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which commonly is done when the people is the removeth ; that he may use his favour in those things reformer.

he desireth to see or know. Thus he may abridge

his travel with much profit. As for the acquaintance XVIII. OF TRAVEL.

which is to be sought in travel, that which is most

of all profitable, is acquaintance with the secreTravel in the younger sort is a part of education; taries and employed men of ambassadors ; for so in in the elder a part of experience. He that travel travelling in one country, he shall suck the experileth into a country before he hath some entrance ence of many. Let him also see and visit eminent into the language, goeth to school, and not to travel. persons in all kinds, which are of great name abroad; That young men travel under some tutor or grave that he may be able to tell how the life agreeth servant, I allow well; so that he be such a one that with the fame. For quarrels, they are with care and hath the language, and hath been in the country discretion to be avoided: they are commonly for before ; whereby he may be able to tell them mistresses, healths, place, and words. And let a what things are worthy to be seen in the country man beware how he keepeth company with choleric where they go, what acquaintances they are to seek, and quarrelsome persons; for they will engage him what exercises or discipline the place yieldeth. For into their own quarrels. When a traveller returneth else young men shall go hooded, and look abroad home, let him not leave the countries where he hath little. It is a strange thing, that in sea-voyages, travelled altogether behind him ; but maintain a where there is nothing to be seen but sky and sea, correspondence by letters with those of his acquaintmen should make diaries ; but in land-travel, where- ance which are of most worth. And let his travel in so much is to be observed, for the most part they appear rather in his discourse than in his apparel omit it; as if chance were fitter to be registered or gesture; and in his discourse, let him be rather than observation. Let diaries therefore be brought advised in his answers than forward to tell stories : in use. The things to be seen and observed are : and let it appear that he doth not change his country the courts of princes, especially when they give au- manners for those of foreign parts; but only prick dience to ambassadors ; the courts of justice while in some flowers of that he hath learned abroad, into they sit and hear causes : and so of consistories ec- the customs of his own country. clesiastic: the churches and monasteries, with the monuments which are therein extant: the walls

XIX. OF EMPIRE. and fortifications of cities and towns, and so the havens and harbours: antiquities and ruins; libraries, It is a miserable state of mind to have few things colleges, disputations, and lectures, where any are; to desire, and many things to fear : and yet that shipping and navies; houses, and gardens of state commonly is the case of kings, who being at the and pleasure near great cities; armories, arsenals, highest, want matter of desire, which makes their magazines, exchanges, burses, warehouses, exercises minds more languishing: and have many representof horsemanship, fencing, training of soldiers, and ations of perils and shadows, which make their the like ; comedies, such whereunto the better sort minds the less clear. And this is one reason also of persons do resort; treasuries of jewels and robes, of that effect which the Scripture speaketh of, “ that cabinets and rarities : and to conclude, whatsoever the king's heart is inscrutable.” For multitude of is memorable in the places where they go. After all jealousies, and lack of some predominant desire, that which, the tutors or servants ought to make diligent should marshal and put in order all the rest, maketh inquiry. As for triumphs, masks, feasts, weddings, any man's heart hard to find or sound. Hence it funerals, capital executions, and such shows, men comes likewise, that princes many times make themneed not to be put in mind of them; yet are they selves desires, and set their hearts upon toys; somenot to be neglected. If you will have a young man times upon a building; sometimes upon erecting of to put his travel into a little room, and in short time an order; sometimes upon the advancing of a person; to gather much, this you must do; first, as was said, sometimes upon obtaining excellency in some art, he must have some entrance into the language before or feat of the hand; as Nero for playing on the harp; he goeth. Then he must have such a servant, or Domitian for certainty of the hand with the arrow; tutor, as knoweth the country, as was likewise said. Commodus for playing at fence ; Caracalla for drivLet him carry with him also some card or book de ing chariots; and the like. This seemeth incredible scribing the country where he travelleth, which will unto those that know not the principle, That the be a good key to his inquiry. Let him keep also a mind of man is more cheered and refreshed by prodiary. Let him not stay long in one city or town; fiting in small things, than by standing at a stay in more or less as the place deserveth, but not long : great. We see also, that kings that have been for. nay, when he stayeth in one city or town, let him tunate conquerors in their first years, it being not change his lodging from one end and part of the possible for them to go forward infinitely, but that town to another, which is a great adamant of ac- they must have some check or arrest in their fortunes, quaintance. Let him sequester himself from the turn in their latter years to be superstitious and company of his countrymen, and diet in such places melancholy: as did Alexander the Great, Dioclesian, where there is good company of the nation where and in our memory Charles the Fifth, and others; he travelleth. Let him, upon his removes from one for he that is used to go forward, and findeth a stop, place to another, procure recommendation to some falleth out of his own favour, and is not the thing person of quality residing in the place whither he he was.

