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of usury, two things are to be reconciled. The one, Generally youth is like the first cogitations, not so that the tooth of usury be grinded that it bite not too wise as the second. For there is a youth in thoughts, much : the other, that there be left open a means to as well as in ages. And yet the invention of young invite monied men to lend to the merchants, for the men is more lively than that of the old ; and imagicontinuing and quickening of trade. This cannot nations stream into their minds better, and as it were be done, except you introduce two several sorts of more divinely. Natures that have much heat, and usury, a less and a greater. For if you reduce usury great and violent desires and perturbations, are not to one low rate, it will ease the common borrower, ripe for action, till they have passed the meridian of but the merchant will be to seek for money. And it their years : as it was with Julius Cæsar, and Sepis to be noted, that the trade of merchandise being timius Severus. Of the latter of whom it is said, the most lucrative, may bear usury at a good rate; “ Juventutem egit erroribus, imo furoribus, plenam." other contracts not so.

And yet he was the ablest emperor almost of all the To serve both intentions, the way would be briefly list. But reposed natures may do well in youth: as thus. That there be two rates of usury ; the one it is seen in Augustus Cæsar, Cosmus duke of Flo free and general for all; the other under licence rence, Gaston de Foix, and others. On the other only to certain persons, and in certain places of side, heat and vivacity in age is an excellent commerchandizing. First, therefore, let usury in gene- position for business. Young men are fitter to inral be reduced to five in the hundred; and let that vent than to judge ; fitter for execution than for rate be proclaimed to be free and current; and let counsel; and fitter for new projects than for settled the state shut itself out to take any penalty for the business. For the experience of age, in things that same. This will preserve borrowing from any general fall within the compass of it, directeth them; but stop or dryness. This will ease infinite borrowers in new things abuseth them. The errors of young in the country. This will in good part raise the men are the ruin of business; but the errors of aged price of land, because land purchased at sixteen men amount but to this, that more might have been years' purchase, will yield six in the hundred and done, or sooner. Young men, in the conduct and somewhat more, whereas this rate of interest yields manage of actions, embrace more they can but five. This by like reason will encourage and hold; stir more than they can quiet; fly to the end, edge industrious and profitable improvements; be without consideration of the means and degrees ; cause many will rather venture in that kind, than pursue some few principles, which they have chanced take five in the hundred, especially having been used upon, absurdly; care not to innovate, which draws to greater profit. Secondly, let there be certain per- unknown inconveniences; use extreme remedies at sons licensed to lend to known merchants, upon first; and, that which doubleth all errors, will not usury at a higher rate : and let it be with the cau- | acknowledge or retract them ; like an unready horse, tions following. Let the rate be, even with the that will neither stop nor turn. Men of age object merchant himself, somewhat more easy than that he too much, consult too long, adventure too little, reused formerly to pay: for by that means all bor-pent too soon, and seldom drive business home to rowers shall have some ease by this reformation, be the full period; but content themselves with a mehe merchant or whosoever. Let it be no bank, or diocrity of success. Certainly it is good to comcommon stock, but every man be master of his pound employments of both; for that will be good

Not that I altogether mislike banks, for the present, because the virtues of either age may but they will hardly be brooked in regard of certain correct the defects of both: and good for succession, suspicions. Let the state be answered some small that young men may be learners, while men in age matter for the licence, and the rest left to the lender; are actors : and lastly, good for extern accidents, for if the abatement be but small, it will no whit because authority followeth old men, and favour and discourage the lender. For he, for example, that popularity youth. But for the moral part, perhaps took before ten or nine in the hundred, will sooner youth will have the pre-eminence, as age hath for descend to eight in the hundred, than give over his the politic. A certain rabbin upon the text, “Your trade of usury; and go from certain gains, to gains young men shall see visions, and your old men of hazard. Let these licensed lenders be in number shall dream dreams;” inferreth, that young men are indefinite, but restrained to certain principal cities admitted nearer to God than old; because vision is and towns of merchandizing: for then they will be a clearer revelation than a dream. And certainly hardly able to colour other men's monies in the the more a man drinketh of the world, the more it country ; so as the licence of nine will not suck intoxicateth ; and age doth profit rather in the away the current rate of five : for no man will lend powers of understanding, than in the virtues of the his monies far off, nor put them into unknown hands. will and affections. There be some have an over

