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Koninklike Bibliotheck te's Flage.

A

DICTIONARY,

GEOGRAPHICAL, STATISTICAL,

AND

HISTORICAL.

HUNGARY.

HUNGARY (Hung. Magyar Orszag), a kingdom of its S. slope. On the E. bank of the Poprad, a long

Central or S.E. Europe, which, taken in its widest ac-
ceptation, includes, besides Hungary Proper, Croatia,
Slavonia, the military frontier provinces, and Transyl-
vania. In a more limited sense, it denotes Hungary
Proper, with Croatia and Slavonia, to the exclusion of
the other provs.
Hungary, thus considered, is situ-
ated between 44° 5′ 8′′ and 49° 39′ N. lat., and between
14°29′ and 26° 30′ E. long. The chain of the Carpathians
forms the boundary of Hungary on the N.W., N., and
N.E. They stretch from the Danube, near Presburg, in
the form of a circle, towards Moravia, Galicia, and Tran-
sylvania, until they meet the Danube a second time at
the ravine called the Iron Gates. On the S., the Da-
nube and the Save separate the kingdom from the
Turkish provs. of Servia and Bosnia, to the junction
of the latter river with the Unna; which thence con-
tinues to mark the boundary. Hungary may be consi-
dered generally as a large plain sloping to the S., and
surrounded on every side by heights of different ele-
vation, but most considerable in the N. sections of the
kingdom.

Mountains. The first group of hills which runs N. from the Danube, near Presburg, is named the Little Carpathians, and is of small extent and inconsiderable elevation. Granite and gneiss, overlaid by grauwacké, form a large portion of this group. The adjoining group, named the Savorina, is also composed of grauwacké. A third group, called the Jablunka range, terminates with the Pass of Jablunka, through which the high road from the valley of the Waag passes into Silesia. The formations in the fast-named group are grauwacké on primitive limestone, which reaches a height of 1,500 to 2,000 ft. On the E. side of the Jablunka Pass a chain of mountains commences, which stretches E. to the banks of the Dunajec. The formations of this chain are, as far as Neumarkt, the same with the Jablunka; the summit being all of limestone, with grauwacké superimposed. At Neumarkt the great sandstone formation commences, and, for an extent of more than 400 m., constitutes the leading feature of the E. Carpathians. Between the Dunajec and the Poprad, a branch of the Magura chain, situated altogether in Galicia, stretches to the S. W., and connects with the chain now described an isolated group of lofty mountains, the naked summits of which rise, like so many gigantic sugar-loaves, from the vale of the Waag and the plain of Zips. This is the Tatra group, in which some of the highest summits of the Carpathians are found. The summits of the Tatra are of granite and gneiss, bare of vegetation, and varying annually in elevation, from the effects of thunderstorms and the melting of the snow which covers them for a great portion of the year. The large mountain group, of which the Kralowa Hora forms the highest summit, covers a large portion of N.W. Hungary. On the E., the Tatra chain is bounded by the valley of the Gran, on the W. by the Waag. The principal portion of the Matra group is likewise formed of trachyte, mingled occasionally with granite.

unbroken chain of the Carpathians stretches E. as far as the sources of the Save, and thence S. E. to the sources of the Theiss.

On the W., Transylvania is divided from Hungary by a chain of heights, lying between the Szamos and the Maros, two rivers which flow W. to join the Theiss. Though the summits of this chain no where exceed 3,600 ft., it is yet extremely rugged and precipitous. In the N. part, limestone rises above the sandstone; and in the S. summits, gneiss and granite break through the upper strata. These hills are composed of Jura limestone, resting on transition limestone and mica slate, with occasional interruption of syenite, porphyry, and other volcanic matters, rich in veins of metal of various kinds. They stretch between the Maros, Czerna, and Danube. The frontier of the Banat, towards Wallachia and Transylvania, is formed by the last offsets of the Carpathians towards the Danube, in the valley of which river the mica slate of the Banat gives place to limestone. The rocks that close in the river as it leaves Hungary, and which are named the Clissura, are composed of limestone, traversed by broad veins of quartz. This passage, between the E. Carpathians and the N. offsets of the Balkan, which meet them on the Servian side, is more than 70 m. in length, and ends with the dangerous rapid named the Iron Gate. (See DANUBE.)

