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that therefore the play itself could not have been written by a lawyer. Bacon said, in the course of a legal argument in the Exchequer Chamber, that a territory in France had been taken by the English in ore gladii; i. e., by the mouth or pleading of a sword.

Exception has been taken on the same grounds, also, to the use of the word "successive" in the above. But successive, in the sense of one in succession, is a strict Latinism, of which examples are found in Virgil and Ovid. Its use implies, we admit, a scholarly and exceptional knowledge of the Latin tongue on the part of the author.

311

THE PROPER REMEDIES FOR MENTAL DISEASE

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From Bacon

"I now come to those remedies which operate upon diseases of the mind, to custom, exercise, habit, education, imitation, emulation, company, friendship, praise, reproof, exhortation, fame, laws, books, studies, and the like. These are the things that rule in morals; these the agents by which mental diseases are cured; the ingredients, of which are compounded the medicines that recover and preserve the health of the mind, so far as it can be done by human remedies." De Augmentis (1622).

Both authors treat of diseases of the mind and their cure. One condemns for this purpose the use of physic; the other prescribes exercise, good company, studies, and books.

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Is term'd the civil'st place in all conquered, and that they were the

this isle.

freest people of England."-His

Sweet is the country, because full tory of Henry VII. (1621).

of riches;

The people liberal, valiant, active,

wealthy."

2 Henry VI., iv. 7 (1594).

The Bacon family originated in the county of Kent.

313

TURNING ONE'S ESTATE

"Timon. In some sort these wants

of mine are crown'd,

INTO OBLIGATIONS

"They would say of the Duke of Guise, Henry, that he was the That I account them blessings; for greatest usurer in France, for that he had turned all his estate into

by these Shall I try friends. You shall obligations; meaning that he had sold and oppignorated all his pat

perceive how you

Mistake my fortunes; I am wealthy rimony to give large donations to in my friends.'" other men."-Apothegm (date un

Timon of Athens, ii. 2 (1623). known).

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315

STARS, LIKE FRETS

From Shake-speare

"This majestical roof, fretted with golden fire."

From Bacon

"For if that great workmaster had been of a human disposition,

Hamlet, ii. 2 (1604). he would have cast the stars into

some pleasant and beautiful works and orders, like the frets in the roofs of houses." - Advancement

of Learning (1603-5).

316

WATERS SWELLING BEFORE STORMS

"By a divine instinct men's minds

mistrust

Ensuing danger; as, by proof, we

see

The waters swell before a boisterous storm."

Richard III., ii. 3 (1597).

317

"As there are . . . secret swellings of seas before tempests, so there are in states."-Essay of Seditions and Troubles (1607-12).

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"In me thou see'st the glowing of

such fire

That on the ashes of his youth doth lie."

"Ashes are good for somewhat,

for lees, for salts; but I hope I am rather embers than ashes, having the heat of good affections under

Sonnet 73 (1609). the ashes of my fortunes."— Letter to King James (1622).

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The word "adamant" is from the Greek ádápas, meaning anything very hard, or incapable of being broken, dissolved, or penetrated. It was first used as the name of the hardest metal, probably steel, and subsequently of the diamond, the latter (diamant) being indeed a mere variation of it. In

mediæval Latin, however, it came to signify the loadstone or magnet, perhaps because the word was thought to have been derived from adamare, to have a likeness for, to draw. In this perverted sense it made its way in the fourteenth century into the English language, though it had been correctly used there for a period of five hundred years preceding. Wyclif, Chaucer, Coverdale, Gower, Greene, and many other writers had so used it. Bacon and Shake-speare were among the last and most conspicuous to fall victims to the blunder.

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I served my king, he would not pleased the king, he had not been

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TASTED, CHEWED, SWALLOWED, AND DIGESTED

"How shall we stretch our eye, when capital crimes, chew'd, swallow'd, and digested, appear before us?" - Henry V., ii. 2 (1600).

"Some books are to be tasted, others to be swallowed, and some few to be chewed and digested.". Essay of Studies (1598).

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