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that largeness, as they may be turfed, and have and so govern him. In dealing with cunning persons, living plants and bushes set in them; that the birds we must ever consider their ends to interpret their may have more scope, and natural nestling, and that speeches; and it is good to say little to them, and no foulness appear in the floor of the aviary. that which they least look for. In all negotiations of

So I have made a platform of a princely garden, difficulty, a man may not look to sow and reap at partly by precept, partly by drawing; not a model, once; but must prepare business, and so ripen it by but some general lines of it; and in this I have degrees. spared for no cost. But it is nothing for great princes, that for the most part, taking advice with

XLVIII. OF FOLLOWERS AND FRIENDS. workmen, with no less cost set their things together ; and sometimes add statues, and such things, for state Costly followers are not to be liked ; lest while a and magnificence, but nothing to the true pleasure man maketh his train longer, he make his wings of a garden.

shorter. I reckon to be costly, not them alone which

charge the purse, but which are wearisome and imXLVII. OF NEGOTIATING.

portune in suits. Ordinary followers ought to chal

lenge no higher conditions than countenance, recomIt is generally better to deal by speech, than by mendation, and protection from wrongs. Factious letter; and by the mediation of a third, than by a followers are worse to be liked, which follow not man's self. Letters are good, when a man would upon affection to him with whom they range themdraw an answer by letter back again; or when it selves, but upon discontentment conceived against may serve for a man's justification, afterwards to some other: whereupon commonly ensueth that ill produce his own letter; or where it may be danger intelligence that we many times see between great to be interrupted, or heard by pieces. To deal in personages. Likewise glorious followers, who make person is good, when a man's face breedeth regard, themselves as trumpets of the commendation of those as commonly with inferiors; or in tender cases, they follow, are full of inconvenience; for they taint where a man's eye upon the countenance of him business through want of secrecy; and they export with whom he speaketh, may give him a direction honour from a man, and make him a return in envy. how far to go : and generally where a man will re- There is a kind of followers likewise, which are serve to himself liberty, either to disavow or to ex- dangerous, being indeed espials; which inquire the pound. In choice of instruments, it is better to secrets of the house, and bear tales of them to others. choose men of a plainer sort, that are like to do that Yet such men many times are in great favour; for that is committed to them, and to report back again they are officious, and commonly exchange tales. faithfully the success; than those that are cunning The following by certain estates of men answerable to contrive out of other men's business somewhat to to that which a great person himself professeth, as grace themselves, and will help the matter in report, of soldiers to him that have been employed in the for satisfaction sake. Use also such persons as affect wars, and the like, hath ever been a thing civil, and the business wherein they are employed, for that well taken even in monarchies; so it be without too quickeneth much ; and such as are fit for the matter; much pomp or popularity. But the most honourable as bold men for expostulation, fair-spoken men for kind of following, is to be followed as one that appersuasion, crafty men for inquiry and observation, prehendeth to advance virtue and desert in all sorts froward and absurd men for business that doth not of persons. And yet where there is no eminent odds well bear out itself. Use also such as have been in sufficiency, it is better to take with the more lucky, and prevailed before in things wherein you passable than with the more able. And besides, to have employed them; for that breeds confidence, speak truth, in base times active men are of more and they will strive to maintain their prescription. use than virtuous. It is true, that in government, It is better to sound a person with whom one deals, it is good to use men of one rank equally: for to afar off, than to fall upon the point at first; except countenance some extraordinarily, is to make them you mean to surprise him by some short question. insolent, and the rest discontent; because they may It is better dealing with men in appetite than with claim a due. But contrariwise in favour, to use men those that are where they would be. If a man deal with much difference and election is good; for it with another upon conditions, the start or first per- maketh the persons preferred more thankful, and formance is all; which a man cannot reasonably the rest more officious; because all is of favour. It demand, except either the nature of the thing be such is good discretion not to make too much of any man which must go before; or else a man can persuade at the first; because one cannot hold out that prothe other party, that he shall still need him in some portion. To be governed, as we call it, by one, is other thing; or else that he be counted the honester not safe ; for it shows softness, and gives a freedom