If it be objected, that this doth in a sort autho early ripeness in their years, which fadeth betimes: rize usury, which before was in some places but these are first, such as have brittle wits, the edge permissive; the answer is, that it is better to miti- whereof is soon turned; such as was Hermogenes gate usury by declaration, than to suffer it to rage the rhetorician, whose books are exceeding subtile ; by connivance.

who afterwards waxed stupid. A second sort is of XLII. OF YOUTH AND AGE.

those that have some natural dispositions, which

have better grace in youth than in age: such as is A man that is young in years, may be old in hours, a fluent and luxuriant speech ; which becomes youth if he have lost no time. But that happeneth rarely. well, but not age. So Tully saith of Hortensius,

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“ Idem manebat, neque idem decebat.” The third | his body, the stars of natural inclination are someis, of such as take too high a strain at the first ; times obscured by the sun of discipline and virtue: and are magnanimous, more than tract of years can therefore it is good to consider of deformity, not as a uphold. As was Scipio Africanus, of whom Livy sign which is more deceivable, but as a cause which saith in effect, “ Ultima primis cedebant."

seldom faileth of the effect. Whosoever hath any

thing fixed in his person that doth induce contempt, XLIII. OF BEAUTY.

hath also a perpetual spur in himself, to rescue and

deliver himself from scorn; therefore all deformed Virtue is like a rich stone, best plain set: and persons are extreme bold. First, as in their own surely virtue is best in a body that is comely, though defence, as being exposed to scorn ; but in process not of delicate features ; and that hath rather dignity of time, by a general habit. Also it stirreth in them of presence, than beauty of aspect. Neither is it industry, and especially of this kind, to watch and

that very beautiful persons are other observe the weakness of others, that they may have wise of great virtue. As if nature were rather busy somewhat to repay. Again, in their superiors it not to err, than in labour to produce excellency. quencheth jealousy towards them, as persons that And therefore they prove accomplished, but not of they think they may at pleasure despise: and it laygreat spirit ; and study rather behaviour than vir-eth their competitors and emulators asleep; as tue. But this holds not always; for Augustus never believing they should be in possibility of Cæsar, Titus Vespasianus, Philip le Bel of France, advancement, till they see them in possession. So Edward the fourth of England, Alcibiades of Athens, that, upon the matter, in a great wit deformity is an Ismael the sophi of Persia, were all high and great advantage to rising. Kings in ancient times, and spirits; and yet the most beautiful men of their at this present, in some countries, were wont to put times. In beauty, that of favour is more than that great trust in eunuchs, because they that are envious of colour ; and that of decent and gracious motion towards all, are more obnoxious and officious towards more than that of favour. That is the best part of one. But yet their trust towards them hath rather beauty, which a picture cannot express; no nor the been as to good spials and good whisperers, than first sight of the life. There is no excellent beauty, good magistrates and officers. And much like is that hath not some strangeness in the proportion. the reason of deformed persons. Still the ground A man cannot tell, whether Apelles or Albert Durer is, they will, if they be of spirit, seek to free themwere the more trifler ; whereof the one would make selves from scorn; which must be either by virtue a personage by geometrical proportions; the other, or malice. And therefore let it not be marvelled, by taking the best parts out of divers faces, to make if sometimes they prove excellent persons; as was one excellent. Such personages, I think, would Agesilaus, Zanger the son of Solyman, Æsop, Gasca please nobody but the painter that made them. Not president of Peru; and Socrates may go likewise but I think a painter may make a better face than amongst them, with others. ever was ; but he must do it by a kind of felicity, as a musician that maketh an excellent air in music,

XLV. OF BUILDING. and not by rule. A man shall see faces, that if you examine them part by part, you shall never find a Houses are built to live in, and not to look on; good; and yet altogether do well. If it be true, therefore let use be preferred before uniformity, that the principal part of beauty is in decent motion, except where both may be had. Leave the goodly certainly, it is no marvel, though persons in years fabrics of houses for beauty only, to the enchanted seem many times more amiable ; “pulchrorum au- palaces of the poets, who build them with small tumnus pulcher:" for no youth can be comely but cost. He that builds a fair house upon an ill seat, by pardon, and considering the youth, as to make committeth himself to prison. Neither do I reckon up the comeliness. Beauty is as summer fruits, it an ill seat only, where the air is unwholesome, which are easy to corrupt, and cannot last: and for but likewise where the air is unequal; as you shall the most part it makes a dissolute youth, and an see many fine seats, set upon a knap of ground age a little out of countenance: but yet certainly environed with higher hills round about it, whereby again, if it light well, it maketh virtues shine, and the heat of the sun is pent in, and the wind gathervices blush.

