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PHYSIOLOGICAL REMAINS.

INQUISITIONS TOUCHING THE COMPOUNDING OF METALS.

To make proof of the incorporation of iron with To make proof of the incorporating of iron and flint, or other stone. For if it can be incorporated brass. For the cheapness of the iron in comparison without over-great charge, or other incommodity, of the brass, if the uses may be served, doth promise the cheapness of the flint or stone doth make the profit. The doubt will be touching their incorcompound stuff profitable for divers uses. The porating; for that it is approved, that iron will not doubts may be three in number.

incorporate, neither with brass nor other metals, of First, Whether they will incorporate at all, other itself, by simple fire : so as the inquiry must be upon wise than to a body that will not hold well together, the calcination, and the additament, and the charge but become brittle and uneven ?

of them. Secondly, Although it should incorporate well, The uses will be for such things as are now made yet whether the stuff will not be so stubborn as it of brass, and might be as well served by the comwill not work well with a hammer, whereby the pound stuff; wherein the doubts will be chiefly of charge in working will overthrow the cheapness of the toughness, and of the beauty. the material ?

First, therefore, if brass ordnance could be made Thirdly, Whether they will incorporate, except of the compound stuff, in respect of the cheapness the iron and stone be first calcined into powder ? of the iron, it would be of great use. And if not, whether the charge of the calcination The vantage which brass ordnance hath over iron, will not eat out the cheapness of the material ? is chiefly, as I suppose, because it will hold the

The uses are most probable to be; first for the blow, though it be driven far thinner than the iron implements of the kitchen ; as spits, ranges, cob- can be; whereby it saveth both in the quantity of irons, pots, &c.; then for the wars, as ordnance, the material, and in the charge and commodity of portcullises, grates, chains, &c.

mounting and carriage, in regard, by reason of the Note ; the finer works of iron are not so probable thinness, it beareth much less weight: there may to be served with such a stuff; as locks, clocks, be also somewhat in being not so easily over-heated. small chains, &c. because the stuff is not like to be Secondly, for the beauty. Those things wherein tough enough.

the beauty or lustre are esteemed, are andirons, and For the better use, in comparison of iron, it is all manner of images, and statues, and columns, and like the stuff will be far lighter : for the weight of tombs, and the like. So as the doubt will be double iron to flint is double and a third part; and, second- for the beauty; the one, whether the colour will ly, it is like to rust not so easily, but to be more please so well, because it will not be so like gold as clean.

brass ? The other, whether it will polish so well ? The ways of trial are two: first, by the iron and Wherein for the latter it is probable it will; for steel stone of themselves, wherein it must be inquired, glosses are more resplendent than the like plates of what are the stones that do easiliest melt. Second-brass would be; and so is the glittering of a blade, ly, with an additament, wherein brimstone is ap- And besides, I take it, andiron brass, which they proved to help to the melting of iron or steel. But call white brass, hath some mixture of tin to help then it must be considered, whether the charge of the lustre. And for the golden colour, it may

be the additament will not destroy the profit.

by some small mixture of orpiment, such as they use It must be known also, what proportion of the to brass in the yellow alchemy; it will easily restone the iron will receive to incorporate well with cover that which the iron loseth. Of this the eye it, and that with once melting; for if either the pro- must be the judge upon proof made. portion be too small, or that it cannot be received But now for pans, pots, curfews, counters, and the but piecemeal by several meltings, the work cannot like, the beauty will not be so much respected, so as be of value.

the compound stuff is like to pass.

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For the better use of the compounded stuff, it will into coin. It may be also questioned, whether the be sweeter and cleaner than brass alone, which compound stuff will receive gilding as well as silver, yieldeth a smell or soiliness; and therefore may be and with equal lustre? It is to be noted, that the better for the vessels of the kitchen and brewing. common allay of silver coin is brass, which doth It will also be harder than brass, where hardness discolour more, and is not so neat as tin. may be required.

The drownings of metals within other metals, in For the trial, the doubts will be two: first, the such sort as they can never rise again, is a thing of over-weight of brass towards iron, which will make great profit. For if a quantity of silver can be so iron float on the top in the melting. This perhaps buried in gold, as it will never be reduced again, will be holpen with the calaminar stone, which con- neither by fire, nor parting waters, nor other ways: senteth so well with brass, and, as I take it, is lighter and also that it serve all uses as well as pure gold, than iron. The other doubt will be the stiffness it is in effect all one as if so much silver were turned and dryness of iron to melt ; which must be holpen into gold; only the weight will discover it; yet that either by moistening the iron, or opening it. For taketh off but half of the profit; for gold is not fully the first, perhaps some mixture of lead will help. double weight to silver, but gold is twelve times Which is as much more liquid than brass, as iron is price to silver. less liquid.