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To speak now of the true temper of empire: it is wise troubled his house and succession : Edward the a thing rare and hard to keep; for both temper and second of England his queen had the principal hand distemper consist of contraries. But it is one in the deposing and murder of her husband. This thing to mingle contraries, another to interchange kind of danger is then to be feared, chiefly, when them. The answer of Apollonius to Vespasian is the wives have plots for the raising their own chilfull of excellent instruction : Vespasian asked him, dren, or else that they be advowtresses. what was Nero's overthrow ? He answered, Nero For their children: the tragedies likewise of the could touch and tune the harp well, but in govern- dangers from them have been many: and generally, ment sometimes he used to wind the pins too high, the entering of the fathers into suspicion of their sometimes to let them down too low. And certain children hath been ever unfortunate. The destrucit is, that nothing destroyeth authority so much as tion of Mustapha, that we named before, was so the unequal and untimely interchange of power fatal to Solyman's line, as the succession of the pressed too far, and relaxed too much.

Turks, from Solyman until this day, is suspected to This is true, that the wisdom of all these latter be untrue, and of strange blood; for that Solymus times, in princes' affairs, is rather fine deliveries, and the second was thought to be supposititious. The shiftings of dangers and mischiefs, when they are destruction of Crispus, a young prince of rare near ; than solid and grounded courses to keep them towardness, by Constantius the Great, his father, aloof. But this is but to try masteries with fortune : was in like manner fatal to his house ; for both Conand let men beware how they neglect and suffer stantinus and Constans, his sons, died violent deaths; matter of trouble to be prepared ; for no man can and Constantinus his other son did little better; forbid the spark, nor tell whence it may come. The who died indeed of sickness, but after that Julianus difficulties in princes' business are many and great; had taken arms against him. The destruction of but the greatest difficulty is often in their own mind. Demetrius, son to Philip the second of Macedon, For it is common with princes, saith Tacitus, to will turned upon the father, who died of repentance. contradictories. “Sunt plerumque regum voluntates And many like examples there are ; but few or none vehementes, et inter se contrariæ.” For it is the where the fathers had good by such distrust, except solecism of power, to think to command the end, and it were where the sons were up in open arms against yet not to endure the mean.

them; as was Solymus the first against Bajazet : Kings have to deal with their neighbours ; their and the three sons of Henry the Second, king of wives ; their children ; their prelates or clergy ; England. their nobles; their second nobles or gentlemen; For their prelates, when they are proud and their merchants; their commons; and their men of great, there is also danger from them: as it was in war; and from all these arise dangers, if care and the times of Anselmus and Thomas Becket, archcircumspection be not used.