eth as in troughs; so as you shall have, and that

suddenly, as great diversity of heat and cold, as if XLIV. OF DEFORMITY.

you dwelt in several places. Neither is it ill air

only that maketh an ill seat; but ill ways, ill marDeformed persons

are commonly even with kets; and, if you will consult with Momus, ill neighnature; for as nature hath done ill by them, so do bours. I speak not of many more ; want of water, they by nature; being for the most part, as the want of wood, shade, and shelter ; want of fruitfulScripture saith, “void of natural affection :” and so ness, and mixture of grounds of several natures ; they have their revenge of nature. Certainly there want of prospect; want of level grounds; want of is a consent between the body and the mind, and places at soine near distance for sports of hunting, where nature erreth in the one, she ventureth in the hawking, and races; too near the sea, too remote ; other. “ Ubi peccat in uno, periclitatur in altero." having the commodity of navigable rivers, or the disBut because there is in man an election touching the commodity of their overflowing ; too far off from frame of his mind, and a necessity in the frame of great cities, which may hinder business; or too near

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them, which lurcheth all provisions, and maketh | front. And in all the four corners of that court, fair every thing dear; where a man hath a great living staircases cast into turrets on the outside, and not laid together, and where he is scanted : all which, within the row of buildings themselves : but those as it is impossible perhaps to find together, so it is towers are not to be of the height of the front, good to know them, and think of them, that a man but rather proportionable to the lower building. Let may take as many as he can : and if he have several the court not be paved, for that striketh up a great dwellings, that he sort them so, that what he want heat in summer, and much cold in winter: but only eth in the one, he may find in the other. Lucullus some side alleys, with a cross, and the quarters to answered Pompey well, who, when he saw his stately graze, being kept shorn, but not too near shorn. galleries and rooms, so large and lightsome in one The row of return on the banquet side, let it be all of his houses, said, “Surely an excellent place for stately galleries ; in which galleries let there be summer, but how do you do in winter ?” Lucullus three, or five, fine cupolas, in the length of it, placed answered, “ Why, do you not think me as wise as at equal distance; and fine coloured windows of some fowls are, that ever change their abode towards several works. On the household side, chambers the winter!"

of presence and ordinary entertainments, with some To pass from the seat to the house itself, we will bed-chambers ; and let all three sides be a double do as Cicero doth in the orator's art, who writes house, without thorough lights on the sides, that you books “De Oratore," and a book he entitles “Orator:" may have rooms from the sun, both for forenoon whereof the former delivers the precepts of the art, and afternoon. Cast it also, that you may have and the latter the perfection. We will therefore rooms both for summer and winter; shady for sumdescribe a princely palace, making a brief model mer, and warm for winter. You shall have somethereof. For it is strange to see, now in Europe, times fair houses so full of glass, that one cannot such huge buildings as the Vatican, and Escurial, tell where to become to be out of the sun or cold. and some others be, and yet scarce a very fair room For imbowed windows, I hold them of good use,