The opening may be holpen by some The burial must be by one of these two ways, mixture of sulphur: so as the trials would be with either by the smallness of the proportion, as perhaps brass, iron, calaminar stone, and sulphur ; and then fifty to one, which will be but six-pence gains in again with the same composition, and an addition fifty shillings; or it must be holpen by somewhat of some lead; and in all this the charge must be which may fix the silver, never to be restored or considered, whether it eat not out the profit of the vapoured away, when it is incorporated into such a cheapness of iron ?

mass of gold; for the less quantity is ever the There be two proofs to be made of incorporation harder to sever : and for this purpose iron is the of metals for magnificence and delicacy. The one likest, or coppel stuff, upon which the fire hath no for the eye, and the other for the ear. Statue-metal, power of consumption. and bell-metal, and trumpet-metal, and string-metal; The making of gold seemeth a thing scarcely in all these, though the mixture of brass or copper possible; because gold is the heaviest of metals, and should be dearer than the brass itself, yet the plea- to add matter is impossible: and again, to drive sure will advance the price to profit.

metals into a narrower room than their natural exFirst therefore for statue-metal, see Pliny's mix- tent beareth, is a condensation hardly to be extures, which are almost forgotten, and consider the pected. But to make silver seemeth more easy, charge.

because both quicksilver and lead are weightier than Try likewise the mixture of tin in large proportion silver ; so as there needeth only fixing, and not conwith copper, and observe the colour and beauty, it densing. The degree unto this that is already being polished. But chiefly let proof be made of the known, is infusing of quicksilver in a parchment, or incorporating of copper or brass with glass-metal, otherwise, in the midst of molten lead when it coolfor that is cheap, and is like to add a great glory eth; for this stupifieth the quicksilver that it runand shining.

neth no more. This trial is to be advanced three For bell-metal. First, it is to be known what is ways. First, by iterating the melting of the lead, the composition which is now in use. Secondly, it to see whether it will not make the quicksilver is probable that it is the dryness of the metal that harder and harder. Secondly, to put realgar hot into doth help the clearness of the sound, and the moist- the midst of the quicksilver, whereby it may be conness that dulleth it; and therefore the mixtures that densed, as well from within as without. Thirdly, are probable, are steel, tin, glass-metal.

to try it in the midst of molten iron, or molten steel, For string-metal, or trumpet-metal, it is the same which is a body more likely to fix the quicksilver reason ; save that glass-metal may not be used, be than lead. It may be also tried, by incorporating cause it will make it too brittle; and trial may be powder of steel, or coppel dust, by pouncing into the made with mixture of silver, it being but a delicacy, quicksilver, and so to proceed to the stupifying. with iron or brass.

Upon glass four things would be put in proof. To make proof of the incorporation of silver and The first, means to make the glass more crystalline. tin in equal quantity, or with two parts silver and The second, to make it more strong for falls, and for one part tin, and to observe whether it be of equal fire, though it come not to the degree to be malleable. beauty and lustre with pure silver; and also whether the third, to make it coloured by tinctures, comit yield no soiliness more than silver ? And again, parable to or exceeding precious stones. The fourth, whether it will endure the ordinary fire which be- to make a compound body of glass and galletyle ; longeth to chafing dishes, posnets, and such other that is, to have the colour milky like a chalcedon, silver vessels ? And if it do not endure the fire, yet being a stuff between a porcelane and a glass. whether by some mixture of iron it may not be made For the first, it is good first to know exactly the more fixed ? For if it be in beauty and all the uses several materials whereof the glass in use is made ; aforesaid equal to silver, it were a thing of singular window-glass, Normandy and Burgundy, ale-house profit to the state, and to all particular persons, to glass, English drinking-glass : and then thereupon change silver plate or vessel into the compound stuff, to consider what the reason is of the coarseness bring a kind of silver electre, and to turn the rest or clearness; and from thence to rise to a con

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sideration how to make some additaments to the an ounce and a half of brimstone, an ounce of lead; coarser materials, to raise them to the whiteness and calcine them, and see what body they make; and if crystalline splendour of the finest.

they incorporate, make a plate of it burnished. For the second, we see pebbles, and some other Take of copper an ounce and a half, of tin an stones, will cut as fine as crystal, which if they will ounce, and melt them together, and make a plate of melt, may be a mixture for glass, and may make it them burnished. more tough and more crystalline. Besides, we see Take of copper an ounce and a half, of tin an metals will vitrify; and perhaps some portion of the ounce, of glass-metal half an ounce; stir them well glass of metal vitrified, mixed in the pot of ordinary in the boiling, and if they incorporate, make a plate glass metal, will make the whole mass more tough. of them burnished.

