God shall give me leave, to recover it with posterity:" (b) a wish which was more than gratified, as it was published, not only in various editions, in England, but was soon translated into French and into Latin. (c)

you, in all humbleness, a present thereof, as now being not able to give you tribute of any service. If King Henry the Seventh were alive again, I hope verily he could not be so angry with me for not flattering him, as well pleased in seeing himself so truly described in colours that will last and be believed. I most humbly pray your majesty graciously to accept of my good will; and so, with all reverence, kiss your hands, praying to God above, by his divine and most benign providence, to conduct your affairs to happy issue; and resting your majesty's most humble and devoted servant, April 20, 1622. FR. ST. ALBAN.

(a) To the Lord Viscount St. Alban.

My very good Lord,—I heartily thank your lordship for your book, and all other symbols of your love and affection, which I will endeavour, upon all opportunities, to deserve; and, in the mean time, do rest your lordship's assured faithful poor friend and servant, Jo. LINCOLN, C.S.

Westminster College, this 7th of February, 1622. To the Right Honourable his very good Lord,

the Lord Viscount St. Alban.

(b) Letter to Toby Matthew.

(c) In 1627 it was published in French, 8vo. Paris, par Holman, of which there is a copy in the British Museum. In 1629 there was a new edition in English. In 1638 an edition in Latin was published by Dr. Rawley, completed, as it seems, during the life of Bacon-See Rawley's life. And the press has since abounded with editions, in 1641, in 1647, and in 1662; and in the British Museum there is a MS. (Sloane's collection, 84,) entitled, Notes taken out of his history of the reign of Henry the Seventh; and another MS. Harleian, vol. 2, of Catalogue 300, entitled, Notes of Henry the Seventh's reign, set down in MS. by the Lord Chancellor Bacon.

Such was the nature of his literary occupations in the
first year after his retirement, during which he corresponded
with different learned foreigners upon his works; (a) and
great zeal having been shewn for his majesty's service, he
composed a treatise entitled, "An Advertisement touching
a Holy War," which he inscribed to the Bishop of Win-
chester. (b)

In the beginning of this year a vacancy occurred in the
Provostship of Eton College, where, in earlier years, he
had passed some days with Sir Henry Savile, pleasant to
himself and profitable to society. (c) His love of know-
ledge again manifested itself.

Having, in the spirit of his father, unfortunately en-
gaged, in his youth, in active life, he now, in the spirit of
his grandfather, the learned and contemplative Sir Anthony
Cooke, who took more pleasure to breed up statesmen than
to be one, offered himself to succeed the provost: as a fit
occupation for him in the spent hour-glass of his life, and
a retreat near London to a place of study. (d)

The objection which would, of course, be made from
what we, in our importance, look down upon as beneath
his dignity, he had many years before anticipated in the
Advancement of Learning, when investigating the objec-
tions to learning from the errors of learned men, from—
their fortunes; their manners; and the meanness of their
employments: upon which he says, "As for meanness of
employment, that which is most traduced to contempt,
is, that the government of youth is commonly allotted
to them; which age, because it is the age of least au-

(a) See his letter to Father Baranzan, vol. xiii. p. 68.

(b) See vol. vii. p. 112.

(c) Ante p. cx.

(d) See letter to Conway, vol. xii. p. 440, and vol. xii. p. 442, and to
the King, vol. xii. p. 440.

A. D.

Æt. 63.


thority, it is transferred to the disesteeming of those employments wherein youth is conversant, and which are conversant about youth. But how unjust this traducement is, if you will reduce things from popularity of opinion to measure of reason, may appear in that, we see men are more curious what they put into a new vessel, than into a vessel seasoned; and what mould they lay about a young plant, than about a plant corroborate; so as the weakest terms and times of all things used to have the best applications and helps; and, therefore, the ancient wisdom of the best times did always make a just complaint, that states were too busy with their laws, and too negligent in point of education: which excellent part of ancient discipline hath been in some sort revived of late times, by the colleges of the Jesuits; of whom, although in regard of their superstition I may say, quo meliores, eo deteriores; yet in regard of this, and some other points concerning human learning and moral matters, I may say, as Agesilaus said to his enemy Pharnabasus, Talis quum sis, utinam noster esses." (a)