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cities, indeed, upright do better, in respect of the First therefore, I say, you cannot have a perfect uniformity towards the street,) for they be pretty palace, except you have two several sides ; a side retiring places for conference; and besides, they for the banquet, as is spoken of in the book of keep both the wind and sun off; for that which Esther; and a side for the household : the one for would strike almost through the room, doth scarce feasts and triumphs, the other for dwelling. I un- pass the window. But let them be but few, four in derstand both these sides to be not only returns, but the court, on the sides only. parts of the front; and to be uniform without, though Beyond this court, let there be an inward court, severally partitioned within; and to be on both sides of the same square and height, which is to be enof a great and stately tower, in the midst of the front; vironed with the garden on all sides: and in the inthat as it were joineth them together on either hand. side, cloistered on all sides upon decent and beautiful I would have on the one side of the banquet, in front, arches, as high as the first story: on the under one only goodly room above stairs, of some forty story, towards the garden, let it be turned a grotto, foot high ; and under it a room for a dressing or or place of shade or estivation : and only have openpreparing place, at times of triumphs. On the othering and windows towards the garden, and be level side, which is the household side, I wish it divided upon the floor, no whit sunk under ground, to avoid at the first into a hall and a chapel, with a partition all dampishness. And let there be a fountain, or between, both of good state and bigness; and those some fair work of statues, in the midst of this court; not to go all the length, but to have at the farther and to be paved as the other court was. These end a winter and a summer parlour, both fair: and buildings to be for privy lodgings on both sides, and under these rooms a fair and large cellar sunk under the end for privy galleries: whereof you must foreground; and likewise some privy kitchens, with see, that one of them be for an infirmary, if the butteries and pantries, and the like. As for the prince or any special person should be sick, with tower, I would have it two stories, of eighteen foot chambers, bed-chamber, antecamera and recamera, high apiece, above the two wings; and goodly leads joining to it. This upon the second story. Upon upon the top, railed, with statues interposed; and the ground-story, a fair gallery, open, upon pillars ; the same tower to be divided into rooms, as shall be and upon the third story, likewise, an open gallery, thought fit. The stairs likewise to the upper rooms, upon pillars, to take the prospect and freshness of let them be upon a fair open newel, and finely railed the garden. At both corners of the farther side, by in, with images of wood cast into a brass colour; way of return, let there be two delicate or rich and a very fair landing-place at the top. But this cabinets, daintily paved, richly hanged, glazed with to be, if you do not appoint any of the lower rooms crystalline glass, and a rich cupola in the midst; for a dining-place of servants; for otherwise you and all other elegancy that may be thought upon. shall have the servants' dinner after your own: for in the upper gallery too, I wish that there may be, the steam of it will come up as in a tunnel. And if the place will yield it, some fountains running in so much for the front. Only I understand the divers places from the wall, with some fine avoidheight of the first stairs to be sixteen foot, which is ances. And thus much for the model of the palace; the height of the lower room.

save that you must have, before you come to the Beyond this front is there to be a fair court, but front, three courts : a green court plain, with a wall three sides of it of a far lower building than the | about it : a second court of the same, but more

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garnished, with little turrets, or rather embellish- oaks, and such like. These particulars are for the ments upon the wall; and a third court, to make a climate of London: but my meaning is perceived, square with the front, but not to be built, nor yet that you may have ver perpetuum, as the place enclosed with a naked wall, but enclosed with ter- affords. races, leaded aloft, and fairly garnished on the three And because the breath of flowers is far sweeter sides; and cloistered on the inside with pillars, and in the air, where it comes and goes, like the warbling not with arches below. As for offices, let them of music, than in the hand, therefore nothing is more stand at distance, with some low galleries to pass fit for that delight, than to know what be the flowers from them to the palace itself.

and plants that do best perfume the air. Roses,

damask and red, are fast flowers of their smells ; so XLVI. OF GARDENS.