All practice is to discover, or to work. Men to scandal and disreputation ; for those that would discover themselves in trust, in passion, at unawares, not censure, or speak ill of a man immediately, will and of necessity, when they would have somewhat talk more boldly of those that are so great with them, done, and cannot find an apt pretext. If you would and thereby wound their honour. Yet to be diswork any man, you must either know his nature and tracted with many, is worse ; for it makes men to fashions, and so lead him ; or his ends, and so per- be of the last impression, and full of change. To suade him; or his weakness and disadvantages, and take advice of some few friends is ever honourable ; so awe him; or those that have interest in him, for lookers-on many times see more than gamesters ;



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and the vale best discovereth the hill. There is little “ Iniquum petas, ut æquum feras," is a good rule, friendship in the world, and least of all between where a man hath strength of favour; but otherwise equals, which was wont to be magnified. That that a man were better rise in his suit; for he that would is, is between superior and inferior, whose fortunes have ventured at first to have lost the suitor, will may comprehend the one the other.

not in the conclusion lose both the suitor and his own

former favour. Nothing is thought so easy a reXLIX. OF SUITORS.

quest to a great person, as his letter ; and yet, if it

be not in a good cause, it is so much out of his reMany ill matters and projects are undertaken; putation. There are no worse instruments than and private suits do putrify the public good. Many these general contrivers of suits; for they are but a good matters are undertaken with bad minds; I kind of poison and infection to public proceedings. mean not only corrupt minds, but crafty minds, that intend not performance. Some embrace suits, which

L. OF STUDIES. never mean to deal effectually in them ; but if they see there may be life in the matter by some other Studies serve for delight, for ornament, and for mean, they will be content to win a thank, or take ability. Their chief use for delight, is in privatea second reward, or at least to make use in the mean ness and retiring; for ornament, is in discourse; and time of the suitor's hopes. Some take hold of suits for ability, is in the judgment and disposition of only for an occasion to cross some other, or to make business. For expert men can execute, and perhaps an information, whereof they could not otherwise judge of particulars, one by one ; but the general have apt pretext; without care what become of the counsels, and the plots and marshalling of affairs, suit when that turn is served: or generally, to make come best from those that are learned. To spend other men's business a kind of entertainment to too much time in studies, is sloth; to use them too bring in their own. Nay, some undertake suits, much for ornament, is affectation; to make judgment with a full purpose to let them fall; to the end to only by their rules, is the humour of a scholar. gratify the adverse party or competitor. Surely They perfect nature, and are perfected by experi

. there is in some sort a right in every suit ; either ence: for natural abilities are like natural plants, a right of equity, if it be a suit of controversy; or a that need pruning by study; and studies themselves right of desert, if it be a suit of petition. If affection do give forth directions too much at large, except lead a man to favour the wrong side in justice, let they be bounded in by experience. Crafty men him rather use his countenance to compound the contemn studies; simple men admire them; and wise matter than to carry it. If affection lead a man to men use them: for they teach not their own use: favour the less worthy in desert, let him do it with- but that is a wisdom without them, and above them, out depraving or disabling the better deserved. In won by observation. Read not to contradict and suits which a man doth not well understand, it is confute ; nor to believe and take for granted; nor to good to refer them to some friend of trust and judg- find talk and discourse; but to weigh and consider. ment, that may report whether he may deal in them Some books are to be tasted, others to be swallowed, with honour ; but let him choose well his referen- and some few to be chewed and digested; that is, daries, for else he may be led by the nose.