His application was not successful; the King answered that it had been designed for Sir William Beecher, but that there was some hope that, by satisfying him elsewhere, his majesty might be able to comply with the request. Sir William was satisfied by the promise of £2500, but the provostship was given to Sir Henry Wotton, (b) “who had for many years, like Sisiphus, rolled the restless stone of a state employment; knowing experimentally that the great blessing of sweet content was not to be found in multitudes of men or business: and, that a college was the fittest place to nourish holy thoughts, and to afford

(a) Advancement of Learning, vol. ii. p. 26.
(b) Wotton's Remains.

rest both to his body and mind, which he much required from his age, being now almost threescore years, and from his urgent pecuniary wants; for he had always been as careless of money, as though our Saviour's words, 'Care not for to-morrow,' were to be literally understood." He, therefore, upon condition of releasing a grant, which he possessed, of the mastership of the Rolls, was appointed provost. (a)

At this disappointment Bacon could not be much affected. One day, as he was dictating to Dr. Rawley some of the experiments in his Sylva, he had sent a friend to court, to receive for him a final answer, touching the effect of a grant which had been made him by King James. He had hitherto only hope of it, and hope deferred; and he was desirous to know the event of the matter, and to be freed, one way or other, from the suspense of his thoughts. His friend returning, told him plainly that he must thenceforth

(a) The following is from the Life of Wotton, "To London he came the year before King James died; who having for the reward of his foreign service promised him the reversion of an office which was fit to be turned into present money, which he wanted for a supply of his present necessities, and also granted him the reversion of the Master of the Rolls place, if he outlived charitable Sir Julius Cæsar, who then possessed it: and then, grown so old, that he was said to be kept alive beyond nature's course, by the prayers of those many poor which he daily relieved. But these were but in hope; and his condition required a present support: for in the beginning of these employments he sold to his elder brother, the Lord Wotton, the rent-charge left by his good father, and, which is worse, was now at his return indebted to several persons, whom he was not able to satisfy, but by the King's payment of his arrears due for his foreign employments, he had brought into England many servants, of which some were German and Italian artists. This was part of his condition who had many times hardly sufficient to supply the occasions of the day: (for it may by no means be said of his providence, as himself said of Sir Philip Sidney's wit, that it was the very measure of congruity) he being always so careless of money, as though our Saviour's words, 'Care not for to-morrow,' were to be literally understood."

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De Augmentis.

despair of that grant, how much soever his fortunes needed it. "Be it so," said his lordship; and then he dismissed his friend very cheerfully, with thankful acknowledgements of his service. His friend being gone, he came straightway to Dr. Rawley, and said thus to him, "Well, Sir, yon business won't go on, let us go on with this, for this is in our power:" and then he dictated to him afresh, for some hours, without the least hesitancie of speech, or discernible interruption of thought. (a)

He proceeded with his literary labours, and, during this year, published in Latin his celebrated treatise "De Augmentis Scientiarum" (b) and his important " Historia Vitæ et Mortis." (c)

Between the year 1605, when the Advancement was published, (d) and the year 1623, he made great progress in the completion of the work, which, having divided into nine books, and subdivided each book into chapters, he caused to be translated into Latin by Mr. Herbert, and some other friends, and published in Latin in 1623,(e) in a

(u) Baconiana.

(b) See vols. viii. and ix.

(c) See vol. x. for Latin, and vol. xiv. for English.

(d) See vol. ii.

(e) In the year 1622 Lord Bacon wrote an Advertisement touching an Holy War, to the Bishop of Winchester (see vol. vii. p. 112), in which he thus mentions the treatise "De Augmentis:" "That my book of Advancement of Learning may be some preparative or key for the better opening of the Instauration, because it exhibits a mixture of new conceits and old; whereas the Instauration gives the new unmixed, otherwise than with some little aspersion of the old for taste's sake; I have thought good to procure a translation of that book into the general language, not without great and ample additions and enrichment thereof, especially in the second book, which handleth the partition of sciences; in such sort, as I hold it may serve in lieu of the first part of the Instauration, and acquit my promise in that part."

In his letter to Fulgentio (vol. xii. p. cciii.), he says, "I judged it most

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