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rarely among men ; for I did not only labor carefully and industriously in that he set me about, whether it were matter of advice or otherwise; but neglecting the Queen's service, mine own fortune, and in a sort my vocation, I did nothing but advise and ruminate with myself to the best of my understanding, propositions and memorials of anything that might concern his Lordship's honor, fortune, or service. And when, not long after I had entered into this course, my brother, master Anthony Bacon, came from beyond the seas, being a gentleman whose ability the world taketh knowledge of for matters of state specially foreign, I did likewise knit his service to be at my Lord's disposing."

Anthony Bacon arrived in England in the beginning of 1592: and was met by his friend Nicholas Faunt with a letter from his mother (dated February 3d), full of maternal welcome and advice, while his brother was preparing his chambers in Gray's Inn to receive him. He was in very bad health; crippled with gout; but well furnished with information concerning foreign affairs, gathered during his ten years' residence abroad, and kept alive by an extensive correspondence with able intelligencers in different parts of Europe; the benefit of which, hitherto enjoyed by Burghley, he not long after transferred to Essex.

In the meantime Francis's plans with regard to his own fortune remained the same; but unhappily the prospect of realizing them did not improve. He had just completed his thirty-first year. He had been a Bencher of his Inn for nearly five years, a Reader for nearly three ; but I do not find that he was getting into practice. His main object still was to find ways and means for prosecuting his great philosophical enterprise; his hope and wish still was to obtain these by some office under the Government, from which he might derive both position

1 Apology.

in the world which would carry influence, employment in the State which would enable him to serve his country in her need, and income sufficient for his purposes, -without spending all his time in professional drudgery. Nearly six years had passed since his last application to Burghley (the last which we know of), and his hopes were no nearer their accomplishment. The clerkship of the Star Chamber did not help; for it was not in possession nor likely to be for many years; it was but as "another man's ground buttailing upon his house; which might mend his prospect but did not fill his barn." It has been said indeed that before this time the Queen had appointed him "one of her counsel learned extraordinary;" but even if this be true (which, from the absence of all contemporary allusions to a distinction so unusual, I doubt), it does not alter the case; for whether he obtained it sooner or later, it was an honor only, without any emolument appertaining. 2 The entrance upon a new decade reminded him of the swiftness of time and the slowness of his fortune, and suggested a fresh remembrance to Burghley of his hopes and objects; the rather, perhaps, because, with such a friend at Court as Essex, there was now a fresh chance of favorable entertainment for them. The following letter needs no further elucidation; and as I have no means of determining the date of it, except from the allusion it contains to his " thirty-one

1 His own expression, as given by Rawley, Works, vol. i., Part I., p. 41. 2 The best authority for dating this appointment so early is the expression used by Dr. Rawley in the Latin version of his Life of Bacon, which was published after the English one, and occasionally differs from it. "Nondum tyrocinium in lege egressus, a regina in consilium suum doctum extraordinarium adscitus est." But this may possibly have been an inference drawn from Bacon's Letter to Burghley of the 18th of October, 1580 (mentioned above, p. 11) of which Dr. Rawley did not know the date. I am told also that in legal phraseology a barrister's tyrocinium continues until he is called to be a Serjeant; and that Rawley may only have meant that Bacon was made a Q. C. without being first made a Serjeant. Rawley however was a scholar and not a lawyer, and I am inclined to think that he used the word in its classical sense. The import of the word extraordinary he evidently misunderstood. See Works, vol. i., Part I., p. 38, note 3.

years," I place it here at the point when he entered upon his thirty-second.