Suitors some books are to be read only in parts; others to are so distasted with delays and abuses, that plain be read, but not curiously; and some few to be read dealing in denying to deal in suits at first, and re- wholly, and with diligence and attention. Some porting the success barely, and in challenging no books also may be read by deputy, and extracts more thanks than one hath deserved, is grown not made of them by others; but that would be only in only honourable, but also gracious. In suits of fa- the less important arguments, and the meaner sort vour, the first coming ought to take little place; so of books: else distilled books are like common disfar forth consideration may be had of his trust, that, tilled waters, flashy things. Reading maketh a full if intelligence of the matter could not otherwise man; conference a ready man; and writing an exhave been had but by him, advantage be not taken act man. And therefore if a man write little, he of the note, but the party left to his other means, had need have a great memory; if he confer little, and in some sort recompensed for his discovery. he had need have a present wit; and if he read To be ignorant of the value of a suit, is simplicity ; little, he had need have much cunning, to seem to as well as to be ignorant of the right thereof, is know that he doth not. Histories make men wise ; want of conscience. Secrecy in suits is a great poets, witty; the mathematics, subtile; natural phimean of obtaining; for voicing them to be in for losophy, deep; moral, grave; logic and rhetoric, wardness, may discourage some kind of suitors; but able to contend : " Abeunt studia in mores.” Nay, doth quicken and awake others. But timing of the there is no stond or impediment in the wit, but may suit is the principal ; timing, I say, not only in re- be wrought out by fit studies; like as diseases of spect of the person that shall grant it, but in respect the body may have appropriate exercises: bowling of those which are like to cross it. Let a man, in the is good for the stone and reins ; shooting for the choice of his mean, rather choose the fittest mean than lungs and breast; gentle walking for the stomach; the greatest mean: and rather them that deal in cer- riding for the head; and the like. So if a man's tain things than those that are general. The repara- wit be wandering, let him study the mathematics ; tion of a denial is sometimes equal to the first grant; if for in demonstrations, if his wit be called away nea man show himself neither dejected nor discontented. ver so little, he must begin again: if his wit be not

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apt to distinguish or find differences, let him study ex nobis ;” as was to be seen in the league of France. the schoolmen ; for they are cymini sectores : if he When factions are carried too high, and too violentbe not apt to beat over matters, and to call up one ly, it is a sign of weakness in princes, and much to thing to prove and illustrate another, let him study the prejudice both of their authority and business. the lawyers' cases : so every defect of the mind may The motions of factions under kings ought to be like have a special receipt.

the motions, as the astronomers speak, of the inferior

orbs; which may have their proper motions, but yet LI. OF FACTION.

still are quietly carried by the higher motion of

primum mobile. Many have an opinion not wise; that for a prince to govern his estate, or for a great person to govern

LII. OF CEREMONIES AND RESPECTS. his proceedings, according to the respect of factions, is a principal part of policy; whereas, contrariwise, He that is only real, had need have exceeding the chiefest wisdom is, either in ordering those great parts of virtue ; as the stone had need to be things which are general, and wherein men of seve- rich that is set without foil; but if a man mark it ral factions do nevertheless agree, or in dealing with well, it is in praise and commendation of men, as it correspondence to particular persons, one by one. is in gettings and gains. For the proverb is true, But I say not, that the consideration of factions is that light gains make heavy purses; for light gains to be neglected. Mean men, in their rising, must come thick, whereas great come but now and then. adhere; but great men, that have strength in them so it is true, that small matters win great comselves, were better to maintain