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ever were, have had all an openness and frankness disguise, it maketh him practise simulation in other of dealing, and a name of certainty and veracity ; things lest his hand should be out of ure. but then they were like horses well managed; for The great advantages of simulation and dissimula. they could tell passing well when to stop or turn : tion are three. First, to lay asleep opposition, and and at such times, when they thought the case in- to surprise. For where a man's intentions are pubdeed required dissimulation, if then they used it, it lished, it is an alarm to call up all that are against came to pass, that the former opinion spread abroad them. The second is, to reserve to a man's self a of their good faith and clearness of dealing made fair retreat: for if a man engage himself by a manithem almost invisible.

fest declaration, he must go through, or take a fall. There be three degrees of this hiding and veiling The third is, the better to discover the mind of anof a man's self. The first, closeness, reservation, other. For to him that opens himself, men will and secrecy, when a man leaveth himself without hardly show themselves adverse ; but will fain let observation, or without hold to be taken, what he is. him go on, and turn their freedom of speech to freeThe second, dissimulation in the negative, when a dom of thought. And therefore it is a good shrewd man lets fall signs and arguments, that he is not proverb of the Spaniard, Tell a lie and find a truth; that he is. And the third, simulation in the affirm- as if there were no way of discovery but by simuative, when a man industriously and expressly feigns lation. There be also three disadvantages to set and pretends to be that he is not.

it even. The first, that simulation and dissimuFor the first of these, secrecy ; it is indeed the lation commonly carry with them a show of fearvirtue of a confessor ; and assuredly the secret man fulness, which in any business doth spoil the feathers heareth many confessions ; for who will open him- of round flying up to the mark. The second, that self to a blab or a babbler ? but if a man be thought it puzzleth and perplexeth the conceits of many, secret, it inviteth discovery; as the more close air that perhaps would otherwise co-operate with him; sucketh in the more open : and as in confession the and makes a man walk almost alone to his own revealing is not for worldly use, but for the ease of ends. The third and greatest is, that it depriveth a man's heart; so secret men come to knowledge of a man of one of the most principal instruments for many things in that kind; while men rather dis-action ; which is trust and belief. The best comcharge their minds, than impart their minds. In position and temperature is, to have openness in few words, mysteries are due to secrecy. Besides, fame and opinion; secrecy in habit; dissimulation to say truth, nakedness is uncomely as well in mind in seasonable use ; and a power to feign, if there be as body; and it addeth no small reverence to men's no remedy. manners and actions if they be not altogether open. As for talkers and futile persons, they are commonly VII. OF PARENTS AND CHILDREN. vain and credulous withal. For he that talketh what he knoweth, will also talk what he knoweth The joys of parents are secret; and so are their not. Therefore set it down, that a habit of se- griefs and fears: they cannot utter the one, nor crecy is both politic and moral. And in this part it they will not utter the other. Children sweeten is good that a man's face give his tongue leave to labours; but they make misfortunes more bitter ; speak. For the discovery of a man's self by the they increase the cares of life, but they mitigate the tracts of his countenance is a great weakness and remembrance of death. The perpetuity by generabetraying; by how much it is many times more tion is common to beasts ; but memory, merit, and marked and believed than a man's words.

noble works, are proper to men: and surely a man For the second, which is dissimulation; it follow- shall see the noblest works and foundations have eth many times upon secrecy, by a necessity: so proceeded from childless men; which have sought that he that will be secret must be a dissembler in to express the images of their minds, where those some degree. For men are too cunning to suffer a of their bodies have failed: so the care of posterity man to keep an indifferent carriage between both, is most in them that have no posterity. They and to be secret, without swaying the balance on that are the first raisers of their houses, are most either side. They will so beset a man with ques- indulgent towards their children; beholding them tions, and draw him on, and pick it out of him, that, as the continuance, not only of their kind, but of without an absurd silence, he must show an inclina- their work; and so both children and creatures. tion one way; or if he do not, they will gather as The difference in affection of parents towards their much by his silence as by his speech. As for equi- several children is many times unequal; and someFocations, or oraculous speeches, they cannot hold times unworthy; especially in the mother; as Soloout long.

