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Duke of


palace a fair row of houses for all offices together in To go forth with the princes of Italy next in

one place. situation.

Two years sithence he married la Signora Bianca

his concubine, a Venetian of Casa Capelli, whereby The great duke of Tuscany, Fran- he entered straiter amity with the Venetians : with Tuscany. cisco de Medici, son to smo, and the the pope he had good intelligence, and some affinity third duke of that family and province; of the age by the marriage of Signor Jacomo, the pope's son, of forty years, of disposition severe and sad, rather | in Casa Sforza. than manly and grave; no princely port or beha- To the emperor he is allied, his first wife being viour more than a great justicer; inclined to peace, the emperor Maximilian's sister. and gathering money. All Tuscany is subject unto With Spain he is in strait league, and his mother him, wherein were divers commonwealths; whereof was of the house of Toledo; his brother likewise, the chief were Florence, Siena, and Pisa, Prato, and D. Pietro, married in the same house. With Pistoia, saving Lucca, and certain forts on the sea- France he standeth at this present in some misliking. coast, held by the king of Spain.

With Ferrara always at jar, as with all the dukes He retaineth in his service few, and they stran. of Italy for the preseance in some controversy. gers, to whom he giveth pensions. In all his cita- All his revenues arise of taxes and customs; his dels he hath garrison of Spaniards, except at Siena: domains are very small. in housekeeping spendeth little, being as it were in He hath by his first wife one son, of the age of pension, agreeing for so much the year with a citi- four or five years, and four daughters ; he hath a zen of Florence for his diet: he has a small guard base child by this woman, and a base brother, D. of Swissers, and when he rideth abroad a guard of Joanni, sixteen years of age, of great expectation. forty light horsemen. The militia of his country Two brothers, D. Pietro, and the cardinal. amounteth to forty thousand soldiers, to the which The duke of Ferrara, Alfonso d'Este, he granteth leave to wear their weapons on the the fifth duke, now about forty years of holy days, and other immunities. Besides, he age; his first wife Lucretia, daughter to Cosmo de entertaineth certain men of arms, to the which he Medici, whom they say he poisoned; his second, giveth seven crowns the month. He also main-daughter to Ferdinand the emperor ; his third wife taineth seven galleys, the which serve under his now living, Anne daughter to the duke of Mantua. knights, erected by his father in Pisa, of the order He hath no child. The chief cities of his state are of St. Stephano : of these galleys three go every Ferrara, Modena, and Reggio: he is rich in money, year in chase.

growing as the most of Italy, of exactions; of all His common exercise is in distillations, and in the princes of Italy alone inclineth to the French ; trying of conclusions, the which he doth exercise in with the pope hath some jar about the passage of a a house called Cassino in Florence, where he spend river. The Venetians and he fall in great hatred ; eth the most part of the day; giving ear in the mean with Florence hath enmity; with Lucca little skirseason to matters of affairs, and conferring with his mishes every year for a castle he buildeth on their chief officers. His revenues are esteemed to amount confines, to raise a great toll in a strait passage, by to a million and a half of crowns, of the which reason of his mother a Guise. spending half a million, he layeth up yearly one William of the house of Gonsaga, million. But certainly he is the richest prince in the third duke of Mantua; his wife all Europe of coin. The form of his government is Barbara daughter to the emperor Ferdinand, by absolute, depending only of his will and pleasure, whom he hath a son of twenty-two years of age, and though retaining in many things the ancient offices a daughter. His son is called Vincentio, his and show. But those magistrates resolve nothing daughter Anne married of late to the duke of Ferwithout his express directions and pleasure. Privy rara ; his son likewise married a year sithence to council he useth none, but reposeth most his trust the prince of Parma's daughter. The duke his on sound secretaries, and conferreth chiefly with his self very deformed and crook-backed, well in years. wife, as his father did with one of his secretaries. Montferrat likewise appertaineth to him. Divers For matter of examinations, one Corbolo hath the of his house have pension always, and serve the especial trust; he doth favour the people more than king of Spain; his brother the duke of Nevers the nobility, because they do bear an old grudge to remaineth in France. He only seeketh to maintain the gentlemen, and the people are the more in num- his estate and enrich himself; his greatest pleasure ber, without whom the nobility can do nothing. One is in horses and building. thing in him giveth great contentment to the sub- The duke of Urbin, Francesco Maria,