themselves indiffer-mendation, because they are continually in use, and ent and neutral. Yet even in beginners, to adhere in note; whereas the occasion of any great virtue so moderately, as he be a man of the one faction, cometh but on festivals : therefore it doth much add which is most passable with the other, commonly to a man's reputation, and is, as queen Isabella said, giveth best way. The lower and weaker faction is like perpetual letters commendatory, to have good the firmer in conjunction: and it is often seen, that a forms. To attain them, it almost sufficeth not to few that are stiff do tire out a greater number that despise them: for so shall a man observe them in are more moderate. When one of the factions is others; and let him trust himself with the rest. For extinguished, the remaining subdivideth: as the fac- if he labour too much to express them, he shall lose tion between Lucullus and the rest of the nobles of their grace; which is to be natural and unaffected. the senate, which they call optimates, held out a Some men's behaviour is like a verse, wherein every while against the faction of Pompey and Cæsar: syllable is measured: how can a man comprehend but when the senate's authority was pulled down, great inatters, that breaketh his mind too much to Cæsar and Pompey soon after brake. The faction small observations ? Not to use ceremonies at all, or party of Antonius and Octavianus Cæsar, against is to teach others not to use them again, and so dimi. Brutus and Cassius, held out likewise for a time : nisheth respect to himself; especially they be not to but when Brutus and Cassius were overthrown, then be omitted to strangers and formal natures : but the soon after Antonius and Octavianus brake and sub-dwelling upon them and exalting them above the moon, divided. These examples are of wars, but the same is not only tedious, but doth diminish the faith and holdeth in private factions. And therefore those credit of him that speaks. And certainly there is a that are seconds in factions, do many times, when kind of conveying of effectual and imprinting pasthe faction subdivideth, prove principals : but many sages, amongst compliments, which is of singular times also they prove cyphers and cashiered; for use, if a man can hit upon it. Amongst a man's many a man's strength is in opposition, and when peers, a man shall be sure of familiarity; and therethat faileth he groweth out of use. mmonly fore it is good a little to keep state. Amongst a man's seen, that men once placed, take in with the con- inferiors one shall be sure of reverence; and theretrary faction to that by which they enter ; thinking fore it is good a little to be familiar. He that is too belike that they have the first sure, and now are much in any thing, so that he giveth another occaready for a new purchase. The traitor in factionsion of satiety, maketh himself cheap. To apply lightly goeth away with it: for when matters have one's self to others is good; so it be with demonstrastuck long in balancing, the winning of some one tion that a man doth it upon regard, and not upon man casteth them, and he getteth all the thanks. facility. It is a good precept, generally in seconding The even carriage between two factions, proceedeth another, yet to add somewhat of one's own; as if not always of moderation, but of a trueness to a you will grant his opinion, let it be with some disman's self, with end to make use of both. Certain-tinction; if you will follow his motion, let it be with ly in Italy they hold it a little suspect in popes, condition ; if you allow his counsel, let it be with when they have often in their mouth “ Padre com- alleging farther reason. Men had need beware mune:" and take it to be sign of one that meaneth how they be too perfect in compliments ; for be they to refer all to the greatness of his own house. Kings never so sufficient otherwise ; their enviers will be had need beware how they side themselves, and sure to give them that attribute, to the disadvantage make themselves as of a faction or party; for leagues of their greater virtues. It is loss also in business, within the state are ever pernicious to monarchies; to be too full of respects, or to be too curious in for they raise an obligation paramount to obligation observing times and opportunities : Solomon saith, of sovereignty, and make the king “ tanquam unus “He that considereth the wind shall not sow; and

