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THE

NEW WERNER TWENTIETH CENTURY EDITION

OF THE

ENCYCLOPÆDIA BRITANNICA

A STANDARD WORK OF REFERENCE IN

ART, LITERATURE, SCIENCE, HISTORY, GEOGRAPHY,
COMMERCE, BIOGRAPHY, DISCOVERY
AND INVENTION

NEW MAPS AND FULLY ILLUSTRATED, WITH THOU-
SANDS OF PORTRAITS, PLATES, AND ENGRAVINGS

THE ENGLISH NINTH EDITION IN TWENTY-FIVE VOLUMES WAS EDITED BY

PROFS. SPENCER BAYNES, LL.D., AND W. ROBERTSON SMITH, LL.D.

ASSISTED BY OVER ONE THOUSAND CONTRIBUTORS

The first twenty-four volumes of the New Werner Edition contain thirty-one new and later articles, written
by American authors, replacing articles on similar subjects written by different

authors for the original ninth English (Foreign) Edition

WITH

NEW AMERICAN SUPPLEMENT

COMPLETE IN THIRTY VOLUMES

VOLUME III

THE WERNER COMPANY

AKRON, OHIO

1907

ROBERTA SARAH TWYFORD

MEMORIAL PUBLIC LIBRARY,
PARKSLEY, VA.

AE

.E36

1907

V.3

Copy 1

MADE BY

THE WERNER COMPANY

AKRON, OHIO

Encyclopædia Britannica.

NEW WERNER TWENTIETH CENTURY EDITION.

VOL. III. (ATH-BOI).

Total number of Articles, 980.

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ATHENS. Rev. EDWARD L. HICKS, M.A., Fellow of Corpus Christi College, Oxford.
ATHLETIC SPORTS. H. F. WILKINSON, one of the Editors of "The Field."

ATLANTIC. WILLIAM B. Carpenter, M.D., C.B., LL.D., F.R.S.

ATMOSPHERE. ALEX. BUCHAN, Secretary of the Meteorological Society of Scotland.

ATOM. J. CLERK Maxwell, D.C.L., F.R.S., late Professor of Experimental Physics, University of Cambridge.

ATTICA. Rev. HENRY F. TOZER, M.A., F.R.G.S., Author of "Geography of Greece."

ATTRACTION. Prof. G. CLERK MAXWELL.

AUGUSTAN HISTORY.

RICHARD GARNETT, LL.D.

AUGUSTINE. Very Rev. Principal TULLOCH.

AUGUSTUS. Very Rev. CHARles Merivale, D.C.L., D.D., Dean of Ely.

AUSTRALIA. R. ACTON.

AUSTRIA. DAVID KAY, F.R.G.S.

AXIOM. G. CROOM ROBERTSON, Professor of Logic, University College, London.

BABYLONIA. Rev. A. H. SAYCE, M.A., Deputy Professor of Comparative Philology, University of Oxford. BACON. ROBErt Adamson, M.A., Professor of Political Economy, Owens College, Manchester.

BAGHDAD. Major-General Sir HENRY C. RAWLINSON, K.C.B., D.C.L., F.R.S.

BAKING. JAMES PATON, Corporation Galleries of Art, Glasgow.

BALANCE. WILLIAM DITTMAR, F.R.S., Professor of Chemistry, Anderson's College, Glasgow.

BALANCE OF POWER. HENRY REEVE, C.B., Registar of H. M. Privy Council.

BALLADS. ANDREW LANG, Author of "Helen of Troy."

BALLOT. W. C. SMITH, LL.B., ADVOCATE

BALTIC. Dr. CARPENTER, C.B.

BANKING. LEONARD H. COURTNEY, M.P.

BANKRUPTCY. EDMUND ROBERTSON, LL.D., M.P., Professor of Roman Law, University College,

London; (AMERICAN LAW) J. LOWELL.

BAPTISM. Prof. T. M. LINDSAY, D.D.

BAPTISTS. Rev. F. W. GоTCH, LL.D.

BARBADOS. J. L. OHLSON, Secretary to West India Committee, London.

BAROMETER. ALEY. BUCHAN, F.R.S.E.

BARRACKS. Col. CHAS. B. EWART, C.B., Deputy Director of Works for Barracks.

BASILICA. Rev. Canon VENABLES.

BATHS. Dr. JOHN MACPHERSON, Author of "Baths and Wells of Europe."

BATTLE. Col. CHARLES CHESNEY, R.E.

BEARD. JOHN DORAN, Ph.D., late Editor of "Notes and Queries."

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BEE. JOHN HUNTER, late Hon. Secretary British Bee-Keeper's Association.

BEETHOVEN. F. HUEFFER, Author of " Wagner and the Music of the Future."

BELGIUM. DAVID KAY, F.R.G.S.

BELL. Rev. H. R. HAWEIS, M.A., Author of "Music and Morals."

BELLINI. Prof. SIDNEY COLVIN, University of Cambridge.

BELLOWS. A. B. MACDOWALL, London.

BENGAL. Hon. W. W. HUNTER, LL.D., Director-General of Statistics to the Government of India.
BENTHAM. T. E. HOLLAND, M.A., B.C.L., Chichele Professor of International Law, Oxford.
BENTLEY. Rev. MARK PATTISON, late Rector of Lincoln College, Oxford.

BERKELEY. Prof. ROBERT ADAMSON, Owens College, Manchester.

BERLIN. Rev. G. P. DAVIES.

BEZIQUE. HENRY Jones (“Cavendish ").

BIBLE. Professor W. ROBERTSON SMITH, LL.D.

BIBLIOGRAPHY. E. FAIRFAX TAYLOR.

BILLIARDS. G. F. PARDON ("Capt. CRAWLEY ").

BIOLOGY. Prof. HUXLEY and W. T. THISTLETON DYER, F.R.S.

BIRDS. Prof. W. K. PARKER, Royal College of Surgeons, London; and Prof. ALFRED NEWTON.
BIRMINGHAM. J. T. BUNCE, Editor "Birmingham Daily Post."

BISHOP. Sir TRAVERS Twiss, Q.C.

BISMUTH. H. BAUERMAN, Fellow of the Geological Society."

BLACK SEA. Dr. CARPenter, C.B.

BLEACHING. JAMES PATON.

BLIND. F. J. Campbell, Royal Normal College for the Blind.

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