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thinks of nothing ?" Sir Edward, who had not had read a petition which he disliked, would say, "What,
the effect of some of the queen's grants so soon as you would have my hand to this now?" And the
he hoped and desired, paused a little; and then made party answering, Yes ;" he would say farther,
answer, “ Madam, he thinks of a woman's promise.” “Well, so you shall: nay, you shall have both my
The queen shrunk in her head; but was heard to hands to it.” And so would, with both his hands,
say, “ Well, Sir Edward, I must not confute you.” tear it in pieces.
Anger makes dull men witty, but it keeps them poor. 13. Sir Francis Bacon was wont to say of an

5. When any great officer, ecclesiastical or civil, angry man who suppressed his passion, “That he
was to be made, the queen would inquire after the thought worse than he spake;" and of an angry
piety, integrity, and learning of the man. And when man that would chide, “That he spoke worse than
she was satisfied in these qualifications, she would he thought."
consider of his personage. And upon such an oc- 14. He wont also to say, “That power in an ill
casion she pleased once to say to me, “ Bacon, how man was like the power of a black witch; he could
can the magistrate maintain his authority when the do hurt, but no good with it.” And he would add,
man is despised ?”

That the magicians could turn water into blood, 6. In eighty-eight, when the queen went from but could not turn the blood again to water." Temple-bar along Fleet-street, the lawyers were 15. When Mr. Attorney Coke, in the exchequer, ranked on one side, and the companies of the city gave high words to Sir Francis Bacon, and stood on the other : said Mr. Bacon to a lawyer who stood much upon his higher place; Sir Francis said to next to him, “Do but observe the courtiers; if they him, “ Mr. Attorney, the less you speak of your own bow first to the citizens, they are in debt; if first to greatness, the more I shall think of it: and the us, they are in law."

more, the less." 7. King James was wont to be very earnest with 16. Sir Francis Bacon coming into the earl of the country gentlemen to go from London to their Arundel's garden, where there were a great number of country houses. And sometimes he would say thus ancient statues of naked men and women, made a stand, to them, “Gentlemen, at London you are like ships and, as astonished, cried out, “The resurrection !" at sea, which show like nothing; but in your country 17. Sir Francis Bacon, who was always for villages you are like ships in a river, which look derate counsels, when one was speaking of such a like great things."

reformation of the church of England, as would in 8. Soon after the death of a great officer, who effect make it no church ; said thus to him, “Sir,

2 was judged no advancer of the king's matters, the the subject we talk of is the eye of England; and if king said to his solicitor Bacon, who was his kins- there be a speck or two in the eye, we endeavour to man, “Now tell me truly, what say you of your cousin take them off; but he were a strange oculist who that is gone?” Mr. Bacon answered, " Sir, since would pull out the eye.” your majesty doth charge me, I'll e'en deal plainly 18. The same Sir Francis Bacon was wont to with you, and give you such a character of him, as if say, “That those who left useful studies for useless I were to write his story. I do think he was no fit scholastic speculations, were like the Olympic gamecounsellor to make your affairs better; but yet he was sters, who abstained from necessary labours, that fit to have kept them from growing worse.” The king they might be fit for such as were not so." said, “On my so'l, man, in the first thou speakest 19. He likewise often used this comparison : like a true man, and in the latter, like a kinsman.” The empirical philosophers are like to pismires;

9. King James, as he was a prince of great judg- they only lay up and use their store. The rationment, so he was a prince of a marvellous pleasant alists are like the spiders ; they spin all out of their humour; and there now come into my mind two in- own bowels. But give me a philosopher, who like the stances of it. As he was going through Lusen, by bee hath a middle faculty, gathering from abroad, but Greenwich, he asked what town it was ? They said, digesting that which is gathered by his own virtue.” Lusen. He asked a good while after, “What town 20. The lord St. Alban, who was not over-hasty is this we are now in ?” They said still, 'twas to raise theories, but proceeded slowly by experiLusen. "On my so'l,” said the king, “ I will be ments, was wont to say to some philosophers, who king of Lusen.”

would not go his pace, “Gentlemen, nature is a 10. In some other of his progresses, he asked how labyrinth, in which the very haste you move with, far it was to a town whose name I have forgotten. will make you lose your way.” They said, Six miles. Half an hour after, he asked 21. The same lord, when he spoke of the Dutchagain. One said, Six miles and a half. The king men, used to say, " That he could not abandon them alighted out of his coach, and crept under the for our safety, nor keep them for our profit.” And shoulder of his led horse. And when some asked sometimes he would express the same sense in this his majesty what he meant ? “I must stalk," said manner ; “We hold the Belgic lion by the ears." he, "for yonder town is shy, and flies me.”