Urbin. jects, that he vouchsafeth to receive and hear all of the house of Rovere, the second of their petitions himself. And in his absence from that name, a prince of good behaviour and witty. Florence, those that have suit do resort to the office, In his state are seven reasonable fair cities : and there exhibit their bill indorsed; whereof Pesaro, Augubio, Sinigaglia, Fossombrone, Sanleo, within three days absolute answer is returned them, Cagli, Urbino ; Pesaro and Sinigaglia are fortresses unless the matter be of great importance, then have on the sea-side, Urbin and Sanleo on the Apennine, they direction how to proceed. He is a great jus- well fortified. He holdeth three provinces, Monteticer; and for the ease of the people, and to have feltro, Massa Trebaria, and Vicariato di Mondavio. the better eye over justice, hath built hard by his There have been good princes and valiant of that


house, not so great exactors as the rest of Italy, there hath great need of their friendship, for their ports, fore better beloved of their subjects, which love re- where embark and land all men, and whatsoever is stored their house, being displaced by pope Leo X. sent between Spain and Milan.

His wife Leonora, sister to the duke of Ferrara, They hold Corsica an island, and Savona a fair by whom he hath no children, and now is divorced. city, and the goodliest haven in Italy, until it was He hath two sisters, the one married to the duke of destroyed by the Genevois; the which now make Gravina, the other to the prince Bisignano, and a no profession but of merchandise. third is to marry, whose name is Lavinia.

There is a dangerous faction amongst them, beOttaviano, first duke of Castro, then tween the ancient houses and the new, which were Parma.

of Camerino, and after of Parma and admitted into the ancient families. Piacenza, with great trouble restored to his estate ; St. George is their treasure-house and receiver, now is aged and liveth quietly: his wife Marguerite as at Venice St. Mark. daughter to Charles the fifth, first wife to Alexander Venice retaining still the ancient de Medici first duke of Florence. He hath one son form of government, is always for itself

Venice. called Alexander, now general for the king of Spain in like estate and all one ; at this time between the in the Low Countries; his daughter Vittoria was Turk and the king of Spain, in continual watch, mother to the duke of Urbin.

seeming to make more account of France, not so The cardinal Farnese his uncle, of great credit in much in hope of any great affiance at this present that college, long time hath aspired to be pope, but to be had in him, but for the reputation of that withstood by the king of Spain; on whom though nation, and the amity always they have had with now that house depend, yet forgetteth not, as he the same, and behoving them so to do. They use thinketh, the death of Pier Luigi, and the loss of it with good foresight and speedy preventing, sparParma and Piacenza, restored to their house by the ing for no charge to meet as they may with every French.

accident. Of late they have had some jar with the The young princes of Mirandola, in the govern- pope, as well about the inquisition as title of land. ment of their mother Fulvia Correggio, and under With Ferrara and the Venetians is ancient enmity, the protection of the king of France, who maintaineth specially because he receiveth all their banished there a garrison.

and fugitives. They make most account of the The duke of Savoy, Carlo Emanuel, duke of Savoy amongst the princes of Italy. They Savoy.

a young prince of twenty-one years, maintain divers ambassadors abroad, with the Turk, very little of stature, but well brought up and dis- the emperor, France, Spain, and at Rome: with posed. His territory is the greatest of any duke of them is an ambassador of France and Savoy, always Italy, having Piemont beyond the Alps, and Savoy resident, and an agent of Spain, because they gave on this side ; divers fair towns and strong holds, the preseance to France. richly left of his father, who was accounted a very In this it seemeth all the potentates of Italy do wise prince. This duke, as is thought, is advised agree to let all private grudges give place to foreign to remain always indifferent between Spain and invasion, more for doubt of alteration in religion, France, being neighbour to them both, unless some than for any other civil cause. accident do counsel him to declare himself in behalf There is none amongst them at this day in any of either. Therefore both those princes go about likelihood to grow to any greatness. For Venice is by marriage to have him nearer allied to them. bridled by the Turk and Spain. The duke of TusHis mother was sister to king Francis the Great; cany seeketh rather title than territory, otherwise his father being expulsed his dominions by the than by purchasing. French, was restored by the king of Spain, with Savoy is yet young; the rest of no great force of whom while he lived he had strait intelligence. As themselves. France hath greatly lost the reputayet his inclination doth not appear ; he retaineth tion they had in Italy, by neglecting the occasions his father's alliances with Venice, especially in Italy, offered, and suffering the king of Spain to settle and with the emperor.