It is com

he that looketh to the clouds shall not reap.” A though many times those under-sheriffries do more wise man will make more opportunities than he good than their high speculations. St. Paul, when finds. Men's behaviour should be like their apparel; he boasts of himself, he doth oft interlace, “ I speak not too strait or point device, but free for exercise like a fool ;" but speaking of his calling, he saith, or motion.

magnificabo apostolatum meum."





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Praise is the reflexion of virtue: but it is as the It was prettily devised of Æsop: The fly sat upon glass or body which giveth the reflexion. If it be the axle-tree of the chariot-wheel, and said, What a from the common people, it is commonly false and dust do I raise ? So are there some vain persons, nought; and rather followeth vain persons than vir- that whatsoever goeth alone, or moveth upon greater tuous; for the common people understand not many means, if they have never so little hand in it, they excellent virtues : the lowest virtues draw praise think it is they that carry it. They that are from them ; the middle virtues work in them glorious must needs be factious; for all bravery astonishment or admiration; but of the highest vir- stands upon comparisons. They must needs be tues they have no sense or perceiving at all: but violent to make good their own vaunts : neither can shows, and species virtutibus similes, serve best with they be secret, and therefore not effectual ; but acthem. Certainly fame is like a river, that beareth cording to the French proverb, “ Beaucoup de bruit, up things light and swoln, and drowns things weighty peu de fruit:" Much bruit, little fruit. Yet certainand solid: but if persons of quality and judgment ly there is use of this quality in civil affairs: where concur, then it is, as the Scripture saith, “ Nomen there is an opinion, and fame to be created, either bonum instar unguenti fragrantis.” It filleth all of virtue or greatness, these men are good trumpeters. round about, and will not easily away: for the odours | Again, as Titus Livius noteth, in the case of Anof ointments are more durable than those of flowers. tiochus and the Atolians, there are sometimes great There be so many false points of praise, that a man effects of cross lies; as if a man that negotiates bemay justly hold it a suspect. Some praises proceed tween two princes, to draw them to join in a war merely of flattery; and if he be an ordinary flat- against the third, doth extol the forces of either of terer, he will have certain common attributes, them above measure, the one to the other: and which may serve every man ; if he be a cunning sometimes he that deals between man and man, flatterer, he will follow the arch-flatterer, which is a raiseth his own credit with both, by pretending man's self; and wherein a man thinketh best of greater interest than he hath in either. And in himself, therein the flatterer will uphold him most: these and the like kinds, it often falls out, that somebut if he be an impudent flatterer, look, wherein a what is produced of nothing; for lies are sufficient man is conscious to himself that he is most defective, to breed opinion, and opinion brings on substance. and is most out of countenance in himself, that will | In military commanders and soldiers, vain-glory is an the flatterer entitle him to perforce, spretâ con- essential point; for as iron sharpens iron, so by scientiâ. Some praises come of good wishes and glory one courage sharpeneth another: in cases of respects, which is a form due in civility to kings and great enterprise, upon charge and adventure, a comgreat persons; laudando præcipere; when by telling position of glorious natures doth put life into busimen what they are, they represent to them what ness; and those that are of solid and sober natures, they should be. Some men are praised maliciously have more of the ballast than of the sail. In fame to their hurt, thereby to stir envy and jealousy to- of learning, the flight will be slow, without some wards them: pessimum genus inimicorum laudan- feathers of ostentation : “Qui de contemnendâ gloriâ tium ; insomuch as it was a proverb amongst the libros scribunt, nomen suum inscribunt.” Socrates, Grecians, that he that was praised to his hurt, Aristotle, Galen, were men full of ostentation. Cershould have a push rise upon his nose; as we say, tainly vain-glory helpeth to perpetuate a man's that a blister will rise upon one's tongue th tells memory; and virtue was never so be den to human a lie. Certainly moderate praise, used with oppor- nature, as it received its due at the second hand. tunity, and not vulgar, is that which doth the good. Neither had the fame of Cicero, Seneca, Plinius Solomon saith, “ He that praiseth his friend aloud, Secundus, borne her age so well, if it had not been rising early, it shall be to him no better than a curse." joined with some vanity in themselves : like unto Too much magnifying of man or matter, doth irri- varnish, that makes ceilings not only shine but last. tate contradiction, and procure envy and scorn. To But all this while, when I speak of vain-glory, I mean praise a man's self cannot be decent, except it be in not of that property that Tacitus doth attribute to rare cases: but to praise a man's office or profession, Mucianus; “ omnium, quæ dixerat, feceratque, arte he may do it with good grace, and with a kind of quâdam ostentator :" for that proceeds not of vanity, magnanimity. The cardinals of Rome, which are but of natural magnanimity and discretion : and in theologues, and friars, and schoolmen, have a phrase some persons, is not only comely but gracious. For of notable contempt and scorn, towards civil busi- excusations, cessions, modesty itself well governed, ness; for they call all temporal business, of wars, are but arts of ostentation. And amongst those embassages, judicature, and other employments, arts, there is none better than that which Plinius sirrbirie, which is under-sheriffries, as if they were Secundus speaketh of; which is to be liberal of but matters for under-sheriffs and catch-poles ; praise and commendation to others, in that wherein


And some,

a man's self hath any perfection. For, saith Pliny, curarum, those upon whom princes do discharge very wittily, " in commending another you do your the greatest weight of their affairs; their right self right; for he that you commend is either hands, as we call them. The next are duces belli, superior to you in that you commend, or inferior. If great leaders ; such as are princes' lieutenants, and he be inferior, if he be to be commended, you much do them notable services in the wars. The third more. If he be superior, if he be not to be com- are gratiosi, favourites ; such as exceed not this mended, you much less." Glorious men are the scantling, to be solace to the sovereign, and harmless scorn of wise men, the admiration of fools, the to the people : and the fourth, negotiis pares; such idols of parasites, and slaves of their own vaunts. as have great places under princes, and execute

their places with sufficiency. There is an honour LV. OF HONOUR AND REPUTATION. likewise, which may be ranked amongst the greatest,

which happeneth rarely; that is, of such as sacrifice The winning of honour is but the revealing of a themselves to death or danger for the good of their man's virtue and worth without disadvantage. For country; as was M. Regulus, and the two Decii. some in their actions do woo and affect honour and reputation ; which sort of men are commonly much