So that no man can be secret, except mon saith, “ A wise son rejoiceth the father, but an he give himself a little scope of dissimulation, ungracious son shames the mother.” A man shall which is as it were but the skirts or train of secrecy. see, where there is a house full of children, one or

But for the third degree, which is simulation two of the eldest respected, and the youngest made and false profession ; that I hold more culpable and wantons ; but in the midst, some that are as it were less politic, except it be in great and rare matters. forgotten, who many times nevertheless prove the And therefore a general custom of simulation, which best. The illiberality of parents in allowance tois this last degree, is a vice rising either of a natu- wards their children, is a harmful error; makes ral falseness, or fearfulness, or of a mind that hath them base ; acquaints them with shifts; makes some main faults; which because a man must needs them,

sort with mean company; and makes them

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surfeit more when they come to plenty: and there in mind of their wives and children. And I think fore the proof is best when men keep their authority the despising of marriage amongst the Turks, maketh towards their children, but not their purse. Men the vulgar soldiers more base. Certainly, wife and have a foolish manner, both parents, and schoolmas- children are a kind of discipline of humanity; and ters, and servants, in creating and breeding an emu- single men, though they be many times more lation between brothers, during childhood, which charitable, because their means are less exhaust; many times sorteth to discord when they are men, yet, on the other side, they are more cruel and hardand disturbeth families. The Italians make little hearted, good to make severe inquisitors, because difference between children and nephews, or near their tenderness is not so oft called upon. Grave kinsfolks; but so they be of the lump they care not, natures, led by custom, and therefore constant, are though they pass not through their own body. And, commonly loving husbands; as was said of Ulysses, to say truth, in nature it is much a like matter; “ vetulam suam prætulit immortalitati.” Chaste insomuch that we see a nephew sometimes resem- women are often proud and froward, as presuming bleth an uncle, or a kinsman, more than his own upon the merit of their chastity. It is one of the parent; as the blood happens. Let parents choose best bonds, both of chastity and obedience, in the betimes the vocations and courses they mean their wife, if she think her husband wise ; which she will children should take; for then they are most flexible; never do if she find him jealous. Wives are young and let them not too much apply themselves to the men's mistresses; companions for middle age; and disposition of their children, as thinking they will old men's nurses. So as a man may have a quarrel take best to that which they have most mind to. It to marry when he will. But yet he was reputed is true, that if the affection or aptness of the chil- one of the wise men, that made answer to the quesdren be extraordinary, then it is good not to cross it; tion, when a man should marry ? “ A young man but generally the precept is good, “ Optimum elige, not yet, an elder man not at all.” It is often seen, suave et facile illud faciet consuetudo.” Younger that bad husbands have very good wives; whether it brothers are commonly fortunate, but seldom or never be, that it raiseth the price of their husband's kindwhere the elder are disinherited.

ness when it comes; or that the wives take a pride

in their patience. But this never fails if the bad VIII. OF MARRIAGE AND SINGLE LIFE.

husbands were of their own choosing, against their

friends' consent ; for then they will be sure to make He that hath wife and children, hath given good their own folly. hostages to fortune ; for they are impediments to great enterprises, either of virtue or mischief.