that you may walk by a whole row of them, and find

nothing of their sweetness : yea, though it be in a God Almighty first planted a garden: and indeed morning's dew. Bays likewise yield no smell, as it is the purest of human pleasures. It is the they grow; rosemary, little ; nor sweet marjoram. greatest refreshment of the spirits of man; without That which above all others yields the sweetest which, buildings and palaces are but gross handy- smell in the air, is the violet; especially the white works: and a man shall ever see, that when ages double violet, which comes twice a year; about the grow to civility and elegancy, men come to build middle of April, and about Bartholomew-tide. Next stately, sooner than to garden finely; as if garden- to that is the musk-rose ; then the strawberry. ing were the greater perfection. I do hold it, in the leaves dying, with a most excellent cordial smell; royal ordering of gardens, there ought to be gardens then the flower of the vines; it is a little dust, like for all the months in the year: in which, severally, the dust of a bent, which grows upon the cluster, in things of beauty may be then in season. For De- the first coming forth; then sweet-brier: then wallcember and January, and the latter part of Novem- flowers, which are very delightful, to be set under a ber, you must take such things as are green all parlour, or lower chamber window; then pinks and winter; holly; ivy; bays; juniper ; cypress-trees; gilliflowers, especially the matted pink, and cloveyew; pine-apple trees; fir-trees; rosemary ; laven- gilliflower; then the flowers of the lime-tree; then der ; periwinkle, the white, the purple, and the the honey-suckles, so they be somewhat afar off. blue ; germander ; flags; orange-trees; lemon-trees; Of bean-flowers I speak not, because they are fieldand myrtles, if they be stoved ; and sweet marjoram, flowers; but those which perfume the air most dewarm set. There followeth, for the latter part of lightfully, not passed by as the rest, but being trodJanuary and February, the mezereon tree, which den upon and crushed, are three; that is, burnet, then blossoms; crocus vernus, both the yellow and wild thyme, and water mints. Therefore you are to the gray; primroses; anemonies; the early tulip; set whole alleys of them, to have the pleasure when hyacinthus orientalis; chamaïris; fritellaria. For you walk or tread. March there come violets, especially the single blue, For gardens, speaking of those which are indeed which are the earliest ; the yellow daffodil ; the prince-like, as we have done of buildings, the condaisy; the almond-tree in blossom; the peach-tree tents ought not well to be under thirty acres of in blossom; the cornelian-tree in blossom ; sweet- ground, and to be divided into three parts : a green brier. In April follow the double white violet ; in the entrance; a heath or desert in the going forth; the wall-flower; the stock-gilliflower; the cowslip; and the main garden in the midst; besides alleys flower-de-luces; and lilies of all natures; rosemary- on both sides. And I like well, that four acres of flowers; the tulip; the double piony; the pale daf- ground be assigned to the green, six to the heath, fodil; the French honey-suckle; the cherry-tree in four and four to either side, and twelve to the main blossom ; the damascene and plum-trees in blossom; garden. The green hath two pleasures; the one, the white-thorn in leaf; the lilach-tree. In May because nothing is more pleasant to the eye than and June come pinks of all sorts; especially the green grass kept finely shorn; the other, because blush pink ; roses of all kinds, except the musk, it will give you a fair alley in the midst; by which which comes later ; honey-suckles; strawberries ; you may go in front upon a stately hedge, which is bugloss; columbine; the French marygold : flos to enclose the garden. But because the alley will Africanus ; cherry-tree in fruit; ribes; figs in fruit; be long, and in great heat of the year or day, you rasps ; vine-flowers ; lavender in flowers; the sweet ought not to buy the shade in the garden by going satyrian, with the white flower ; herba muscaria ; in the sun through the green ; therefore you are, lilium convallium ; the apple-tree in blossom. In of either side the green, to plant a covert alley, July come gilliflowers of all varieties ; musk roses; upon carpenters' work, about twelve foot in height, the lime-tree in blossom; early pears and plums in by which you may go in shade into the garden. As fruit, gennitings, codlins. In August come plums of for the making of knots or figures, with divers coall sorts in fruit; pears; apricots; berberries; fil-loured earths, that they may lie under the windows berds; musk melons; monks-hoods, of all colours. of the house, on that side which the garden stands, In September come grapes; apples; poppies of all they be but toys; you may see as good sights, colours; peaches; melo-cotones; nectarines; corne- many times, in tarts. The garden is best to be lians; wardens ; quinces. In October, and the be- square, encompassed on all the four sides with a ginning of November, come services; medlars ; stately arched hedge: the arches to be upon pillars bullaces; roses cut or removed to come late ; holly- of carpenters' work, of some ten foot high, and six

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foot broad; and the spaces between of the same di- | the pool, and delivered into it by fair spouts, and mension with the breadth of the arch. Over the then discharged away under ground by some equalarches let there be an entire hedge, of some fourity of bores, that it stay little. And for fine devices foot high, framed also upon carpenters' work; and of arching water without spilling and making it rise upon the upper hedge, over every arch, a little tur- in several forms, of feathers, drinking glasses, canoret, with a belly enough to receive a cage of birds ; pies, and the like, they be pretty things to look on, and over every space between the arches, some other but nothing to health and sweetness. little figure, with broad plates of round coloured glass, For the heath, which was the third part of our gilt, for the sun to play upon. But this hedge I plot, I wish it to be framed as much as may be to intend to be raised upon a bank, not steep, but gen- a natural wildness. Trees I would have none in it, tly slope, of some six foot, set all with flowers. Also but some thickets made only of sweet-brier and I understand, that this square of the garden should honey-suckle, and some wild vine amongst; and the not be the whole breadth of the ground, but to ground set with violets, strawberries, and primroses. leave on either side ground enough for diversity of For these are sweet and prosper in the shade. And side alleys; unto which the two covert alleys of the these to be in the heath here and there, not in any green may deliver you: but there must be no al- order. I like also little heaps, in the nature of leys with hedges at either end of this great en- mole-hills, such as are in wild heaths, to be set some closure ; not at the hither end, for letting your pros- with wild thyme, some with pinks, some with gerpect upon the fair hedge from the green; nor at mander, that gives a good flower to the eye, some the farther end, for letting your prospect from the with periwinkle, some with violets, some with strawhedge, through the arches, upon the heath. berries, some with cowslips, some with daisies, some