My Lord, With as much confidence as mine own honest and faithful devotion unto your service and your honorable correspondence unto me and my poor estate can breed in a man, do I commend myself unto your Lordship. I wax now somewhat ancient; one and thirty years is a great deal of sand in the hour-glass. My health, I thank God, I find confirmed; and I do not fear that action shall impair it, because I account my ordinary course of study and meditation to be more painful than most parts of action are. I ever bare a mind (in some middle place that I could discharge) to serve her Majesty; not as a man born under Sol, that loveth honor nor under Jupiter, that loveth business (for the contemplative planet carrieth me away wholly); but as a man born under an excellent Sovereign, that deserveth the dedication of all men's abilities. Besides, I do not find in myself so much self-love, but that the greater parts of my thoughts are to deserve well (if I were able) of my friends, and namely of your Lordship; who being the Atlas of this commonwealth, the honor of my house, and the second founder of my poor estate, I am tied by all duties, both of a good patriot, and of an unworthy kinsman, and of an obliged servant, to employ whatsoever I am to do you service. Again, the meanness of my estate doth somewhat move me: for though I cannot accuse myself that I am either prodigal or slothful, yet my health is not to spend, nor my course to get. Lastly, I confess that I have as vast contemplative ends, as I have moderate civil ends: for I have taken all knowledge to be my province; and if I could purge it of two sorts of rovers, whereof the one with frivolous disputations, confutations, and verbosities, the other with blind experi

ments and auricular traditions and impostures, hath committed so many spoils, I hope I should bring in industrious observations, grounded conclusions, and profitable inventions and discoveries; the best state of that province. This, whether it be curiosity, or vain glory, or nature, or (if one take it favorably) philanthropia, is so fixed in my mind as it cannot be removed. And I do easily see, that place of any reasonable countenance doth bring commandment of more wits than of a man's own; which is the thing I greatly affect. And for your Lordship, perhaps you shall not find more strength and less encounter in any other. And if your Lordship shall find now, or at any time, that I do seek or affect any place whereunto any that is nearer unto your Lordship shall be concurrent, say then that I am a most dishonest man. And if your Lordship will not carry me on, I will not do as Anaxagoras did, who reduced himself with contemplation unto voluntary poverty: but this I will do; I will sell the inheritance that I have, and purchase some lease of quick revenue, or some office of gain that shall be executed by deputy, and so give over all care of service, and become some sorry book-maker, or a true pioneer in that mine of truth, which (he said) lay so deep. This which I have writ unto your Lordship is rather thoughts than words, being set down without all art, disguising, or reservation. Wherein I have done honor both to your Lordship's wisdom, in judging that that will be best believed of your Lordship which is truest, and to your Lordship's good nature, in retaining nothing from you. And even so I wish your Lordship all happiness, and to myself means and occasion to be added to my faithful desire to do you service. From my lodging at Gray's Inn.

The two brothers were now established under the same roof in Gray's Inn, where they lived on the most affectionate and confidential footing; Anthony, in spite of his

continued ill-heath, taking an earnest interest in foreign affairs, and carrying on an active intercourse by letter with his correspondents abroad; Francis busy with his law and philosophy and home politics, yet continually consulted by his brother on all questions of importance; each always ready to help the other to the utmost of his power with money, credit, or advice. Living thus together, and seeing each other every day, it was only now and then (as when one of them visited his mother at Gorhambury, or retreated for quiet and fresh air to Twickenham Park, where Francis had a lodge) that they had occasion to communicate by letter. But Lady Bacon was continually writing: and a great number of her letters (directed to Anthony, but addressed generally to both) are preserved among the Tenison MSS. at Lambeth. These throw a very full light upon her own character, and upon the relations which subsisted between her and her sons; a relation too important at this period of Francis's life to be lost sight of; for the feelings of such a mother, whether in approbation or disapprobation, could not but enter into his consideration, even where they did not determine his course. But to understand this relation rightly, it is necessary to know her as well as him: and with a view to this, it will be worth while to quote some passages of the correspondence in which he is not directly alluded to.

I have already introduced her addressing Lord Burghley on matters of church and state. I shall now show her in a less constrained mood, under the agitations of maternal anxiety. It seems that Anthony Bacon, seeking on all sides for intelligence concerning parties and political intrigues abroad, had used the services of Catholics as well as Protestants; and among others had a confidential servant named Lawson, whose religion was suspected. Him he had sent over to Lord Burghley with some advertisements, which it was important to deliver

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