OF ENVY. Certainly the best works and of greatest merit for the public, have proceeded from the unmarried or There be none of the affections which have been childless men; which, both in affection and means, noted to fascinate or bewitch, but love and envy. have married and endowed the public. Yet it were They both have vehement wishes; they frame themgreat reason, that those that have children should selves readily into imaginations and suggestions: have greatest care of future times; unto which they and they come easily into the eye; especially upon know they must transmit their dearest pledges. the presence of the objects; which are the points Some there are, who though they lead a single life, that conduce to fascination, if any such thing there yet their thoughts do end with themselves, and ac- be. We see likewise, the Scripture calleth envy an count future times impertinences. Nay, there are evil eye: and the astrologers call the evil influences of some other, that account wife and children but as the stars, evil aspects; so that still there seemeth to bills of charges. Nay more, there are some foolish be acknowledged in the act of envy, an ejaculation, rich covetous men, that take a pride in having no or irradiation of the eye. Nay, some have been so children, because they may be thought so much the curious, as to note, that the times when the stroke richer. For perhaps they have heard some talk, or percussion of an envious eye doth most hurt, are, Such a one is a great rich man; and another ex- when the party envied is beheld in glory or triumph ; cept to it, Yea, but he hath a great charge of child for that sets an edge upon envy: and, besides, at dren: as if it were an abatement to his riches. But such times, the spirits of the person envied do the most ordinary cause of a single life is liberty ; come forth most into the outward parts, and so meet especially in certain self-pleasing and humorous the blow. minds, which are so sensible of every restraint, as But leaving these curiosities, though not unworthy they will go near to think their girdles and garters to be thought on in fit place, we will handle, what to be bonds and shackles. Unmarried men are best persons are apt to envy others; what persons are friends, best masters, best servants, but not always most subject to be envied themselves; and what is best subjects; for they are light to run away; and the difference between public and private envy. almost all fugitives are of that condition. A single A man that hath no virtue in himself, ever envieth life doth well with churchmen: for charity will virtue in others. For men's minds will either feed hardly water the ground, where it must first fill a pool. upon their own good, or upon others' evil; and who It is indifferent for judges and magistrates: for if wanteth the one, will prey upon the other : and they be facile and corrupt, you shall have a servant whoso is out of hope to attain to another's virtue, will five times worse than a wife. For soldiers, I find seek to come at even hand by depressing another's the generals commonly, in their hortatives, put men fortune.




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A man that is busy and inquisitive, is commonly Persons of noble blood are less envied in their envious : for to know much of other men's matters rising; for it seemeth but right done to their birth : cannot be, because all that ado may concern his own besides, there seemeth not much added to their forestate : therefore it must needs be, that he taketh tune; and envy is as the sun-beams, that beat hotter a kind of play-pleasure in looking upon the fortunes upon a bank or steep rising ground than upon a flat. of others; neither can he that mindeth but his own And for the same reason, those that are advanced business find much matter for envy. For envy is a by degrees, are less envied than those that are adgadding passion, and walketh the streets, and doth vanced suddenly, and per saltum. not keep home; “ Non est curiosus, quin idem sit Those that have joined with their honour great malevolus."

travels, cares, or perils, are less subject to envy: Men of noble birth are notecto be envious to for men think that they earn their honours hardly, wards new men when they rise: for the distance and pity them sometimes ; and pity ever healeth is altered; and it is like a deceit of the eye, that envy: wherefore you shall observe, that the more when others come on, they think themselves go deep and sober sort of politic persons, in their greatback.

ness, are ever bemoaning themselves what a life Deformed persons and eunuchs, and old men and they lead, chanting a “ Quanta patimur :" not that bastards, are envious : for he that cannot possibly they feel it so, but only to abate the edge of envy. mend his own case, will do what he can to impair But this is to be understood of business that is laid another's; except these defects light upon a very upon men, and not such as they call unto themselves : brave and heroical nature, which thinketh to make for nothing increaseth envy more, than an unneceshis natural wants part of his honour ; in that it sary and ambitious engrossing of business : and noshould be said, that an eunuch or a lame man did thing doth extinguish envy more, than for a great such great matters; affecting the honour of a mira- person to preserve all other inferior officers in their cle:

: as it was in Narses the eunuch, and Agesilaus full rights and pre-eminences of their places: for and Tamerlane, that were lame men.

by that means there be so many screens between The same is the case of men that rise after cala- him and envy. mities and misfortunes; for they are as men fallen Above all, those are most subject to envy, which out with the times, and think other men's harms a carry the greatness of their fortunes in an insolent redemption of their own sufferings.

and proud manner : being never well but while they They that desire to excel in too many matters, out are showing how great they are, either by outward of levity and vain-glory, are ever envious, for they pomp, or by triumphing over all opposition or comcannot want work; it being impossible but many, petition: whereas wise men will rather do sacrifice in some one of those things, should surpass them. to envy, in suffering themselves sometimes of purWhich was the character of Adrian the emperor, pose to be crossed and overborne in things that do that mortally envied poets, and painters, and artifi- not much concern them. Notwithstanding, so much cers, in works wherein he had a vein to excel. is true, that the carriage of greatness in a plain