22. The same lord, when a gentleman seemed not 11. Count Gondomar sent a compliment to my much to approve of his liberality to his retinue, said lord St. Alban, wishing him a good Easter. My lord to him, “Sir, I am all of a piece; if the head be thanked the messenger, and said, “He could not at listed up, the inferior parts of the body must too." present requite the count better than in returning him 23. The lord Bacon was wont to commend the like; that he wished his lordship a good Passover."

* See the substance of this in Novum Organum; and Co12. My lord chancellor Elsemere, when he had I gitata et Visa.

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the advice of the plain old man at Buxton, that sold 24. Jack Weeks said of a great man, just then besoms : a proud lazy young fellow came to him dead, who pretended to some religion, but was none for a besom upon trust; to whom the old man said, of the best livers, “ Well, I hope he is in heaven. “ Friend, hast thou no money ? borrow of thy back, Every man thinks as he wishes ; but if he be in and borrow of thy belly, they'll ne'er ask thee again, heaven, 'twere pity it were known.” I shall be dunning thee every day.”







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1. “ ALEATOR, quanto in arte est melior, tanto est The fortune which nobody sees, makes a man nequior."

happy and unenvied. A gamester, the greater master he is in his art, 16. “ Heu! quam miserum cst ab illo lædi, de

quo the worse man he is.

non possis queri." 2. “ Arcum intensio frangit; animum, remissio," 0! what a miserable thing it is to be hurt by Much bending breaks the bow; much unbend- such a one of whom it is in vain to complain. ing, the mind.

17. "Homo toties moritur quoties amittit suos.” 3. “ Bis vincit, qui se vincit in victoria.”

A man dies as often as he loses his friends. He conquers twice, who upon victory over- 18. Hæredis fletus sub persona risus est.” comes himself.

The tears of an heir are laughter under a vizard. 4. “ Cum vitia prosint, peccat, qui recte facit.” 19. “ Jucundum nihil est, nisi quod reficit varietas." If vices were upon the whole matter profitable, Nothing is pleasant, to which variety does not the virtuous man would be the sinner.

give a relish. 5. “Bene dormit, qui non sentit quod male dormiat.” 20. “Invidiam ferre, aut fortis, aut felix potest.”

He sleeps well, who feels not that he sleeps ill. He may bear envy, who is either courageous 6. “Deliberare utilia, mora est tutissima."

or happy. To deliberate about useful things, is the safest 21. “In malis sperare bonum, nisi innocens, nemo delay.

potest." 7. “Dolor decrescit, ubi quo crescat non habet.” None but a virtuous man can hope well in ill The flood of grief decreaseth, when it can swell circumstances. no higher.

22. “ In vindicando, criminosa est celeritas.” 8. “Etiam innocentes cogit mentiri dolor.”

In taking revenge, the very haste we make is Pain makes even the innocent man a liar.

criminal. 9. “ Etiam celeritas in desiderio, mora est." 23. “In calamitoso risus etiam injuria est.” In desire, swiftness itself is delay.

When men are in calamity, if we do but laugh 10. “Etiam capillus unus habet umbram suam.”

we offend. The smallest hair casts a shadow.


Improbe Neptunum accusat, qui iterum nau11. “Fidem qui perdit, quo se servat in reliquum ?” fragium facit.”

He that has lost his faith, what has he left to He accuseth Neptune unjustly, who makes live on?

shipwreck a second time. 12. “Formosa facies muta commendatio est.” 25. “Multis minatur, qui uni facit injuriam.” A beautiful face is a silent commendation.

He that injures one, threatens a hundred. 13. “ Fortuna nimium quem fovet, stultum facit.” 26. “ Mora omnis ingrata est, sed facit sapienFortune makes him a fool, whom she makes

tiam." her darling.