On the S. side of the Danube, near Presburg, are the Leitha mountains, which form the boundary towards Austria, and are offsets from the Alps, as they subside from Styria towards the Danube. Granite and gneiss appear in the highest summits, on which sandstone and limestone formations lie superimposed. The Bakony Forest hills stretch from the Danube towards the S., dividing the lesser from the great plain of Lower Hungary. Near the mouth of the Drave, this chain, dividing that river from the Save, subsides to the plain, but rises soon after on the right bank of the Danube, which turns E. as soon as it reaches these heights. The summits of the greater part of these offsets from the Alps are lime. stone, overlaid by tertiary formations, except on the banks of the Danube, where serpentine and schist rise in bold masses above the secondary rocks. This chain of heights, called the Fraska Gora, terminates at Szankamien, opposite the mouth of the Theiss.

The Julian Alps and their offsets cover Croatia and the Hungarian coast districts, the Capella and Villebich being the last braches of this range towards the S.

Vales. In the N. of Hungary, the valleys are very numerous, and highly picturesque. The glens in the Tatra mountains are wildly romantic, offering every variety of rocky scenery, and being interspersed with numerous lakes and waterfalls. The valley of the Waag is most extensive, being more than 200 m. long. The rocks of Sulyo, where the Waag crosses the ridge of the Tatra, are amongst the most picturesque in Europe. The valley of Kohlbach, that of the Jablunka Pass, and of the five lakes in the high Carpathian groups, the vale of the Czerna, in the hills of the Banat, near the baths of Branching from the N. Carpathians, in the beginning Mehadia, are all highly beautiful, and, in mountain chains only as a succession of heights, traversing the level of less extent, would be deemed grand. The valleys of country of Zips, another trachyte mountain chain of the Save (the Syrmia) and the Drave contain some of the considerable elevation runs S. between the rivers Her-finest land and scenery of Europe. The climate is like nad and Bodrog, and joins the Theiss near Tokay. This that of the N. of Italy, and the fertility of the soil is unmountain chain, named the Hegyalla, is famous for the paralleled. opals found within it, as well as for the wine grown upon Plains. The plains of Hungary are very remarkable, VOL. II. B

the greater part of the kingdom consisting of two extensive levels. The plain of Upper Hungary, by far the smaller of the two, is bounded N. by the Lesser Carpathians and the mountainous districts of the N. W. counties; W. by the Leitha mountains, and the offsets of the Styrian Alps, which, as well as the Croatian Hills, confine it also on the S.; the Bakony Forest forming its E. boundary on the E. as far as the Danube. This plain is traversed by the Danube from W. to E., and is watered besides by the Raab, Waag, and Neitra. The Lake of Neusiedler-See, at the foot of the Leitha hills, issues from great marshes lying between it and the Danube. The soil of this plain is more fertile on the N. than on the S. side of the Danube, but it every where produces good and abundant crops of corn.

Near Buda, the Danube, breaking through the mountains of the Bakony Forest and the Matra chain, enters the large plain of Hungary, which it traverses N. to S., from Waitzen to Dalya, whence its course is E. The great plain is bounded W. by the Bakony Forest hills; N. by the Hegyalla, and offsets of the Carpathians; the frontier hills of Transylvania bound it E.; and the high lands of Servia and Slavonia on the S. The extent of this plain is estimated at 1,700 sq. German miles, or 36,000 sq. English miles, and is consequently about 4,000 sq. m. larger than Ireland. In the whole plain scarcely a single point is more than 100 ft. above the level of the Danube, which, in this part of its course, is 300 ft. above the Black Sea. This plain is watered by the Danube and its tributaries, the Drave and Save, the Theiss, with its affluent the Szamos, Maros, Körös, &c. The fall is every where very trifling, and the greater part of these streams have a winding course, through a country flooded by the slightest increase of their waters. Many, such as the Körös and Theiss, form a succession of swamps, and the whole marshy land of the plain is estimated to cover a surface of 2,425 sq. m., which is wholly reclaimable. The Balaton Lake lies at the S. W. extremity, at the fall of the Bakony Forest hills. With the exception of some extensive sandy tracts near Debreczin, and in the co. of Pest, the whole of this plain contains some of the richest soil of Europe.