For the ordering of the ground within the great with red roses, some with lilium convallium, some hedge, I leave it to variety of device; advising with sweet-williams red, some with bears-foot, and nevertheless, that whatsoever form you cast it into, the like low flowers being withal sweet and sightly. first it be not too busy, or full of work; wherein I, Part of which heaps to be with standards of little for my part, do not like images cut out in juniper bushes, pricked upon their top, and part without. or other garden stuff; they be for children. Little The standards to be roses, juniper, holly, berberries, low hedges round, like welts, with some pretty pyra- but here and there, because of the smell of their mids, I like well; and in some places, fair columns blossom, red currants, gooseberries, rosemary, bays, upon frames of carpenters' work. I would also have sweet brier, and such like. But these standards the alleys spacious and fair. You may have closer to be kept with cutting, that they grow not out of alleys upon the side grounds, but none in the main garden. I wish also, in the very middle, a fair For the side grounds, you are to fill them with mount, with three ascents and alleys, enough for variety of alleys, private, to give a full shade, some four to walk a-breast; which I would have to be of them, wheresoever the sun be. You are to frame perfect circles, without any bulwarks or emboss- some of them likewise for shelter, that when the ments; and the whole mount to be thirty foot high ; wind blows sharp, you may walk as in a gallery. and some fine banqueting house, with some chim-And those alleys must be likewise hedged at both neys neatly cast, and without too much glass. ends, to keep out the wind; and these closer alleys

For fountains, they are a great beauty and re- must be ever finely gravelled, and no grass, because freshment; but pools mar all, and make the garden of going wet. In many of these alleys likewise, unwholesome, and full of flies and frogs. Fountains you are to set fruit-trees of all sorts ; as well upon I intend to be of two natures: the one that sprink- the walls as in ranges. And this would be generally leth or spouteth water; the other a fair receipt of observed, that the borders wherein you plant your water, of some thirty or forty foot square, but with- fruit-trees, be fair and large, and low, and not steep; out fish, or slime, or mud. For the first, the orna- and set with fine flowers, but thin and sparingly, ments of images gilt, or of marble, which are in est they deceive the trees. At the end of both the

do well : but the main matter is so to convey side grounds, I would have a mount of some pretty the water, as it never stay either in the bowls, or in height, leaving the wall of the enclosure breast high, the cistern; that the water be never by rest dis- to look abroad into the fields. coloured, green or red, or the like; or gather any For the main garden, I do not deny but there mossiness or putrefaction. Besides that, it is to be should be some fair alleys, ranged on both sides, with cleansed every day by the hand. Also some steps fruit-trees, and some pretty tufts of fruit-trees, and up to it, and some fine pavement about it doth well. arbours with seats, set in some decent order ; but As for the other kind of fountain, which we may these to be by no means set too thick, but to leave call a bathing pool, it may admit much curiosity and the main garden so as it be not close, but the air beauty, wherewith we will not trouble ourselves; open and free. For as for shade, I would have you as, that the bottom be finely paved, and with images; rest upon the alleys of the side grounds, there to the sides likewise ; and withal embellished with walk, if you be disposed, in the heat of the year or coloured glass, and such things of lustre ; encom- day ; but to make account, that the main garden is passed also with fine rails of low statues. But the for the more temperate parts of the year; and in main point is the same which we mentioned in the the heat of summer, for the morning and the evening, former kind of fountain ; which is that the water or overcast days. be in perpetual motion, fed by a water higher than For aviaries, I like them not, except they be of

use,

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