With Florence he hath himself. question for pre-eminence.

The emperor Adolphe of the house

Emperor His revenues are judged to be a million of crowns of Austriche, son to Maximilian, about yearly; now he is in arms against Geneva, and thirty years of age; no strong constitution of body, guarded against Bern.

and greatly weakened by immoderate pleasure ; no Of free estates, Lucca the least, is great quickness of spirit. In fashion and apparel

under the protection of the king of all Spanish, where he had his education in his Spain: small in territory; the city itself well forti- youth. He was most governed by his mother while fied and provided, because of the doubt they have she remained with him; and yet altogether by his of the duke of Florence.

steward Dyetristan, and his great chamberlain Genoa is recommended to the king of Romphe, both pensionaries of Spain, and there with

Spain, their galleys serve under him, him maintained. and the chiefest of their city are at his devotion. Of the empire he hath by the last imperial diet Though there is a faction for the French, whereto one million of dollars towards the maintenance of he doth hearken so weakly, that the Spaniard is the garrisons of Hungary; and, besides, his guards there all in all; by whom that state in few years are paid of the empire. hath made a marvellous gain, and the king of Spain To the Turk he payeth yearly tribute for Hun



gary 40,000 dollars, besides the charge of the pre- | Bergesaber ; the other three brethren have no cersents and his ambassadors, amounting to more than tain dwelling-place. George John, son of Rupert, the tribute ; in all 100,000 dollars.

count Palatine, dwelleth at Lysselsteyn. The ordinary garrisons in Hungary are to the Augustus, duke and elector of

Princes of number of but evil paid at this time, Saxony, remaineth the most part at

Germany. The revenues and subsidies of Hungary do not Dresden on the Elbe ; sometimes at Torge on Elbe, pass 100,000 florins. The last emperor affirmed a goodly castle fortified by John Frederick. This solemnly that the charge of Hungary amounted to elector is Lutheran, and great enemy to our profesone million and a half.

sion ; of sixty years of age, half frantic, severe, The revenues of Bohemia, ordinary and extraor- governed much by his wife, greater exactor than the dinary, amount to 50,000 dollars.

German princes are wont to be, and retaineth in his In the absence of the emperor, the baron of Ro- service divers Italians; his eldest son married of late semberg is governor of Bohemia, who possesseth | the daughter of the duke of Brandebourg. almost a fourth part of that country, and is a papist; The sons of John Frederick, captive and yet in neither he nor his brother have children: he beareth prison, remain at Coburge in East Franconia, near the emperor in hand to make him his heir.

the forest of Turinge. Of Silesia and Moravia, the emperor yearly may

The sons of John William abide at Vinaria in have 200,000 florins.

Turingia. Out of Austriche of subsidy and tribute 100,000 Joachim Frederick, son of John George, elector florins, for his domains are all sold away and en- of Brandebourg, at Hala in Saxony on the river of gaged.

Sala, as administrator of the archbishopric of MagThus all his revenues make half a million of florins. debourg.

To his brothers Maximilian and Ernest he allow- George Frederick, son of George, dwelleth at eth yearly, by agreement made between them, Orsbuche in East Franconia, or at Blassenbourge, 45,000 forins apiece, as well for Austriche, as that the which was the mansion of his uncle Albert the might hereafter fall unto them by the decease of the warrior. archduke Ferdinand in Tyrol, the which shall come The elector of Brandenbourg, John George, reto the emperor.

maineth at Berlin on the river of Sprea : his uncle The emperor altogether dependeth on Spain, as John dwelleth at Castryne beyond Odera, very strong well in respect of his house, as the education he re- both by the situation, and fortified. ceived there, and the rule his mother hath over him William duke of Bavyre, a papist, at Munich in with the chief of his council. He is utter enemy Bavary, married the daughter of the duke of Lorrain. to religion, having well declared the same in banish- His second brother Ferdinand remaineth most at ing the ministers out of Vienna, and divers other Landshutt. towns, where he goeth about to plant Jesuits.