bishops of Canterbury, who with their crosiers did First, for their neighbours, there can no general almost try it with the king's sword; and yet they rule be given, the occasions are so variable, save had to deal with stout and haughty kings, William one, which ever holdeth ; which is, that princes do Rufus, Henry the first, and Henry the second. The keep due sentinel, that none of their neighbours do danger is not from that state, but where it hath a overgrow so, by increase of territory, by embracing dependence of foreign authority; or where the of trade, by approaches, or the like, as they become churchmen come in, and are elected, not by the more able to annoy them, than they were. And collation of the king or particular patrons, but by this is generally the work of standing counsels, to the people. foresee and to hinder it. During that triumvirate of For their nobles; to keep them at a distance it is kings, King Henry the Eighth, of England; Francis not amiss; but to depress them, may make a king the First, king of France; and Charles the Fifth, more absolute, but less safe; and less able to peremperor, there was such a watch kept, that none of form any thing that he desires. I have noted it in the three could win a palm of ground, but the other my “ History of king Henry the seventh of Eng. two would straightways balance it, either by confe- land,” who depressed his nobility; whereupon it deration, or if need were by a war: and would not came to pass that his times were full of difficulties in any wise take up peace at interest. And the like and troubles : for the nobility, though they continued was done by that league, which, Guicciardine saith, loyal unto him, yet did they not co-operate with him was the security of Italy, made between Ferdinando, in his business. So that in effect he was fain to do king of Naples; Lorenzius Medices, and Ludovicus all things himself. Sforza, potentates, the one of Florence, the other of For their second nobles; there is not much danger Milan. Neither is the opinion of some of the school- from them, being a body dispersed. They may men to be received, that a war cannot justly be made sometimes discourse high, but that doth little hurt: but upon a precedent injury, or provocation. For besides, they are a counterpoise to the higher there is no question but a just fear of an imminent nobility, that they grow not too potent; and lastly, danger, though there be no blow given, is a lawful being the most immediate in authority with the cause of a war.

common people, they do best temper popular comFor their wives, there are cruel examples of them. motions. Livia is infamed for the poisoning of her husband; For their merchants, they are vena porta ; and if Roxolana, Solyman's wife, was the destruction of they flourish not, a kingdom may have good limbs, that renowned prince, Sultan Mustapha ; and other but will have empty veins, and nourish little. Taxes

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and imposts upon them do seldom good to the king's | pire; how kings are to make use of their council of revenue, for that that he wins in the hundred, he state : that, first, they ought to refer matters unto loseth in the shire; the particular rates being in them, which is the first begetting or impregnation ; creased, but the total bulk of trading rather de. but when they are elaborate, moulded and shaped creased.

in the womb of their council, and grow ripe and For their commons, there is little danger from ready to be brought forth, that then they suffer not them, except it be where they have great and potent their council to go through with the resolution heads; or where you meddle with the point of reli- and direction, as if it depended on them; but take gion, or their customs, or means of life.

the matter back into their own hands, and make it For their men of war, it is a dangerous state appear to the world, that the decrees and final diwhere they live and remain in a body, and are used rections, which, because they come forth with pruto donatives, whereof we see examples in the jani- dence and power, are resembled to Pallas armed, zaries, and pretorian bands of Rome; but trainings proceeded from themselves, and not only from their of men, and arming them in several places, and un- authority, but, the more to add reputation to themder several commanders, and without donatives, are selves, from their head and device. things of defence and no danger.

Let us now speak of the inconveniences of counPrinces are like to heavenly bodies, which cause sel, and of the remedies. The inconveniences that good or evil times; and which have much venera- have been noted in calling and using counsel are tion, but no rest. All precepts concerning kings are three. First, the revealing of affairs, whereby they in effect comprehended in those two remembrances: become less secret. Secondly, the weakening of the " Memento quod es homo ;” and “Memento quod authority of princes, as if they were less of themes Deus,” or “vice Dei :" the one bridleth their selves. Thirdly, the danger of being unfaithfully power, and the other their will.

counselled, and more for the good of them that coun

sel, than of him that is counselled. For which inXX. OF COUNSEL.