Rivers. The numerous rivers which water Ilungary fall, with one sole exception, into the Danube, which traverses the kingdom in a general S. E. direction. The distance along the stream, from Presburg, where it enters, to Orsova, where it leaves, Hungary, is 580 m. Its direction from Presburg to Waitzen is E.; but here it makes a sudden turn S., and runs S. to the juncture of the Drave, from which point its general course to Orsova is E. by S. Of the 30 navigable rivers which are its tributaries, several of the largest belong to this country. The largest and most important is the Theiss, 420 m. long, rising in Transylvania, and flowing N. W. to lat. 48° 30' N., and long. 22° 10′ E., whence it runs S. by W., in a very irregular channel, which, for about 180 m., is parallel to that of the Danube. Its chief tributary is the Maros. (See THEISS.) The other affluents on the N. side are the Waag and Neutra, the Gran and the Eapel. Of the S. affluents, the most important is the Drave, which rises in the Puszther-thal of the Tyrol, and has an E. course of 380 m. through a plain country; it is navigable from Villach, in Carinthia. (See DRAVE.) The second in size is the Save, which rises in the Julian Alps, and runs E. by S., joining the main stream near Belgrade. Length about 340 m. The Raab is of considerable size; but the rest are unimportant. (For further particulars, see DANUBE.)

The only river which rises in Hungary and does not belong to the region of the Danube, is the Poprad, the source of which is in the Krivan, very near that of the White Waag. The Poprad traverses the level country of Zips, passes through the mountains near Muszyna, into Galicia, and unites with the Dunajec, which falls into the Vistula. At Lublo, in Zips, the Poprad is navigable for

rafts.

Canals. No country is better adapted for, or more needs, canals than Hungary. The greater number of those hitherto made have been cut to regulate the courses of winding rivers. Such are the Leitha canal, in the co. of Wieselburg; the Albert-Karasicza canal, in the co. of Barany, and the cuts for the regulation of the Körös, in Heves co., and of the Bersava, in the Banat. Other cuts, on a large scale, regulate the course of the Latorcza in the co. of Beregh, and of the Surviz, in the cos. of Wesprim, Sthulweissenburg, Tolna, and Szümegh. The most remarkable canal in Hungary, however, is the Francis or Bacs canal, between the Theiss and the Danube. It is nearly 70 m. long, and at the level of the water is 8 ft. deep and 60 ft. broad. The difference between the levels of the Danube and the Theiss is 27 ft., which is carried off by locks. The entire cost of this undertaking was 300,000. A similar canal between the Theiss, near Szegedin, and the Danube, near Pest, is projected.

The Bega canal, between the Temes, near Temeswar, and the Theiss, near Tittel, is on a smaller scale, but a

most useful undertaking, and a source of great prosperity to the Banat.

Lakes. Hungary possesses two of the largest lakes of Europe;-the Neusiedler-See (Hung. Fertö-Tava), in Upper Hungary, lying S. of the Danube, in the cos. of Oedenburg and Eisenburg, is 25 m. long, 12 m. broad, and from 9 to 13 ft. deep. Its waters rise and fall without apparent cause, often receding from the banks, and then again filling and overflowing them. Lake Balaton, situated in the great plain, at no great distance from the Neusiedler-See, is nearly 50 m. long by 10 m. broad, and receives the river Syala on the W. side. The water is very slightly tainted with salt. Besides large lakes, Hungary possesses an almost inconceivable number of stagnant sheets of water. Some in the Carpathian mountains, though small, are especially worthy of notice: these are the White, the Green, and the Red lakes. The Green Lake is 4,764, the White Lake 5,224 ft. above the sea, and both are enclosed by high and precipitous granite rocks. There are many mineral springs in Hungary, the principal of which are at Mehadia, in the Banat, at Trentchin on the Waag, and at Bartfeld, in the N. chain of the Carpathians.