The third, Ernest, is bishop of Frisinghen and Of his subjects greatly misliked, as his house is Hildesheim, and late of Liege. hateful to all Germany.

Julius duke of Brunswick, at the strong castle of The archduke Charles holdeth Styria and Ca-Wolfenbuttel on Oker. rinthia; his chief abode is at Gratz ; his wife is Ericke of Brunswick, son to Magnus, uncle to sister to the duke of Bavyre, by whom he hath Julius, remaineth at Mynda, or where the rivers of children.

Werra and Fulda do join, making the river of Vi. The archduke Ferdinand hath Tyrol, and remain-surgis navigable. eth the most part at Ilsburg. For his eldest son he William duke of Luneburg hath his being at Cella, hath bought in Germany a pretty state, not far from on the river Albera. Ulms; the second is a cardinal. Now he is a Henry his brother at Grysorn, where, before, their widower, and said that he shall marry a daughter of uncle Francis was wont to dwell. the duke of Mantna.

Otho their cousin, duke of Luneburg, inhabiteth These are uncles to the emperor : besides Maxi- Harbourg, on this side the Elbe, over-right against milian and Ernest, he hath two brothers, the arch- | Hamburgh. duke Matthias, that hath a pension of the estates of The dukes of Pomerania, John Frederick dwelleth the Low Country, and a cardinal archbishop of at Stetin. Toledo.

Bugeslaus, at Campena, some time an abbey in In Germany there are divers princes the county of Bardruse. Germany.

diversely affected. The elector pala- Ernest Ludovick at Wolgast, on the river of tine Ludovic, a Lutheran; his chief abode is at Panis that runneth into the Baltick sea. Heidelberg

Barmin at Ragenwald in Further Pomerania, on His brother, John Casimir, Calvinist, at Keisers- the borders of Poland and Prussia. lautern, or Nieustadt.

Casimire at Camyn, which bishoprick he holdeth, Richard their uncle at Symyers.

either as administrator, or in his own possession and During the life of the last elector, Ludovic dwelt right. at Amberg in the higher Palatinate.

Ulricke duke of Meckelbourg, remaineth most Philip Ludovic dwelt at Norbourg on the Danow, at Gustrow; his brother John Albert dwelleth at and is commonly called duke of.

Swerin, whose two sons are in the court of the duke John dwelleth at Rypont, or Sweybourgh, or in of Saxon.


Adolph duke of Holst and Dytmarch ; his chief The French king, Henry the third,

France. seat is at Gottorp in the duchy of Sleswick.

of thirty years of age, of a very weak John his elder brother, unmarried, hath his abode constitution, and full of infirmities; yet extremely at Hadersberge : John, son to Christiern king of given over to his wanton pleasures, having only deDenmark, and brother to the duke of Holst, and to light in dancing, feasting, and entertaining ladies, Frederick now king of Denmark, bishop of Oeselya and chamber-pleasures : no great wit, yet a comely and Courland in Livonia.

behaviour and goodly personage, very poor through William duke of Juliers, Cleve, and Bergen, hath exacting inordinately by all devices of his subjects his court at Dusseldorp in the dukedom of Bergense. greatly repining that revenge and hungry govern

William Landgrave of Hesse dwelleth at Cassel ment, abhorring wars and all action, yet daily workon Fulda.

eth the ruin of those he hateth, as all of the religion Ludovick at Marpurge.

and the house of Bourbon ; doting fondly on some Philip at Brubache on the Rhine.

he chooseth to favour extremely, without any virtue George at Darmstadt.

or cause of desert in them, to whom he giveth pro Ludovick duke of Wirtenburge, his chief house at digally. His chief favourites now about him are Stutgard.

the duke Joyeuse, la Valette, and monsieur D'Au. Frederick at Montbelgard.