All delay is ungrateful, but we are not wise 14. “ Fortuna obesse nulli contenta est semel."

without it. Fortune is not content to do a man but one ill 27. “ Mori est felicis antequam mortem invocet.” turn.

Happy he who dies ere he calls for death to 15. “Facit gratum fortuna, quem nemo videt.”

take him away.

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fear many

28. “ Malus ubi bonum se simulat, tunc est pes- Ile of whom many are afraid, ought himself to

simus." An ill man is always ill; but he is then worst 33. “ Nulla tam bona est fortuna, de qua nil possis of all, when he pretends to be a saint.

queri." 29. Magno cum periculo custoditur, quod multis There is no fortune so good, but it bates an ace. placet."

34. "Pars beneficii est, quod petitur si bene neges." Lock and key will scarce keep that secure, It is part of the gift, if you deny genteelly what which pleases every body.

is asked of you. 30. “ Male vivunt qui se semper victuros putant.” 35. “ Timidus vocat se cautum, parcum sordidus." They think ill, who think of living always.

The coward calls himself a wary man; and the 31. “Male secum agit æger, medicum qui hæredem miser says he is frugal. facit.”

36. “ () vita! misero longa, felici brevis." The sick man does ill for himself, who makes () life! an age to him that is in misery; and his physician his heir.

to him that is happy, a moment. 32. “ Multos timere debet, quem multi timent.”



1. It is a strange desire which men have, to seek 15. The lovers of great place are impatient of power, and lose liberty.

privateness, even in age, which requires the shadow: 2. Children increase the cares of life; but they like old townsmen, that will be still sitting at their mitigate the remembrance of death.

street door, though there they offer age to scorn. 3. Round dealing is the honour of man's nature ; 16. In evil, the best condition is, not to will: the and a mixture of falsehood is like alloy in gold next, not to can. and silver, which may make the metal work the 17. In great place, ask counsel of both times: of better, but it embaseth it.

the ancient time, what is best; and of the latter time, 4. Death openeth the gate to good fame, and ex- what is fittest. tinguisheth envy.

18. As in nature things move more violently to 5. Schism in the spiritual body of the church is a their place, and calmly in their place: so virtue in greater scandal than a corruption of manners : as, ambition is violent; in authority, settled and calm. in the natural body, a wound or solution of con- 19. Boldness in civil business is like pronunciatinuity is worse than a corrupt humour.

tion in the orator of Demosthenes; the first, second, 6. Revenge is a kind of wild justice, which the and third thing. more a man's nature runs to, the more ought law to 20. Boldness is blind : wherefore it is ill in weed it out.

counsel, but good in execution. For in counsel it 7. He that studieth revenge, keepeth his own is good to see dangers; in execution, not to see them, wounds green.

except they be very great. 8. Revengeful persons live and die like witches : 21. Without good-nature, man is but a better kind their life is mischievous, and their end is unfortunate. of vermin.

9. It was a high speech of Seneca, after the man- 22. God never wrought miracle to convince ner of the Stoics, that the good things which belong atheism, because his ordinary works convince it. to prosperity, are to be wished; but the good things 23. The great atheists indeed are hypocrites, which belong to adversity, are to be admired. who are always handling holy things, but without

10. He that cannot see well, let him go softly. feeling; so as they must needs be cauterized in

11. If a man be thought secret, it inviteth dis- the end. covery; as the more close air sucketh in the 24. The master of superstition is the people. more open.

And in all superstition, wise men follow fools. 12. Keep your authority wholly from your chil- 25. In removing superstitions, care would be had dren, not so your purse.

that, as it fareth in ill purgings, the good be not 13. Men of noble birth are noted to be envious taken away with the bad : which commonly is done towards new men when they rise ; for the distance when the people is the physician. is altered; and it is like a deceit of the eye, that 26. He that goeth into a country before he hath when others come on, they think themselves go back. some entrance into the language, goeth to school,

14. That envy is most malignant which is like and not to travel. Cain's, who envied his brother, because his sacrifice 27. It is a miserable state of mind, and yet it is was better accepted, when there was nobody but God commonly the case of kings, to have few things to to look on.

desire and many things to fear.