LVI. OF JUDICATURE. talked of, but inwardly little admired. contrariwise, darken their virtue in the show of it; Judges ought to remember, that their office is so as they be undervalued in opinion. If a man per- jus dicere, and not jus dare ; to interpret law, and form that which hath not been attempted before, or not to make law, or give law. Else will it be like the attempted and given over; or hath been achieved, but authority claimed by the church of Rome; which, not with so good circumstance: he shall purchase under pretext of exposition of Scripture, doth not more honour than by affecting a matter of greater stick to add and alter; and to pronounce that which difficulty or virtue, wherein he is but a follower. they do not find; and by show of antiquity to introIf a man so temper his actions, as in some one of duce novelty. Judges ought to be more learned them he doth content every faction or combination than witty; more reverend than plausible; and more of people, the music will be the fuller. A man is an advised than confident. Above all things, integrity ill husband of his honour that entereth into any is their portion and proper virtue. “Cursed," saith action, the failing wherein may disgrace him more the law, "is he that removeth the land-mark.” The than the carrying of it through can honour him. mislayer of a mere-stone is to blame : but it is the Honour that is gained and broken upon another, unjust judge that is the capital remover of land-marks, hath the quickest reflexion, like diamonds cut with when he defineth amiss of lands and property. One fascets. And therefore let a man contend to excel foul sentence doth more hurt than many foul ex. any competitors of his in honour, in out-shooting amples. For these do but corrupt the stream: the them, if he can, in their own bow. Discreet follow other corrupteth the fountain. So saith Solomon ; ers and servants help much to reputation : "omnis “Fons turbatus, et vena corrupta, est justus cadens fama a domesticis emanat.” Envy, which is the in causâ suâ coram adversario." The office of judges canker of honour, is best extinguished by declaring may have reference unto the parties that sue; unto a man's self in his ends, rather to seek merit than the advocates that plead ; unto the clerks and mifame; and by attributing a man's success rather to nisters of justice underneath them; and to the soDivine Providence and felicity, than to his own virtue vereign or state above them. or policy. The true marshalling of the degrees of First, for the causes or parties that sue. « There sovereign honour, are these. In the first place are be,” saith the Scripture, " that turn judgment into conditores imperiorum, founders of states and com- wormwood ;” and surely there be also that turn it monwealths; such as were Romulus, Cyrus, Cæsar, into vinegar: for injustice maketh it bitter, and deOttoman, Ismael. In the second place are legis lays make it sour. The principal duty of a judge latores, lawgivers, which are also called second found is, to suppress force and fraud; whereof force is the ers, or perpetui principes, because they govern by more pernicious when it is open ; and fraud when their ordinances, after they are gone : such were it is close and disguised. Add thereto contentious Lycurgus, Solon, Justinian, Edgar, Alphonsus of suits, which ought to be spewed out as the surfeit of Castile, the wise, that made the Siete partidas. In courts. A judge ought to prepare his way to a just the third place are liberatores, or salvatores; such sentence, as God useth to prepare his way, by raisas compound the long miseries of civil wars, or de ing valleys and taking down hills; so when there liver their countries from servitude of strangers or appeareth on either side a high hand, violent protyrants; as Augustus Cæsar, Vespasianus, Aurelianus, secution, cunning advantages taken, combination, Theodoricus, King Henry the seventh of England, power, great counsel, then is the virtue of a judge King Henry the fourth of France. In the fourth seen, to make inequality equal; that he may plant place are propagatores, or propugnatores imperii, his judgment as upon an even ground. “Qui forsuch as in honourable wars enlarge their territories, titer emungit, elicit sanguinem;" and where the or make noble defence against invaders. And in the wine-press is hard wrought, it yields a harsh wine, last place are patres patriæ, which reign justly, and that tastes of the grape-stone. Judges must beware make the times good wherein they live. Both which of hard constructions and strained inferences ; for last kinds need no examples, they are in such number. there is no worse torture than the torture of laws; Degrees of honour in subjects are ; first, participes especially in case of laws penal they ought to have

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