The queen-mother ruleth him rather by policy and The marquises of Bathe: the elder Ernest, the fear he hath of her, than by his good will; yet he second Jacob, the third brother yet younger; their always doth show great reverence towards her. The chief dwelling-place is at Forsheim, or at Durlach. Guise is in as great favour with him as ever he was;

The sons of Philip at the Bath called Baden. the house is now the greatest of all France, being

Ernest Joachim, prince of Anhalt, at Zerbest, in allied to Ferrara, Savoy, Lorrain, Scotland, and the midway between Magdebourg and Wittemberg; favoured of all the papists; the French king having his other mansion is at Dessau on Mylda, where he his kinswoman to wife, and divers great personages was born, new built and fortified by his grandfather in that realm of his house. Ernest: he hath besides the castle of Cathenen, the The chiefest at this present in credit in court, which was the habitation of Wolfgang prince of whose counsel he useth, are Villeroy, Villaquier, Anhalt his great uncle; Ernest favoureth religion. Bellievre, the chancellor and lord keeper, Birague

George Ernest, prince and earl of Henneberg, at and Chiverny. Schlewsing, by the forest called Turing.

He greatly entertaineth no amity with any prince, George duke of Silesia and Brieke, of the family other than for form ; neither is his friendship otherof the kings of Poland, dwelleth at Brieke; his wise respected of others, save in respect of the reeldest son Joachim Frederick hath married the putation of so great a kingdom. daughter of the prince of Anhalt; his second son, The pope beareth a great sway, and the king of John George.

Spain, by means of his pensions; and of the queen. Henry duke of Silesia and Lignitz, son to the mother with the Guise ; she for her two daughters, brother of George, dwelleth at Lignitz; he hath no he for other regard, can do what he list there, or children alive.

hinder what he would not have done. Frederick, brother to Henry, unmarried.

The division in his country for matters of religion Charles duke of Munsterberg and Olsse, his wife and state, through miscontentment of the nobility to the countess of Sternberg in Bohemia, where he see strangers advanced to the greatest charges of maketh his abode.

the realm, the offices of justice sold, the treasury Henry, brother to Charles, remaineth at Olsse. wasted, the people polled, the country destroyed, hath John Frederick, duke of Teschen.

bred great trouble, and like to see more. The faction Charles, duke of Lorrain, his chief court at between the house of Guise against that of MontNancy.

morancy, hath gotten great advantage. His eldest son Henry of man's estate.

At this present the king is about to restore Don Charles cardinal archbishop of Mets.

Antonio king of Portugal, whereto are great levies A daughter in the French court.

and preparation. Besides, there are in Germany three electors Francis duke of Anjou and of Brabishops, and divers bishops of great livings. bant, for his calling and quality greatly

The free towns of greatest importance are Norem- to be considered as any prince this day living, being berg, Auspurg, Ulmes, and Strasburg : then the can- second person to the king his brother, and in likelitons of the Swisses, the Grisons, and Valois.

hood to succeed him. There is noted in the dispoThe greatest trouble in Germany at this time is sition of this prince a quiet mildness, giving satis. about the concordate, farthered by the duke of faction to all men ; facility of access and natural Saxon, and the count Palatine.

courtesy ; understanding and speech great and eloThere is at this present no prince in Germany quent; secrecy more than commonly is in the greatly toward or redoubted.

French ; from his youth always desirous of action, The duke Casimir's credit is greatly impaired, the which thing hath made him always followed and and his ability small.

respected. And though hitherto he hath brought The dyet imperial shortly should be held, where to pass no great purpose, having suffered great wants, the concordate shall be urged, collection for Hun- and resistance both at home and abroad, yet by the gary made, and a king of Romans named.

intermeddling is grown to good experience, readi

Duke of

revenues are


ness and judgment, the better thereby able to guide Besides the Low Countries, he holdeth the French and govern his affairs, both in practice, in treaty, and Comté, the best used of all his subjects, and Luxemaction. Moreover, the diseased estate of the world bourg : the West Indies furnish him gold and doth so concur with this his active forwardness, as silver, the which he consumeth in the wars of the it giveth him matter to work upon : and he is the Low Countries, and in pensions, and is greatly inonly man to be seen of all them in distress, or de- debted, while he worketh on the foundation his sirous of alteration. A matter of special furtherance father laid, to erect a monarchy, the which if he to all such as have achieved great things, when succeed in the conquest of Portugal, he is likely to they have found matter disposed to receive form. achieve, unless death do cut him off.

