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amined promised them a home, and on the 15th the Mayflower was safely moored in its harbor. In memory of the hospitalities which the company had received at the last English port from which they had sailed, this oldest New England colony took the name of Plymouth. The system of civil government had been adopted by agreement; the church had been organized before it left Leyden. As the Pilgrims landed, their institutions were already perfected. Democratic liberty and independent Christian worship started into being. On the 9th of January, 1621, they began to build a difficult task for men of whom one-half were wasting away with consumption and lung-fevers. For the sake of haste, it was agreed that every man should build his own house; but, though the winter was unwontedly mild, frost and foul weather were great hindrances; they could seldom work half of the week; and tenements rose slowly in the intervals between storms of sleet and snow.-History, Vol. I., p. 209.


The thirteen American colonies of which the union was projected, contained, at that day, about 1,165,000 white inhabitants, and 263,000 negroes; in all, 1,428,000 souls. The Board of Trade reckoned a few thousands more, and revisers of their judgment less. Of persons of European ancestry, perhaps 50,000 dwelt in New Hampshire, 207,000 in Massachusetts, 35,000 in Rhode Island, and 133,000 in Connecticut: in New England, therefore, 425,000 souls. Of the Middle Colonies, New York may have had 85,000; New Jersey, 73,000; Pennsylvania with Delaware, 195,000; Maryland, 104,000: in all, not far from 457,000. In the Southern provinces, where the mild climate invited emigrants into the interior, and where the crown lands were often occupied on mere warrants of surveys-or even without warrants -there was room for glaring mistakes in the enumerations. To Virginia may be assigned 168,000 white inhabitants; to North Carolina, scarcely less than 70,000; to South Carolina, 40,000; to Georgia, not more than 5,000 to the whole country south of the Potomac, 283,

ooo. Of persons of African lineage the home was chiefly determined by climate. New Hampshire, Massachusetts and Maine may have had 6,000 negroes; Rhode Island, 4,500; Connecticut, 3,500: all New England, therefore, about 14,000. New York alone had not far from 11,000; New Jersey about half that number; Pennsylvania, with Delaware, 11,000; Maryland, 44,000; the Central Colonies, collectively, 71,000. In Virginia there were not less than 116,000; in North Carolina, perhaps more than 20,000; in South Carolina, full 40,000; in Georgia, about 2,000. So that the country south of the Potomac may have had 178,000.-History, Vol. II., p. 389.


In the mean time Wolfe applied himself intently to reconnoitring the north shore above Quebec. Nature had given him good eyes as well as a warmth of temper to follow first impressions. He himself discovered the cove which now bears his name, where the bending promontories almost form a basin, with a very narrow margin over which the hill rises precipitously. He saw the path that wound up the steep, though so narrow that two men could hardly march in it abreast; and he knew, by the number of tents which he counted on the summit, that the Canadian post which guarded it could not exceed a hundred. Here he resolved to land his army by a surprise. To mislead the enemy his troops were kept far above the town; while Saunders, as if an attack was intended at Beauport, sent Cook, the great mariner, with others, to sound the water and plant buoys along that shore.

The day and night of the 12th [September, 1759] were employed in preparations. The autumn evening was bright, and the general, under the clear starlight, visited his stations, to make his final inspection, and utter his last words of encouragement. As he passed from ship to ship, he spoke to those in the boat with him of the poet Gray, and his Elegy in a Country Churchyard, saying, "I would prefer being the author of that poem to the glory of beating the French to-morrow;" and

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while the oars struck the river as it rippled under the flowing tide, he repeated:

The boast of heraldry, the pomp of power,

And all that beauty, all that wealth e'er gave,
Await alike the inevitable hour,

The paths of glory lead but to the grave.

Every officer knew his appointed duty, when, at one o'clock on the morning of the 13th, Wolfe, Monckton, and Murray, and about half the forces, set off in boats, and using neither sail nor oars, glided down with the tide. In three-quarters of an hour the ships followed; and though the night had become dark, aided by the rapid current, they reached the cove just in time to cover the landing. Wolfe and the troops with him leaped on shore: the light infantry, who found themselves borne by the current a little below the intrenched path, clambered up the steep hill, staying themselves by the roots and boughs of the maple and spruce and ash trees that covered the precipitous declivity, and, after a little firing, dispersed the picket which guarded the height; the rest ascended safely by the pathway. A battery of four guns on the left was abandoned to Colonel Howe. When Townshend's division disembarked, the English had already gained one of the roads to Quebec; and, advancing in front of the forest, Wolfe stood at daybreak with his battalions on the Plains of Abraham, the battle-field of the Celtic and Saxon races for half a continent.

"It can be but a small party come to burn a few houses and retire," said Montcalm, in amazement, as the news reached him in his intrenchments the other side of the St. Charles, but, obtaining better information, "Then," he cried, "they have at the last got to the weak side of this miserable garrison; we must give battle and crush them before mid-day." And before ten, the two armies, equal in numbers, each being composed of less than 5,000 men, were ranged in presence of one another for battle. The English, not easily accessible from intervening ravines and rail-fences, were all regulars, perfect in discipline, terrible in their fearless enthusiasm, thrilling with pride at their morning's success,

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