conveniences the doctrine of Italy, and practice of

France, in some kings' times, hath introduced cabi. The greatest trust between man and man is the net councils: a remedy worse than the disease. trust of giving counsel. For in other confidences, As to secrecy, princes are bound to communicate men commit the parts of life; their lands, their all matters with all counsellors, but may extract and goods, their children, their credit, some particular select. Neither is it necessary, that he that conaffair; but to such as they make their counsellors, sulteth what he should do, should declare what he they commit the whole: by how much the more will do. But let princes beware, that the unsecretthey are obliged to all faith and integrity. The ing of their affairs comes not from themselves. And wisest princes need not think it any diminution to as for cabinet counsels, it may be their motto; their greatness, or derogation to their sufficiency, to " Plenus rimarum sum:” one futile person, that rely upon counsel. God himself is not without: maketh it his glory to tell, will do more hurt than but hath made it one of the reat names of his many that know it their duty to conceal. It is true, blessed Son, “ the Counsellor.” Solomon hath pro- there be some affairs which require extreme secrecy, nounced, that “in counsel is stability.” Things which will hardly go beyond one or two persons bewill have their first or second agitation ; if they be sides the king: neither are those counsels unprosnot tossed upon the arguments of counsel, they will perous; for besides the secrecy, they commonly go be tossed upon the waves of fortune ; and be full of on constantly in one spirit of direction without disinconstancy, doing and undoing, like the reeling of traction. But then it must be a prudent king, such a drunken man.

Solomon's son found the force of as is able to grind with a hand-mill; and those incounsel, as his father saw the necessity of it. For ward counsellors had need also be wise men, and the beloved kingdom of God was first rent and especially true and trusty to the king's ends; as it broken by ill counsel; upon which counsel there was with king Henry the seventh of England, who are set, for our instruction, the two marks whereby in his greatest business imparted himself to none, bad counsel is for ever best discerned: that it was except it were to Morton and Fox. young counsel, for the persons; and violent counsel, For weakening of authority, the fable showeth for the matter.

the remedy. Nay, the majesty of kings is rather The ancient times do set forth in figure both the exalted than diminished, when they are in the chair incorporation and inseparable conjunction of counsel of council; neither was there ever prince bereaved with kings, and the wise and politic use of counsel of his dependences by his council, except where by kings: the one, in that they say Jupiter did mar- there hath been either an over-greatness in one ry Metis, which signifieth counsel ; whereby they counsellor, or an over-strict combination in divers ; intend, that sovereignty is married to counsel; the which are things soon found and holpen. othe in that which followeth, which was thus : For the last inconvenience, that men will counsel they say after Jupiter was married to Metis, she with an eye to themselves; certainly “ Non inveniet conceived by him, and was with child, but Jupiter fidem super terram” is meant of the nature of suffered her not to stay till she brought forth, but times, and not of all particular persons. There be eat her up; whereby he became himself with child, that are in nature faithful and sincere, and plain and was delivered of Pallas armed out of his head and direct; not crafty and involved: let princes Which monstrous fable containeth a secret of em. I above all draw to themselves such natures. Besides,

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counsellors are not commonly so united, but that seats about the walls, seem things of form, but are one counsellor keepeth sentinel over another; so things of substance; for at a long table, a few at the that if any do counsel out of faction or private ends, upper end, in effect, sway all the business ; but in it commonly comes to the king's ear. But the best the other form, there is more use of the counsellors' remedy is, if princes know their counsellors, as well opinions that sit lower. A king when he presides as their counsellors know them:

in council, let him beware how he opens his own

inclination too much in that which he propoundeth: “ Principis est virtus maxima nosse suos.”

for else counsellors will but take the wind of him, And on the other side, counsellors should not be too and instead of giving free counsel, sing him a song speculative into their sovereign's person. The true of Placebo. composition of a counsellor is rather to be skilful in their master's business, than in his nature; for