And there is to be found no other prince in this He hath one son of the years of five by his last part of the world so towards and forward as the wife, two daughters by the French king's sister, two duke, towards whom they in distress may turn their base sons. eyes. We do plainly see in the most countries of He hath greatly sought the marriage of the christendom so unsound and shaken an estate, as queen's daughter of France, sister to his last wife, desireth the help of some great person, to set to and cousin german removed. gether and join again the pieces asunder and out of His revenues are reckoned to amount The Turk's joint. Wherefore the presumption is great, that if sixteen millions.

thought to be this prince continue this his course, he is likely to The chief in credit with him of mar

equal with become a mighty potentate : for, one enterprise tial men and for counsel are failing, other will be offered, and still men evil at He maketh account to have in continual pay ease, and desirous of a head and captain, will run to 50,000 soldiers. him that is fittest to receive them. Besides, the He maintaineth galleys to the number of 140, French, desirous to shake off the civil wars, must whereof there are sixty in Portugal, the rest are at needs attempt somewhat abroad. This duke first Naples, and other places. Now is on league with had intelligence with the count Ludovic in king the Turk. Charles's days, and an enterprise to escape from the D. Antonio, elect king of Portugal, Portugal. court, and in this king's time joined with them of thrust out by the king of Spain, of fortythe religion and malcontents : after was carried five years of age, a mild spirit, sober and discreet : against them ; seeketh the marriage with her he is now in France, where he hath levied soldiers, Majesty, so mighty a princess, as it were to marry whereof part are embarked, hoping by the favour might with his activity.

of that king, and the good-will the Portugals do He hath had practice in Germany to be created bear him, to be restored again. He holdeth the king of Romans, made a sudden voyage with great Torges, and the East-Indians yet remain well affected expedition into the Low Countries, now is there to him, a case of itself deserving the considering and again with better success than so soon was looked for. relief of all other princes. Besides in his person, Spain.

The king of Spain, Philip, son to his election to be noted with the title he claimeth

Charles the fifth, about sixty years of very singular, and seldom the like seen, being age, a prince of great understanding, subtle and chosen of all the people; the great dangers he hath aspiring, diligent and cruel. This king especially escaped likewise at sundry times. hath made his benefit of the time, where his last The king of Poland, Stephen Ba

Poland. attempt on Portugal deserveth exact consideration, toaye, a baron of Hungary, by the thereby as by the workmanship to know the master. favour of the Turk chosen king of the Pollacks,

The first success he had was at St. Quintin, where after the escape made by the French king; a prince he got a notable hand of the French; he sought to of the greatest value and courage of any at this day,

а reduce the Low Countries to an absolute subjection. of competent years, sufficient wisdom, the which he

He hath kept France in continual broil, where, hath showed in the siege of Danske, and the wars by his pensions and the favour of the house of Guise, with the Muscovite. by means of the queen-mother in contemplation of The Hungarians could be content to exchange her nieces, he beareth great sway. With the pope the emperor for him. The Bohemians likewise he is so linked, as he may do what him list, and wish him in the stead of the other. He were like to dispose of that authority to serve his purposes : as attain to the empire, were not that mortal enmity he has gotten great authority in pretending to pro- between those two nations as could not agree in one tect the church and religion.

subjection. He possesseth the one half of Italy, comprehend- Straight upon his election he married the Infant ing Sicily and Sardinia, with Naples and Milan; of Poland, somewhat in years and crooked, only to the which estates do yield him little other profit, content the Pollacks, but never companied with her. save the maintenance of so many Spaniards as he He doth tolerate there all religions, himself heareth keepeth there always.

the mass, but is not thought to be a papist: he had The duke of Florence relieth greatly upon him, a great part of his education in Turkey, after served as well in respect of the state of Siena, as of the the last emperor. ports he holdeth, and of his greatness. Lucca is Frederick the second, of forty-eight

Denmark under his protection. Genoa, the one faction at his years, king of Denmark and Norway ; devotion, with their galleys : at his pension is most his wife Sophia, daughter to Ulricke duke of of the greatest there.

Mechelebourg, by whom he hath six children, four

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