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ΕΠΕΑ ΠΤΕΡΟΕΝΤΑ,

&c.

CHAPTER VIII.

ETYMOLOGY OF THE ENGLISH CONJUNCTIONS.

IF.
Η.

F and AN may be used mutually and indifferently to upply each other's place.

Besides having Skinner's authority for IF, I suppose hat the meaning and derivation of this principal supporter of the Tripod of Truth*, are so very clear, sim

* See Plutarch Περι του ΕΙ του εν Δελφοις.

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Εν δε Διαλεκτική δη που μεγιστην εχει δυναμιν ὁ συναπτικος οὗτοσι συνδεσμος, άτε δη το λογικωτατον σχηματίζων αξιωμα. Το γαρ τεκνικον και λογικον, ώσπερ ειρηται, γνωσις ακολουθίας, την δε προσληψιν 5η αισθησις τῳ λόγῳ διδωσιν. όθεν ει και αισχρον ειπειν, ουκ αποτρεψομαι τουτο ειναι τον της αληθειας τριποδα τον λογον, όν την του λεγοντος προς το προηγουμενον ακολουθιαν θεμενος, ειτα προσλάβων την ύπαρ ξιν, επάγει το συμπερασμα της αποδείξεως. Τον ουν Πυθιον ει δη μου σικη τε ήδεται, και κυκνων φωναις και κιθαρας ψοφοις, τι θαυμαστον εστι Διαλεκτικής φιλια τουτο ασπαζεσθαι του λόγου το μέρος και αγαπαν, ὦ μαλιστα και πλείστω προσχρωμενους όρα τους φιλοσοφους.

ple, and universally allowed, as to need no further discours about them.

Skinner says

"IF (in agro Linc. Gif) ab A.S. Gif,

si. Hoc a verbo Lifan, dare, q. d. Dato."

Lye, in his edition of Junius, says-" Haud inscite Skinnerus, qui deduxit ab A.S. Lifan, dare, q. d. Dato.”

GIF is to be found not only, as Skinner says, in Lincolnshire, but in all our old writers. G. Douglas almost always uses Gif: once or twice only he has used If; once he uses GEWE, and once GIFFIS, and sometimes IN CASE and IN CAIS for GIF.

"GIF luf be vertew, than is it leful thing;

GIF it be vice, it is your undoing."

Douglas, Prol. to 4th boke, at pag. 95. "Thocht sum wald swere, that I the text haue waryit, Or that I haue this volume quite myscaryit, Or threpe planelie, I come neuer nere hand it, Or that the werk is werst that euer I fand it, Or zit GEWE Virgil stude wele before,

As now war tyme to schift the werst ouer skore.”

Douglas, Preface, pag. 11.

"Be not ouer studyous to spy ane mote in myn E, That in your awin ane ferrye bot can not se, And do to me, as ge wald be done to;

Now hark schirris, thare is na mare ado:

Quha list attend, GYFFIS audience and draw nere*.”

Douglas, Preface, pag. 12.

[In this instance, however, it is plain that GIFFIS is not

used conjunctively.-ED.]

Chaucer commonly uses IF; but sometimes YEUE,

YEF and YF.

"Lo here the letters selid of thys thyng

That I mote beare in all the haste I may;

YEUE ye woll ought unto your sonne the kyng,

I am your seruaunt bothe nyght and day."

Chaucer, Man of Lawes tale, fol, 22. pag. 1. col. 2.

"And therfore he of full auisement

Nolde neuer write in non of his sermons

Of suche unkynde abhominacions,

Ne I ne wol non reherce, YEF that I may."

Chaucer, Man of Lawes prologue, fol. 18. pag. 2. col. 1.

"She was so charytable and so pytous

She wolde wepe YF that she sawe a mous
Caught in a trappe, if it were deed or bledde."

Prol. to Canterbury Tales. Prioresse.

And it is to be observed that in Chaucer and in other old writers, the verb to GIVE suffers the same variations in the manner of writing and pronouncing it, whether used conjunctively or otherwise: as does also the Noun derived from it.

"And after on the daunce went
Largesse, that set al her entent
For to ben honorable and free,
Of Alexanders kynne was she,

Her most joye was ywis

Whan that she YAFE, and sayd: Haue this.

Not Auarice the foule caytyfe

Was halfe to grype so ententyfe

As Largeзse is to YEUE and spende,

And God alway ynowe her sende,

So that the more she YAUE awaye

The more ywis she had alwaye :

Great loos hath Largesse, and great prise,
For both wyse folke and unwyse
Were wholy to her bandon brought,

So wel with YEFTES hath she wrought."

Chaucer, Romaunt of the Rose, fol. 125. p. 2. c. 1.

"A wyfe is Goddes YEFTE verely;

Al other maner YEFTES hardely
As londes, rentes, pasture, or commune,
Or mouables, all ben YEFTES of fortune
That passen, as a shadowe on a wall;
But dred nat, YF playnly speke I shall,
A wyfe wol laste and in thyn house endure
Wel lenger than the lyst parauenture."

Chaucer, Marchauntes tale, fol. 28. pag. 2. col. 2.

"FORGIFF me, Virgill, GIF I thee offend."

"GIF us thy ansueir, quharon we sal depend."

Douglas, Preface, pag. 11.

Douglas, 3d booke, pag. 70.

"And suffir Tyrianis, and all Liby land

Douglas, 4th booke, pag. 103.

We GIF Messapus."

Douglas, 9th booke, pag. 280.

Be GIF in dowry to thy son in hand."

"In the mene tyme, of the nycht wache the cure

In Henry the VIIth's will, dated 1509, you will also find YEVE used where we now employ GIVE; and in the time of Queen Elizabeth it was written in the same

manner.

"YEOVEN under our signet."

Lodge's Illustrations. The Queen to Sir W. Cecil and
Dr. Wotton, vol. 1. pag. 343.

"YEVEN under our seale of our order, the first day of April 1566, the eight year of our reign."

Lodge's Illustrations. Quene Elizabeth to the Erle of
Sherowsbury, vol. 1. pag. 362.

GIN* is often used in our Northern counties and by the Scotch, as we use IF or AN: which they do with equal propriety and as little corruption: for GIN is no other than the participle Given, Gien, Gin. (As they also use Gie for Give, and Gien for Given, when they are not used conjunctively.) And Hoc dato is of equal conjunctive value in a sentence with Da hoc.

"Then wi' his spear he turn'd hir owre,

O GIN hir face was wan!

He turn'd her owre and owre again,

O GIN hir skin was whyte."

Percy's Reliques, vol. i. Edom o'Gordon.

Even our Londoners often pronounce Give and Given in the same manner: As,

"Gi' me your hand."

"I have Gin it him well,"

So Wycherly, Love in a Wood, act 5.

"If my daughter there should have done so, I wou'd not have gi'n her a groat.”

A N.

I do not know that AN has been attempted by any one, except S. Johnson: and, from the judicious di

* Ray says" Gin, Gif, in the old Saxon is Gif; from whence the word If is made per apharesin literæ G. Gif, from the verb Giran, dare; and is as much as Dato."

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