XXI. OF DELAYS. then he is like to advise him, and not to feed his humour. It is of singular use to princes, if they Fortune is like the market, where many times if take the opinions of their council both separately you can stay a little, the price will fall. And again, and together: for private opinion is more free, but it is sometimes like Sibylla's offer, which at first opinion before others is more reverent. In private, offereth the commodity at full, then consumeth part men are more bold in their own humours; and in and part, and still holdeth up the price. For occaconsort, men are more obnoxious to others' humours; sion, as it is in the common verse, turneth a bald therefore it is good to take both : and of the inferior noddle, after she hath presented her locks in front, sort, rather in private, to preserve freedom ; of the and no hold taken: or at least turneth the handle greater, rather in consort, to preserve respect. It is of the bottle first to be received, and after the belly, in vain for princes to take counsel concerning mat- which is hard to clasp. There is surely no greater ters, if they take no counsel likewise concerning wisdom, than well to time the beginnings and onsets persons: for all matters are as dead images; and of things. Dangers are no more light, if they once the life of the execution of affairs resteth in the good seem light: and more dangers have deceived men, choice of persons. Neither is it enough to consult than forced them. Nay, it were better to meet some concerning persons secundum genera, as in an idea dangers half way, though they come nothing near, or mathematical description, what the kind and than to keep too long a watch upon their approaches; character of the person should be ; for the greatest for if a man watch too long, it is odds he will fall errors are committed, and the most judgment is shown, asleep. On the other side, to be deceived with too in the choice of individuals. It was truly said, long shadows, as some have been when the moon “optimi consiliarii mortui ;” books will speak plain, was low, and shone on their enemies' back, and so when counsellors blanch. Therefore it is good to to shoot off before the time; or to teach dangers to be conversant in them, specially the books of such come on, by over-early buckling towards them, is as themselves have been actors upon the stage. another extreme. The ripeness or unripeness of the

The councils at this day, in most places, are but occasion, as we said, must ever be well weighed; familiar meetings; where matters are rather talked and generally it is good to commit the beginnings on, than debated : and they run too swift to the of all great actions to Argus with his hundred eyes, order or act of council. It were better, that in causes and the ends to Briareus with his hundred hands; of weight the matter were propounded one day, and first to watch, and then to speed. For the helmet of not spoken to till the next day; "in nocte consilium.” | Pluto, which maketh the politic man go invisible, is So was it done in the commission of union between secrecy in the counsel, and celerity in the execution. England and Scotland; which was a grave and or. For when things are once come to the execution, derly assembly. I commend set days for petitions: there is no secrecy comparable to celerity ; like the for both it gives the suitors more certainty for their motion of a bullet in the air, which flieth so swift as attendance; and it frees the meetings for matters of it outruns the eye. estate, that they may hoc agere. In choice of committees, for ripening business for the council, it is

XXII. OF CUNNING. better to choose indifferent persons, than to make an indifferency by putting in those that are strong We take cunning for a sinister or crooked wisdom. on both sides. I commend also standing commissions; And certainly there is great difference between a as for trade, for treasure, for war, for suits, for some cunning man and a wise man ; not only in point of providences; for where there be divers particular honesty, but in point of ability. There be that councils, and but one council of estate, as it is in can pack the cards, and yet cannot play well ; 80 Spain, they are, in effect, no more than standing there are some that are good in canvasses and faccommissions ; save that they have greater authority. tions, that are otherwise weak men. Let such as are to inform councils out of their par- one thing to understand persons, and another thing ticular professions, as lawyers, seamen, mint-men, to understand matters; for many are perfect in men's and the like, be first heard before committees; and humours, that are not greatly capable of the real then, as occasion serves, before the council. And part of business; which is the constitution of one let them not come in multitudes, or in a tribunitious that hath studied men more than books. Such men manner; for that is to clamour councils, not to in- are fitter for practice than for counsel; and they are form them. A long table, and a square table, or good but in their own alley : turn them to new men,

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Again, it is and they have lost their aim: so as the old rule to apposed of those things, which of themselves they know a fool from a wise man, “ Mitte ambos nudos are desirous to utter. ad ignotos, et videbis,” doth scarce hold for them. It is a point of cunning to let fall those words in a And because these cunning men are like haber. man's own name, which he would have another man dashers of small wares, it is not amiss to set forth learn and use, and thereupon take advantage. I their shop.