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off his spurs.

28. Depression of the nobility may make a kingness and bitterness. Certainly he that hath a satirical more absolute, but less safe.

vein, as he maketh others afraid of his wit, so he 29. All precepts concerning kings are, in effect, | had need be afraid of others' memory. comprehended in these remembrances : remember 50. Discretion in speech is more than eloquence. thou art a man; remember thou art God's vice- 51. Men seem neither well to understand their gerent: the one bridleth their power, and the other riches, nor their strength : of the former they betheir will.

lieve greater things than they should, and of the 30. Things will have their first or second agita- latter much less. And from hence certain fatal tion: if they be not tossed upon the arguments of pillars have bounded the progress of learning. counsel, they will be tossed upon the waves of fortune. 52. Riches are the baggage of virtue ; they can

31. The true composition of a counsellor is, rather not be spared, nor left behind; but they hinder to be skilled in his master's business than his nature; the march. for then he is like to advise him, and not to feed his 53. Great riches have sold more men than ever humour.

they have bought out. 32. Private opinion is more free, but opinion be- 54. Riches have wings, and sometimes they fly fore others is more reverent.

away of themselves, and sometimes they must be set 33. Fortune is like a market, where many times flying to bring in more. if you stay a little the price will fall.

55. He that defers his charity until he is dead, 34. Fortune sometimes turneth the handle of the is, if a man weighs it rightly, rather liberal of bottle, which is easy to be taken hold of; and after, another man's than of his own. the belly, which is hard to grasp.

56. Ambition is like choler; if it can move, it 35. Generally it is good to commit the beginning makes men active ; if it be stopped, it becomes adust, of all great actions to Argus with a hundred eyes; and makes men melancholy. and the ends of them to Briareus with a hundred 57. To take a soldier without ambition, is to pull hands; first to watch, and then to speed.

36. There is great difference betwixt a cunning 58. Some ambitious men seem as skreens to man and a wise man. There be that can pack the princes in matters of danger and envy. For no man cards, who yet cannot play well; they are good in will take such parts, except he be like the seeld canvasses and factions, and yet otherwise mean men. dove, that mounts and mounts, because he cannot

37. Extreme self-lovers will set a man's house on see about him. fire, though it were but to roast their eggs.

59. Princes and states should choose such minis38. New things, like strangers, are more admired, ters as are more sensible of duty than rising; and and less favoured.

should discern a busy nature from a willing mind. 39. It were good that men, in their innovations, 60. A man's nature runs either to herbs or weeds; would follow the example of time itself, which indeed therefore let him seasonably water the one, and innovateth greatly, but quietly, and by degrees scarce destroy the other. to be perceived.

61. If a man look sharply and attentively, he 40. They that reverence too much old time, are shall see fortune ; for though she be blind, she is but a scorn to the new.

not invisible. 41. The Spaniards and Spartans have been noted 62. Usury bringeth the treasury of a realm or to be of small despatch. “ Mi

venga la muerte de state into few hands: for the usurer being at cerSpagna ;" Let my death come from Spain, for then tainties, and others at uncertainties, at the end of it will be sure to be long a coming.

the game most of the money will be in the box. 42. You had better take for business a man some- 63. Virtue is best in a body that hath rather digwhat absurd, than over-formal. •

nity of presence, than beauty of aspect. The beau43. Those who want friends to whom to open their tiful prove accomplished, but not of great spirit; and griefs, are cannibals of their own hearts.

study, for the most part, rather behaviour than 44. Number itself importeth not much in armies, virtue. where the people are of weak courage ; for, as 64. The best part of beauty is that which a picVirgil says, it never troubles a wolf how many the ture cannot express. sheep be.