For the third, it were good to have of coloured Take of copper a pound and a half, tin four window-glass, such as is coloured in the pot, and not ounces, brass two ounces ; make a plate of them by colours

burnished. It is to be known of what stuff galletyle is made, Take of silver two ounces, tin half an ounce; and how the colours in it are varied; and thereupon make a little say-cup of it, and burnish it. to consider how to make the mixture of glass-metal To inquire of the materials of every of the kind of and them, whereof I have seen the example. glasses, coarser and finer, and of the proportions.

Inquire what be the stones that do easiliest melt. Take an equal quantity of glass-metal, of stone Of them take half a pound, and of iron a pound and calcined, and bring a pattern. half, and an ounce of brimstone, and see whether Take an ounce of vitrified metal, and a pound of they will incorporate, being whole, with a strong ordinary glass-metal, and see whether they will infire. If not, try the same quantity calcined: and if corporate, and bring a pattern. they will incorporate, make a plate of them, and Bring examples of all coloured glasses, and learn burnish it as they do iron.

the ingredients whereby they are coloured. Take a pound and a half of brass, and half a Inquire of the substance of galletyle. pound of iron ; two ounces of the calaminar stone,

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ARTICLES OF QUESTIONS

TOUCHING

MINERALS.

THE LORD BACON'S QUESTIONS, WITH DR. MEVEREL'S SOLUTIONS.

So of lead : lead with copper: lead with brass : Concerning the compounding, incorporating, or union

lead with iron : lead with tin. Plin. xxxiv. 9. of metals or minerals. Which subject is the first letter of his Lordship's Alphabet.

So of copper : copper with brass : copper with

iron : copper with tin. With what metals gold will incorporate by simple So of brass : brass with iron : brass with tin. colliquefaction, and with what not? And in what So of iron : iron with tin. quantity it will incorporate ; and what kind of body What be the compound metals that are common the compound makes ?

and known ? And what are the proportions of their Gold with silver, which was the ancient electrum: mixtures ? As, gold with quicksilver : gold with lead: gold with Latten of brass, and the calaminar stone. copper: gold with brass: gold with iron : gold Pewter of tin and lead. with tin.

Bell-metal of, &c. and the counterfeit plate, which So likewise of silver : silver with quicksilver : they call alchemy. silver with lead: silver with copper: silver with The decomposites of three metals or more, are brass : silver with iron: Plinius secund. lib. xxxiii. too long to inquire of, except there be some com9. “ Miscuit denario triumvir Antonius ferrum,” positions of them already observed. silver with tin.

It is also to be observed, whether any two metals, So likewise of quicksilver: quicksilver with lead: which will not mingle of themselves, will mingle quicksilver with copper : quicksilver with brass : with the help of another; and what. quicksilver with iron : quicksilver with tin.

What compounds will be made of metal with stone

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and other fossils; as latten is made with brass and wise tried by incorporating of their dissolutions. the calaminar stone; as all the metals incorporate What metals being dissolved in strong waters will with vitriol; all with iron powdered; all with flint, &c. incorporate well together, and what not? Which

Some few of these would be inquired of, to dis- is to be inquired particularly, as it was in colliqueclose the nature of the rest.

factions. Whether metals or other fossils will incorporate There is to be observed in those dissolutions which with molten glass, and what body it makes ? will not easily incorporate, what the effects are : as

The quantity in the mixture would be well con- the bullition; the precipitation to the bottom ; the sidered ; for some small quantity perhaps will in- ejaculation towards the top; the suspension in the corporate, as in the allays of gold and silver coin. midst : and the like.

Upon the compound body, three things are chiefly Note, that the dissents of the menstrual or strong to be observed: the colour; the fragility or pliant- waters may hinder the incorporation, as well as the ness; the volatility or fixation, compared with the dissents of the metals themselves; therefore where simple bodies.

the menstrua are the same, and yet the incorporation For present use or profit, this is the rule : con- followeth not, you may conclude the dissent is in the sider the price of the two simple bodies; consider metals ; but where the menstrua are several, not so again the dignity of the one above the other in use; certain. then see if you can make a compound, that will save more in price, than it will lose in dignity of the use.