knew two that were competitors for the secretary's It is a point of cunning, to wait upon him with place in queen Elizabeth's time, and yet kept good whom you speak with your eye ; as the Jesuits give quarter between themselves, and would confer one it in precept; for there be many wise men that have with another upon the business; and the one of them secret hearts and transparent countenances. Yet said, that to be a secretary in the declination of a this would be done with a demure abasing of your monarchy was a ticklish thing, and that he did not eye sometimes, as the Jesuits also do use.

affect it: the other straight caught up those words, Another is, that when you have any thing to ob- and discoursed with divers of his friends, that he tain of present despatch, you entertain and amuse had no reason to desire to be secretary in the dethe party with whom you deal with some other dis- clination of a monarchy. The first man took hold course ; that he be not too much awake to make ob- of it, and found means it was told the queen; who jections. I knew a counsellor and secretary, that hearing of a declination of monarchy, took it so ill, never came to queen Elizabeth of England with bills as she would never after hear of the other's suit. to sign, but he would always first put her into some There is a cunning which we in England call, discourse of estate, that she might the less mind the turning of the cat in the pan; which is, when the bills.

that which a man says to another, he lays it as if The like surprise may be made by moving things another had said it to him; and to say truth, it is when the party is in haste, and cannot stay to con- not easy, when such a matter passed between two, sider advisedly of that is moved.

to make it appear from which of them it first moved If a man would cross a business, that he doubts and began. some other would handsomely and effectually move, It is a way that some men have, to glance and let him pretend to wish it well, and move it himself | dart at others, by justifying themselves by negatives; in such sort as may foil it.

as to say, This I do not: as Tigellinus did towards The breaking off in the midst of that one was Burrhus, “se non diversas spes, sed incolumitatem about to say, as if he took himself up, breeds a imperatoris simpliciter spectare.” greater appetite in him with whom you confer, to Some have in readiness so many tales and stories, know more.

as there is nothing they would insinuate, but they And because it works better when any thing can wrap it into a tale; which serveth both to keep seemeth to be gotten from you by question, than if themselves more in guard, and to make others carry you offer it of yourself, you may lay a bait for a ques- it with more pleasure. tion, by showing another visage and countenance It is a good point of cunning, for a man to shape than you are wont; to the end to give occasion for the answer he would have in his own words and the party to ask what the matter is of the change; propositions ; for it makes the other party stick as Nehemiah did, " And I had not before that time the less. been sad before the king."

It is strange how long some men will lie in wait In things that are tender and unpleasing, it is to speak somewhat they desire to say; and how far good to break the ice by some whose words are of about they will fetch, and how many other matters less weight, and to reserve the more weighty voice they will beat over to come near it; it is a thing of to come in as by chance, so that he may be asked great patience, but yet of much use. the question upon the other's speech; as Narcissus A sudden, bold, and unexpected question, doth did, in relating to Claudius the marriage of Messalina many times surprise a man, and lay him open. Like and Silius.

to him, that having changed his name, and walking In things that a man would not be seen in him- in Paul's, another suddenly came behind him, and self, it is a point of cunning to borrow the name of called him by his true name, whereat straightways the world; as to say, The world says, or, There is a he looked back. speech abroad.

But these small wares and petty points of cunning I knew one, that when he wrote a letter, he would are infinite, and it were a good deed to make a list put that which was most material in the postscript, of them ; for that nothing doth more hurt in a state, as if it had been a bye-matter.

than that cunning men pass for wise. I knew another that, when he came to have But certainly some there are that know the resorts speech, he would pass over that that he intend and falls of business, that cannot sink into the main ed most ; and go forth, and come back again, of it; like a house that hath convenient stairs and and speak of it as of a thing that he had almost entries, but never a fair room. Therefore you shall forgot.

see them find out pretty looses in the conclusion, but Some procure themselves to be surprised at such are no ways able to examine or debate matters. And times, as it is like the party that they work upon yet commonly they take advantage of their inability, will suddenly come upon them; and to be found with and would be thought wits of direction. Some build a letter in their hand, or doing somewhat which rather upon the abusing of others, and, as we now they are not accustomed; to the end they may be say, putting tricks npon them, than upon soundness

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