Lastly, near kinsfolks, and fellows in office, and and open manner, so it be without arrogancy and those that have been bred together, are more apt to vain-glory, doth draw less envy, than if it be in a envy their equals when they are raised. For it more crafty and cunning fashion. For in that course doth upbraid unto them their own fortunes, and a man doth but disavow fortune, and seemeth to be pointeth at them, and cometh oftener into their re- conscious of his own want in worth, and doth but membrance, and incurreth likewise more into the teach others to envy him. note of others; and envy ever redoubleth from Lastly, to conclude this part; as we said in the speech and fame. Cain's envy was the more vile beginning, that the act of envy had somewhat in it and malignant towards his brother Abel, because, of witchcraft, so there is no other cure of envy, but when his sacrifice was better accepted, there was no- the cure of witchcraft: and that is, to remove the body to look on. Thus much for those that are apt lot, as they call it, and to lay it upon another. For

which purpose, the wiser sort of great persons bring Concerning those that are more or less subject to in ever upon the stage somebody upon whom to envy: First, persons of eminent virtue, when they derive the envy that would come upon themselves; are advanced, are less envied. For their fortune sometimes upon ministers and servants, sometimes seemeth but due unto them; and no man envieth upon colleagues and associates, and the like : and the payment of a debt, but rewards, and liberality for that turn, there are never wanting some persons rather. Again, envy is ever joined with the com- of violent and undertaking natures, who, so they paring of a man's self; and where there is no com- may have power and business, will take it at any parison, no envy; and therefore kings are not en- cost. vied but by kings. Nevertheless it is to be noted, Now to speak of public envy. There is yet some that unworthy persons are most envied at their first good in public envy, whereas in private there is coming in, and afterwards overcome it better; where

For public envy is as an ostracism, that as contrariwise, persons of worth and merit are most eclipseth men when they grow too great: and thereenvied when their fortune continueth long. For by fore it is a bridle also to great ones, to keep them that time, though their virtue be the same, yet it within bounds. hath not the same lustre ; for fresh men grow up This envy, being in the Latin word invidia, goeth that darken it.

in the modern languages by the name of discontent

to envy.


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ment; of which we shall speak in handling sedition. of this passion; and how it braves the nature and It is a disease in a state like to infection : for as value of things by this, that the speaking in a perinfection spreadeth upon that which is sound, and petual hyperbole is comely in nothing but in love. tainteth it; so when envy is gotten once into a Neither is it merely in the phrase ; for whereas it state, it traduceth even the best actions thereof, and hath been well said, that the arch flatterer, with turneth them into an ill odour ; and therefore there whom all the petty flatterers have intelligence, is a is little won by intermingling of plausible actions : man's self; certainly the lover is more. For there for that doth argue but a weakness and fear of envy, was never proud man thought so absurdly well of which hurteth so much the more ; as it is likewise himself, as the lover doth of the person loved ; and usual in infections, which if you fear them, you call therefore it was well said, that it is impossible to love, them upon you.

and to be wise. Neither doth this weakness appear This public envy seemeth to beat chiefly upon to others only, and not to the party loved, but to the principal officers or ministers, rather than upon kings loved most of all ; except the love be reciproque. and estates themselves. But this is a sure rule, that if For it is a true rule, that love is ever rewarded the envy upon the minister be great, when the cause either with the reciproque, or with an inward and of it in him is small; or if the envy be general in secret contempt: by how much the more men ought a manner upon all the ministers of an estate, then to beware of this passion, which loseth not only the envy, though hidden, is truly upon the state other things, but itself. As for the other losses, the itself. And so much of public envy or discontent- poet's relation doth well figure them; that he that ment, and the difference thereof from private envy, preferred Helena, quitted the gifts of Juno and Palwhich was handled in the first place.