65. He who builds a fair house upon an ill seat, 45. Let states that aim at greatness, take heed commits himself to prison. how their nobility and gentry multiply too fast. In 66. If you will work on any man, you must coppice woods, if you leave your staddles too thick, either know his nature and fashions, and so lead you shall never have clean underwood, but shrubs him; or his ends, and so persuade him; or his and bushes.

weaknesses and disadvantages, and so awe him; or 46. A civil war is like the heat of a fever ; but a those that have interest in him, and so govern him. foreign war is like the heat of exercise, and serveth 67. Costly followers, among whom we may reckon to keep the body in health.

those who are importunate in suits, are not to be 47. Suspicions among thoughts, are like bats liked ; lest, while a man maketh his train longer, among birds, they ever fly by twilight.

he make his wings shorter. 48. Base natures, if they find themselves once 68. Fame is like a river that beareth up things suspected, will never be true.

light and swollen, and drowns things weighty and 49. Men ought to find the difference between salt- solid.


69. Seneca saith well, that anger is like rain, 72. The best governments are always subject to which breaks itself upon that it falls.

be like the fairest crystals, wherein every icicle or 70. Excusations, cessions, modesty itself well grain is seen, which in a fouler stone is never governed, are but arts of ostentation.

perceived. 71. High treason is not written in ice; that when 73. Hollow church papists are like the roots of the body relenteth, the impression should go

go nettles, which themselves sting not; but yet they away.

bear all the stinging leaves.



1. To deceive men's expectations generally, which | ridiculous, wanting true judgment; for in all things cautel, argueth a staid mind, and unexpected con- no man can be exquisite. stancy: viz. in matters of fear, anger, sudden joy 5, 6. To have common places to discourse, and or grief, and all things which may affect or alter to want variety, is both tedious to the hearers, and the mind in public or sudden accidents, or such shows a shallowness of conceit; therefore it is good like.

to vary, and suit speeches with the present occasions ; 2. It is necessary to use a stedfast countenance, and to have a moderation in all our speeches, espenot wavering with action, as in moving the head or cially in jesting, of religion, state, great persons, hand too much, which showeth a fantastical, light, weighty and important business, poverty, or any and fickle operation of the spirit, and consequently thing deserving pity. like mind as gesture : only it is sufficient, with 7. A long continued speech, without a good speech leisure, to use a modest action in either.

of interlocution, showeth slowness : and a good 3. In all kinds of speech, either pleasant, grave, reply, without a good set speech, showeth shallowsevere, or ordinary, it is convenient to speak lei- ness and weakness. surely, and rather drawingly, than hastily: because 8. To use circumstances, ere you come to the hasty speech confounds the memory, and oftentimes, matter, is wearisome ; and to use none at all, is but besides unseemliness, drives a man either to a non- blunt. plus or unseemly stammering, harping upon that 9. Bashfulness is a great hinderance to a man, which should follow ; whereas a slow speech con- both of uttering his conceit, and understanding what firmeth the memory, addeth a conceit of wisdom to is propounded unto him: wherefore it is good to the hearers, besides a seemli of speech and press himself forwards with discretion, both in countenance.

speech, and company of the better sort. 4. To desire in discourse to hold all arguments, is

• Usus promptos facit.”


1. I Have often thought upon death, and I find 3. I know many wise men, that fear to die; for it the least of all evils. All that which is past is the change is bitter, and flesh would refuse to prove as a dream ; and he that hopes or depends upon it: besides, the expectation brings terror, and that time coming, dreams waking. So much of our life exceeds the evil. But I do not believe, that any as we have discovered is already dead; and all man fears to be dead, but only the stroke of death: those hours which we share, even from the breasts and such are my hopes, that if Heaven be pleased, of our mother, until we return to our grandmother and nature renew but my lease for twenty-one years the earth, are part of our dying days; whereof even more, without asking longer days, I shall be strong this is one, and those that succeed are of the same enough to acknowledge without mourning that I nature, for we die daily; and as others have given was begotten mortal. Virtue walks not in the highplace to us, so we must in the end give way to way, though she go per alta; this is strength and others.

the blood to virtue, to contemn things that be 2. Physicians, in the name of death, include all desired, and to neglect that which is feared. sorrow, anguish, disease, calamity, or whatsoever 4. Why should man be in love with his fetters, can fall in the life of man, either grievous or unwelthough of gold ? Art thou drowned in security ? come : but these things are familiar unto us, and we Then I say thou art perfectly dead. For though suffer them every hour; therefore we die daily, thou movest, yet thy soul is buried within thee, and and I am older since I affirmed it.

thy good angel either forsakes his guard or sleeps.

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