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for an equivalent term, I believe I could not find in our language any word more popularly apposite than Calumny; which is defined by Cicero, in his Offices, to be "callida et malitiosa Juris interpretatio."

If there was any Mistake (which however I am very far from believing) in this decision, sanctioned by the Judges and the House of Lords; I shall be justified in applying (with the substitution of the single word Grammatici for Istorici) what Giannone, who was himself an excellent lawyer, says of his countrymen of the same profession :-"Tanta ignoranza avea loro bendati gli occhi, che si pregiavano d'essere solamente Legisti, e non Grammatici; non accorgendosi, che perché non erano Grammatici, eran perciò CATTIVI LEGISTI."-Ist. Civil. di Napoli. Intro.






BUT besides the Articles " properly and strictly so called,” I think Mr. Harris and other Grammarians say that there are some words which, according to the different manner of using them, are sometimes Articles and sometimes Pronouns: and that it is difficult to determine to which class they ought to be referred*.

* "It must be confessed indeed that all these words do not always appear as Pronouns. When they stand by themselves and represent some Noun, (as when we say-THIS is virtue, or DEIXTIXOS, Give me THAT,) then are they Pronouns. But when they are associated to some Noun, (as when we say-THIS habit is virtue, or deixTixws, THAT man defrauded me,) then, as they supply not the place of a Noun, but only serve to ascertain one, they fall rather into the species of Definitives or Articles. That there is indeed a near relation between Pronouns and Articles, the old grammarians have all acknowledged; and some words it has been doubtful to which class to refer. The best rule to G



They do so. And by so doing, sufficiently instruct us (if we will but use our common sense) what value we ought to put upon such classes and such definitions.


Can you give us any general rule by which to distinguish when they are of the one sort, and when of the other?


Let them give the rule who thus confound together the Munner of signification of words, and the Abbreviations in their Construction: than which no two things in Language are more distinct, or ought to be more carefully distinguished. I do not allow that Any words change their nature in this manner, so as to belong sometimes to one Part of Speech, and sometimes to another, from the different ways of using them. I never could perceive any such fluctuation in any word whatever: though I know it is a general charge brought erroneously against words of almost every denomina

distinguish them is this.-The genuine Pronoun always stands by itself, assuming the power of a noun, and supplying its place. -The genuine Article never stands by itself, but appears at all times associated to something else, requiring a noun for its support, as much as Attributives or Adjectives." Hermes, book 1. chap. 5.

tion*. But it appears to me to be all, Error: arising from the false measure which has been taken of almost every sort of words. Whilst the words themselves appear to me to continue faithfully and steadily attached, each to the standard under which it was originally inlisted. But I desire to wave this matter for the present; because I think it will be cleared up by what is to follow concerning the other sorts of words: at least, if that should not convince you, I shall be able more easily to satisfy you on this head hereafter.


I would not willingly put you out of your own way, and am contented to wait for the explanation of many things till you shall arrive at the place which you may think proper for it. But really what you have now advanced seems to me so very extraordinary and contrary to fact, as well as to the uniform declaration of all Grammarians, that you must excuse me, if, before we proceed any further, I mention to you one instance.

Mr. Harris and other Grammarians say that the word THAT is sometimes an Article and sometimes a

* "Certains mots sont Adverbes, Prepositions, et Conjonctions en même temps: et repondent ainsi au même temps à diverses parties d'oraison selon que la grammaire les emploie diversement."-Buffier, art. 150.

And so say all other grammarians.

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