Climate. The climate of Hungary is of three kinds, varying according to the surface of the country. The climate of the Carpathians, including the high fands of N. W. Hungary, is coldest, and that of the great plain is the warmest; the climate of the high lands S. of the Danube being a mean between both. The mean temperature of Buda, which represents the mean climate of Hungary, is stated to be 100 Reaumur, or 54° 30′ Fah., corresponding nearly with the mean temp. of Nantes. At Nantes, however, the difference between the winter and summer averages 15° Reaum., and the range is 17°; whereas, at Buda, the average difference is 21°, and the range 23°. In the great plain, the mean temp. is 12° 48′ Reaum., or the same as at Milan. (Berghaus.) The mean fall of rain at Buda is 16 inches, the number of rainy days being about 112; the average of all Germany being 150 days. In the high Carpathians, the yearly average is doubtless very much greater; whereas the summer and autumn, in the low lands, are usually seasons of drought, unfavourable alike to agriculture and river navigation,

Vegetable Productions. The products of Hungary embrace all the plants indigenous to Europe, from the Iceland moss, gathered on the Carpathians, to the rice and cotton plant, so successfully cultivated in the Banat, and the olive, which thrives in the coast district. In the hills, especially in the Carpathian district, fir forests abound; but along the plains and valleys of the Save and the Drave, extensive oak and beech forests are found. The oak forests yield large quantities of gall apples, and large herds of swine are fattened on the acorns and beech mast. The increase of pop. every where introduces improved fruit plantations, and the S. slope of every elevation is found covered with vines and orchards. The well-known liqueur Shirowitza (Shiva plum) is made from the plums grown in the S. parts. The grapes are of various kinds, and one species, the formint grape, of which the Tokay wine is made, is peculiar to Hungary. The extent of the wine country, including the fall of the hills, to the two plains and the valleys of the Save and Drave, is more than 2,000 English miles long, measured in a straight line. Many districts, such as the Fraska Gora hills in Slavonia, and the hills near Buda, yield a heavy red wine, which, with care, might easily be fitted for exportation. The water melon in the great plain has obtained a kind of national celebrity; it often attains a weight of 30 lbs. and upwards. Tobacco is particularly fine. Dye-plants of all kinds, madder, woad, and safflower, succeed wherever they are cultivated; but what is of far more consequence, the soil is particularly adapted to the cultivation of wheat, which is largely exported. Of other cereal plants, little more is grown than is required for local consumption, excepting maize, much of which is sent to Italy. Rapeseed and hemp, also the produce of the marshes, are objects of trade; and poppies, for oil, are much cultivated. The laurel, the laurus linus, arbutus, cedar, and other evergreens, are too tender to bear the winter cold.

Animals. Among the animals, the bear of the Carpathians is the most remarkable; and in autumn he often visits the oak and beech forests of the low countries: wolves are more numerous. The small lynx, wild cat, and wild boars are found in all parts. There are many varieties of the dog; one of the finest is the wolf-dog, found in every shepherd's cottage. The chamois and marmot are inhab. of the Carpathians; and stags, roebucks, foxes, and hares are common, though seldom preserved for game. Among birds, the golden eagle, as a stray visitor, and the stone eagle, more frequently, various kinds of kites, hawks, bustards, and woodcocks, partridges, and black game; and all kinds of domestic fowls thrive remarkably in the S. parts, and have beautiful plumage. Herons' plumes are taken as rent in some parts of Transylvania. Fish abound in the rivers of Hungary, espe