las: for whosoever esteemeth too much of amorous We will add this in general touching the affec- affection, quitteth both riches and wisdom. This tion of envy: that of all other affections, it is the passion hath its floods in the very times of weakmost importune and continual : for of other affec- ness, which are great prosperity, and great adversity; tions there is occasion given but now and then: and though this latter hath been less observed: both therefore it is well said, " Invidia festos dies non which times kindle love, and make it more fervent, agit :" for it is ever working upon some or other. And and therefore, show it to be the child of folly. it is also noted, that love and envy do make a man They do best, who, if they cannot but admit love, pine, which other affections do not, because they are yet make it keep quarter; and sever it wholly from not so continual. It is also the vilest affection, and their serious affairs and actions of life: for if it the most depraved ; for which cause it is the proper check once with business, it troubleth men's fortunes, attribute of the devil, who is called “the envious and maketh men that they can no ways be true to man, that soweth tares amongst the wheat by night:" their own ends. I know not how, but martial men as it always cometh to pass, that envy worketh are given to love : I think it is, but as they are subtilty, and in the dark; and to the prejudice of given to wine ; for perils commonly ask to be paid good things, such as is the wheat.

in pleasures. There is in man's nature a secret in

clination and motion towards love of others, which if X. OF LOVE.

it be not spent upon some one or a few,doth naturally

spread itself towards many, and maketh men beThe stage is more beholden to love, than the life come humane and charitable; as it is seen sometimes of man. For as to the stage, love is ever matter of in friars. Nuptial love maketh mankind; friendly comedies, and now and then of tragedies; but in life love perfecteth it; but wanton love corrupteth and it doth much mischief, sometimes like a siren, some- embaseth it. times like a fury. You may observe, that amongst all the great and worthy persons, whereof the me

XI. OF GREAT PLACE. mory remaineth, either ancient or recent, there is not one that hath been transported to the mad de- Men in great place are thrice servants : servants gree of love ; which shows, that great spirits and of the sovereign or state ; servants of fame; and great business do keep out this weak passion. You servants of business : so as they have no freedom, must except nevertheless Marcus Antonius, the half neither in their persons, nor in their actions, nor in partner of the empire of Rome, and Appius Claudius, their times. It is a strange desire, to seek power, the decemvir and lawgiver; whereof the former was and to lose liberty ; or to seek power over others, indeed a voluptuous man and inordinate ; but the and to lose power over a man's self. The rising unto latter was an austere and wise man: and therefore place is laborious; and by pains men come to greater it seems, though rarely, that love can find entrance, pains: and it is sometimes base; and by indignities not only into an open heart, but also into a heart men come to dignities. The standing is slippery, well fortified, if watch be not well kept. It is a poor and the regress is either a downfal, or at least an saying of Epicurus; “Satis magnum alter alteri eclipse, which is a melancholy thing. “ Cum non sis theatrum sumus: as if man, made for the con- qui fueris, non esse cur velis vivere ?" Nay, retire templation of heaven, and all noble objects, should men cannot when they would ; neither will they do nothing but kneel before a little idol, and make when it were reason ; but are impatient of private. himself subject, though not of the mouth, as beasts ness, even in age and sickness, which require the are, yet of the eye, which was given him for higher shadow : like old townsmen, that will be still sitting purposes. It is a strange thing to note the excess at their street door, though thereby they offer age