of the nature of the opal and of the chalcedony; and, as well as the garnet, is found in the clefts of the pearlstone rocks. The greatest extent of pearl-stone rocks occurs in the Hegyalla, or Tokay group, where the cele brated opal mines of Czernewitza are situated, not far from Eperies, which annually yield a considerable quantity; but, being farmed by a private speculator, nothing is suffered to transpire respecting their product. The most beautiful are the Iris opals, which are seldom found larger than a franc piece, and whose beauty seems to delose their brilliancy on being heated, but regain it when laid in water. The largest opal of which we have any account (weight 17 oz.) is preserved in the mineralogical cabinet of Vienna. The fire opal is next in price; then come the half-opals, the jasper opal, and wood opals, which are very abundant, and which, as was before observed, are found in many other spots; not being, like the Iris opal, confined to the hills of Czernewitza.

cially in the Theiss, which is said to be the richest fishriver in Europe: amongst these, the sturgeon, and the fogasch of Lake Balaton (Perca lucioperca) are much esteemed. The entomology of Hungary is richer than in any other part of Europe, owing to the extensive forests and large swampy tracts of the warmer districts. In the forests along the Save, cantharides are gathered. Wasps and hornets build enormous nests in the sandy plains, which are not exterminated without difficulty and danger. Swarms of gnats of peculiar kinds occur in the Banat. One kind, which is harmless, is peculiar to the ri-pend on the water with which they are saturated, as they ver Theiss, and increases so rapidly at the breeding time, as to cover the stream like a thick coat of moss, and even to impede the navigation. In this state, the masses of insects are collected by the peasantry, and given as food to the cattle. Another more formidable insect, the Columbacz gnat, issues from the caverns of the limestone rocks on the banks of the Danube, and spreads in swarms over the adjacent plains, to the great annoyance of the cattle. Locusts are often met with; and the destruction of their eggs, which they lay deep in the earth, is a work of great labour. The leeches of S. Hungary, especially those from the Neusiedler-See, form a considerable article of trade. (Paget's Hung., i. 39.)

Area and Population. The official population returns of Hungary, as given by the Austrian government, are founded on a survey of the country made in the reign of Joseph II., to which additions have been annually made. There is reason, however, to believe that these returns are very inaccurate, both as respects the area and population. In the subjoined table the area of the counties is taken from Stein's Handbuch der Geographie, and the population from the government returns. The estimates of the latter by Fenyes show a discrepancy of at least one million and a half, or about a ninth part of the whole. [See Table at the top of next page.]

These statements differ widely; but the estimate of
Fenyes is entitled to more credit than the loose cal-
culation of the official return, which has no preten-
sion to accuracy. In the latter, no account is taken of
the ravages of the cholera, to which, according to the
National Encyclopædia, no less than 300,000 persons
fell victims, and which is said to have been preceded and
followed by bad state of health for some years before
it broke out, and after its violence subsided. The state-
ment of Fenyes would make the pop. of Hungary
10,000,000, exclusive of the military frontier; this ac-
count was drawn up from returns furnished from the
respective counties, and nearly coincides with the cal-
culation made by M. Czoeruig, in a very interesting
communication in the Austrian Archia. According to
the last-named writer's correction of the statements of
M. Nagy, the pop. of Hungary was, in 1827, 9,756,512
souls, and this number would show down to that period
a most rapid rate of increase. The pop. was,
According to a census in 1787, 7,120,394.

Schwartner, 1805, 7,961,114, incr. in 18 yrs. 12 per cent.
Csaplovies, 1820, 8,904,717,