to scorn. Certainly great persons had need to bor. I but integrity professed, and with a manifest detestarow other men's opinions to think themselves happy; tion of bribery, doth the other : and avoid not only for if they judge by their own feeling, they cannot the fault, but the suspicion. Whosoever is found find it; but if they think with themselves what other variable, and changeth manifestly without manifest men think of them, and that other men would fain cause, giveth suspicion of corruption. Therefore be as they are, then they are happy as it were by always when thou changest thine opinion or course, report, when perhaps they find the contrary within. profess it plainly, and declare it, together with the For they are the first that find their own griefs; reasons that move thee to change; and do not think though they be the last that find their own faults. to steal it. A servant or a favourite, if he be inCertainly men in great fortunes are strangers to ward, and no other apparent cause of esteem, is themselves, and while they are in the puzzle of commonly thought but a bye-way to close corruption. business, they have no time to tend their health For roughness, it is a needless cause of discontent; either of body or mind. “ Illi mors gravis incubat, severity breedeth fear, but roughness breedeth hate. qui notus nimis omnibus, ignotus moritur sibi.” In Even reproofs from authority ought to be grave, place there is licence to do good and evil; whereof and not taunting. As for facility, it is worse than the latter is a curse; for in evil the best condition bribery. For bribes come but now and then ; but if is not to will, the second not to can. But power to importunity or idle respects lead a man, he shall do good is the true and lawful end of aspiring. For never be without. As Solomon saith ; "to respect good thoughts, though God accept them, yet towards persons is not good; for such a man will transgress men are little better than good dreams, except they for a piece of bread.” It is most true that was be put in act; and that cannot be without power anciently spoken, “ A place showeth the man :" and and place; as the vantage and commanding ground. it showeth some to the better, and some to the Merit and good works is the end of man's motion ; worse ; “ omnium consensu, capax imperii, nisi imand conscience of the same is the accomplishment perasset,” saith Tacitus of Galba : but of Vespasian of man's rest For if a man can be partaker of he saith ; "solus imperantium Vespasianus mutatus God's theatre, he shall likewise be partaker of God's in melius.” Though the one was meant of sufrest. “ Et conversus Deus, ut aspiceret opera, quæ ficiency, the other of manners and affection. It is fecerunt manus suæ, vidit quod omnia essent bona an assured sign of a worthy and generous spirit, nimis ;" and then the sabbath. In the discharge of whom honour amends. For honour is, or should thy place, set before thee the best examples; for be, the place of virtue: and as in nature things imitation is a globe of precepts. And after a time move violently to their place, and calmly in their set before thee thine own example; and examine thy- place ; so virtue in ambition is violent, in authority self strictly, whether thou didst not best at first settled and calm. All rising to great place is by a Neglect not also the examples of those, that have winding-stair; and if there be factions, it is good to carried themselves ill in the same place: not to set side a man's self whilst he is in the rising; and to off thyself by taxing their memory; but to direct balance himself when he is placed. Use the memory thyself what to avoid. Reform, therefore, without of thy predecessor fairly and tenderly; for if thou bravery or scandal of former times and persons; but dost not, it is a debt will sure be paid when thou art pet set it down to thyself, as well to create good pre- gone. If thou have colleagues, respect them, and cedents, as to follow them. Reduce things to the rather call them when they look not for it, than exfirst institution, and observe wherein and how they clude them when they have reason to look to be have degenerated; but yet ask counsel of both times: called. Be not too sensible, or too remembering of of the ancient time what is best; and of the latter thy place in conversation, and private answers to time what is fittest. Seek to make thy course suitors; but let it rather be said, When he sits in regular; that men may know beforehand what they place he is another man. may expect : but be not too positive and peremptory; and express thyself well when thou digressest from

XII. OF BOLDNESS. thy rule. Preserve the right of thy place, but stir not questions of jurisdiction : and rather assume thy It is a trivial grammar-school text, but yet worthy right in silence, and de facto, than voice it with a wise man's consideration. Question was asked of claims and challenges. Preserve likewise the rights Demosthenes, what was the chief part of an orator ? of inferior places : and think it more honour to direct He answered, Action. What next ?-Action. What in chief, than to be busy in all. Embrace and in next again ?--Action. He said it that knew it best; vite helps and advices touching the execution of thy and had by nature himself no advantage in that he place; and do not drive away such as bring thee in commended. A strange thing, that that part of an formation, as meddlers, but accept of them in good orator, which is but superficial, and rather the virtue part. The vices of authority are chiefly four ; de- of a player, should be placed so high above those lays, corruption, roughness, and facility. For de other noble parts of invention, elocution, and the lays; give easy access; keep times appointed ; go rest: nay almost alone, as if it were all in all. But through with that which is in hand; and interlace the reason is plain. There is in human nature, not business but of necessity. For corruption ; do generally, more of the fool than of the wise; and not only bind thine own hands, or thy servant's hand, therefore those faculties by which the foolish part from taking, but bind the hands of suitors also of men's minds is taken, are most potent. Wonderfrom offering. For integrity used doth the one ; | ful like is the case of boldness in civil business ; what

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