Minerals.-The minerals are very important. Nearly all the metals are met with in the kingdom. They are mostly found in the central trachyte groups of N.W. Hungary. Gold is found at Schemnitz, in a whitish compact limestone, alternating with syenite and porphyry. At Königsberg, Telke Banya, and in the still richer mines of Nagy Banya, on the frontier of Transylvania, the ore is found in small conglomerations, or thin veins, in soft sandlike masses of decayed pumice-stone, lying on and in excavations of the trachyte, or on the porphyry, exactly under the same circumstances as the ores described by Humboldt, in the Mexican mines of Villalpando. Silver, copper, and lead are found mingled with gold at Kumnitz, Schemnitz, Nagy Banya, Telke Banya, in the trachyte group of the Hegyalla, near Tokay, and in the Banat. A solution of copper, locally known as cementwater, is found in many parts; and from this copper is easily obtained. Sulphur and arsenic are found at all the above-named places; the former in masses at Radoboi, in Croatia. Another mineral peculiar to the trachyte and porphyry rocks is the alum-stone, found in the breccias of Beregh, near Tokay, and Parad, in the N. part of the Matra mountains, under similar circumstances of position and quality with the alum-stone of the Apennines. Cobalt is a valuable mineral, which occurs in many parts, but especially at Dobschau, in the N. of Hungary. In the extensive sandstone hills stretching from the Dunajec to the Transylvanian frontier, coalbeds occur, containing large quantities of the carbonate of iron, some of which yield 31 per cent. of metal. Mineral salt is found extensively in the same sandstone in the N. of Hungary and Croatia. The richest mines are Hungary contains several large cities. Pest has 60,000 those of the county of Marmaros. Indeed, the remark.inhab.; Buda, on the bank of the Danube, immediately able fertility of the great plain of Hungary is by some at- opposite, 35,000; Debreczin, 50,000; Szegedin, 32,000, &c. tributed to the abundance of the various salts, muriates Several towns count between 20,000 and 30,000 inhabs.; and others, that mingle with the soil, and which serve to and even many villages are equally populous. In winter, explain the appearance of the numerous ponds which the rural pop. is usually collected in the villages; but in yield soda, and from their colour are termed white summer they are scattered according to their occupations lakes. These soda-lakes are scattered over the great and possessions, living either in small houses on the Puszplain, from the county of Szathmar to that of Bacs; tas, where the cattle graze, or in detached farming estaand on the W. side of the Danube, in the counties of blishments, which are often at a considerable distance Stuhlweissenburg and Oedenberg. Nitre is found in from the villages. During the grazing season, the peasants, these counties in sufficient quantities to supply the whole in large numbers, spend their time with the flocks and empire. The last mineral production to be mentioned herds intrusted to them, in the extensive pastures. The is opal, found in clumps of a siliceous stone, met with increasing subdivision of property has a tendency to diin pearl-stone rocks. (Beudant.) The pearl-stone pre. minish this nomadic system. The herdsmen are dissents itself in connection with trachyte and porphyry, tinguished by different names, such as the horse-herd, in several parts of Hungary, over a range of 600 sq. m.; the cow-herd, and the swine-herd. and rising 900, and even 1,200 ft. above the adjacent plains. The clumps above mentioned are hollow, the inside surface coloured, and consisting of delicate siliceous substances,-sometimes chalcedony, sometimes the stone called half-opal. The opal is found within it, lying in the hollows, like a kernel in a nutshell, exactly as Humboldt, in similar geological strata, found the fire opal, at Zimapan, în Mexico. The hyalite partakes both

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Czoernig, 1827, 9,756,512,
Fenyes, 1835, 10,000,000,

15 - 12 7- 9.5 8 2.4

The people of Hungary consist of seven distinct races. The numbers belonging to each race are given in the following table, founded on the estimate of Fenyes, in round numbers. The military frontier, and the recently added counties from Transylvania, are not included; nor is any account made of the Greeks and Albanians (10,000), the Ziguëner or Gipsies (30,000), and numerous naturalised foreigners.

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214,000

1,400

162,600

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407,000

87,600

207,400

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Nations.

Magyars Slo's acks Croatians Germans Wallachians Rusniaka

Jews

Condition of the People. In the provs. on this side the Theiss, the Magyars come into contact with the Rusniaks; in the prov. beyond the Theiss, with the Wallachians and Illyriau or Servian Slavonians; in the prov. on this side the Danube, with the Croatians, and in that beyond the Danube with the Slowacks, or Slavonians. The Magyars

thus occupy the heart of a country bounded on every side by other nations, which, separately taken, are inferior to them in point of numbers, and are, besides, disunited by religious differences. Of the 4,250,000 Magyars, more than 24 millions are Protestants; the Calvinistic confession being that most spread amongst

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nal appearance of the Wallachians at once declares them to be strangers amongst the Slavonian and Hungarian inhabitants. Their light active figures, dark complexion, and the resemblance to Italian in their dialect, proclaims their Romanic descent. They name themselves Romouni, are poor, light-hearted, but mostly ignorant peasants, fond of brilliant colours in their dress, when their means allow of it, and submissive under oppression.

them. They are a manly and active race, possessing frankness of character, and many other estimable qualities. Their general manner is serious; but in the hours of gaiety and feasting they indulge in tumultuous joy. The advantage possessed by the Magyar over his neighbours of other races, is altogether one of character, for in learning, the peasantry, as well as the middle classes, are behind the Germans. The hussar jacket, with light pantaloons, and the cziesmen, or light boots, and a huge brimmed hat, form the costume of the lower The nobles and landed proprietors, with the exception orders. The Hungarian costume, as worn in full dress of the few foreigners who have purchased property in by the higher classes, is well known, and has been Hungary, are of Magyar origin in the Hungarian proadopted in part for the uniform of hussar regiments in vinces, and mostly Slavonians in Croatia and Slavonia. almost every country. The attila, or frock, and the Their privileges are more extensive than those enjoyed mente, or long surcoat, trimmed with fur, are often sub- by the nobles of the Continent generally, and the rank stituted for the dollman, or short hussar jacket. The is held by great numbers, whose property does not kalpak, or fur cap, with the costly heron's feather, forms exceed that of a peasant. Their numbers can only be the national headgear; and on official occasions the learned approximatively, as they refuse to submit to sabre is an indispensable addition to a gentleman's any continued registration. Of late years, the higher attire. The Slowack, or Slavonian inhabitant of the classes have been laudably active in endeavouring to N.W. parts of Hungary, belongs to the same family ameliorate the condition of the lower orders by the with the Moravians, whom he resembles in appearance, foundation of schools, the distribution of useful works, and whose customs and language he preserves. The attention to the state of prisons, &c.; and their private government project of inducing the Slowack peasantry beneficence has been effectually aided by the grand to adopt the Magyar language, has been detrimental to legislative measure of 1836, which so much extended the the improvement of the lower orders in these counties, civil rights of the peasants. By the act of the Diet and has introduced divisions in the primary schools. of that year, called the "Urbarium," the nobles gave (See below, under Education, and also Paget, i. 315.; up in principle two of the most obnoxious privileges of and Gleig's Germany and Hungary, iii. 344.) The their order-freedom from taxation, and the right of Croatian peasant is not so fortunate in the tenure being judges in their own causes in manotial courts; and of his land as the Slowack, and feels more acutely the agreed that disputes between peasants and their lords pressure both of his temporal and spiritual lords. Still should be referred to a court formed of indifferent prothe Wallachs in E. Hungary, and the Russniak Sla-prietors of magisterial rank, headed by the Vicevonians of the N., are far behind both the Slowacks and shuhbrichter, or deputy-lieutenant of the county. Croatians in point of education, and have a language The former heavy penalties for slight offences were that has no literature. The Wallachians almost uni- modified, and appeals were admitted from these to the versally profess the Schismatic, and the Russniaks the higher courts of the kingdom. The exemption from United Greek, confession. The Illyrians, or Servian taxation was waived, not by a voluntary acceptance of emigrants of the Banat, use a Slavonian dialect, simi- burdens, which would have occasioned a vast revolar to that of the Croatians, and the majority of the lution in property, and endangered one of the most books printed in Servia are written in this province. valuable advantages of the Hungarian constitution, but In fact, the written characters constitute the only dif- by the enactment, that if a noble purchased a peasant's ference, the Servians using the Russian, while the holding liable to taxation, the noble should continue to Croatians adhere to the Roman character. The exter-pay the impost. In some respects the lords were

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