Dr. Meverel's answer to the foregoing questions, conAs for example ; consider the price of brass ord

cerning the compounding, incorporating, or union nance; consider again the price of iron ordnance,

of metals and minerals. and then consider wherein the brass ordnance doth Gold will incorporate with silver in any proporexcel the iron ordnance in use; then if you can tion. Plin. lib. xxxiii. cap. 4.—“Omni auro inest make a compound of brass and iron that will be near argentum vario pondere; alibi dena, alibi nona, alibi as good in use, and much cheaper in price, then octava parte—Ubicunque quinta argenti portio inthere is profit both to the private and the common- venitur, electrum vocatur." The body remains fixt, wealth. So of gold and silver, the price is double solid, and coloured, according to the proportion of of twelve: the dignity of gold above silver is not the two metals. much, the splendour is alike, and more pleasing to Gold with quicksilver easily mixeth, but the prosome eyes, as in cloth of silver, silvered rapiers, &c. duct is imperfectly fixed; and so are all other metals The main dignity is, that gold bears the fire, which incorporate with mercury. silver doth not: but that is an excellency in nature, Gold incorporates with lead in any proportion. but it is nothing at all in use ; for any dignity in Gold incorporates with copper in any proportion, use I know none, but that silvering will sully and the common allay. canker more than gilding; which if it might be cor- Gold incorporates with brass in any proportion. rected with a little mixture of gold, there is profit : | And what is said of copper is true of brass, in the and I do somewhat marvel that the latter ages have union of other metals. lost the ancient electrum, which was a mixture of Gold will not incorporate with iron. silver with gold : whereof I conceive there may be Gold incorporates with tin, the ancient allay, much use, both in coin, plate, and gilding.

Isa. i. 25. It is to be noted, that there is in the version of What was said of gold and quicksilver, may be metals impossibility, or at least great difficulty, as said of quicksilver and the rest of metals. in making of gold, silver, copper. On the other Silver with lead in any proportion. side, in the adulterating or counterfeiting of metals, Silver incorporates with copper. Pliny mentions there is deceit and villany. But it should seem there such a mixture for triumphales statuæ, lib. xxxiii. is a middle way, and that is by new compounds, if 9. “ Miscentur argento, tertia pars æris Cyprii the ways of incorporating were well known. tenuissimi, quod coronarium vocant, et sulphuris vivi

What incorporation or imbibition metals will re- quantum argenti.” The same is true of brass. ceive from vegetables, without being dissolved in their Silver incorporates not with iron. Wherefore I substance: as when the armourers make their steel wonder at that which Pliny hath, lib. xxxiii. 9. more tough and pliant, by aspersion of water or “Miscuit denario triumvir Antonius ferrum.” And juice of herbs; when gold being grown somewhat what is said of this is true of the rest ; for iron inchurlish by recovering, is made more pliant by throw- corporateth with none of them. ing in shreds of tanned leather, or by leather oiled. Silver mixes with tin. Note, that in these and like shows of imbibition, Lead incorporates with copper.

Such a mixture it were good to try by the weights, whether the was the pot metal whereof Pliny speaks, lib. xxxiv. weight be increased, or no; for if it be not, it is to 9. “Ternis aut quaternis libris plumbi argentarii be doubted that there is no imbibition of substance, in centenas æris additis.” but only that the application of that other body doth Lead incorporates with tin. The mixture of dispose and invite the metal to another posture of these two in equal proportions, is that which was farts, than of itself it would have taken.

anciently called “plumbum argentarium," Plin. lib. After the incorporation of metals by simple colli- xxxiv. 17. quefaction, for the better discovery of the nature Copper incorporates with tin. Of such a mixand consents and dissents of metals, it would be like-Iture were the mirrors of the Romans. Plin. “ At

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que ut omnia de speculis peragantur hoc loco, op- | according to the nature of the metals. Note again, tima apud majores erant Brundusina, stanno et ære that if you think that multiplying of the additaments mistis.” Lib. xxxiii. 9.

in the same proportion that you multiply the ore,

the work will follow, you may be deceived: for Compound metals now in use.

quantity in the passive will add more resistance, 1. Fine tin. The mixture is thus: pure tin a than the same quantity in the active will add force. thousand pounds, temper fifty pounds, glass of tin 2. For extracting, you are to inquire what metals three pounds.

contain others, and likewise what not; as lead, sil2. Coarse pewter is made of fine tin and lead. ver; copper, silver, &c. Temper is thus made: the dross of pure tin, four Note, although the charge of extraction should pounds and a half; copper, half a pound.

exceed the worth, yet that is not the matter : for at 3. Brass is made of copper and calaminaris. least it will discover nature and possibility, the other

4. Bell-metal. Copper, a thousand pounds; tin may be thought on afterwards. from three hundred to two hundred pounds; brass, We are likewise to inquire, what the differences a hundred and fifty pounds.

are of those metals which contain more or less other 5. Pot-metal, copper and lead.

metals, and how that agrees with the poorness or 6. White alchemy is made of pan-brass one richness of the metals or ore in themselves. As the pound, and arsenicum three ounces.

lead that contains most silver is accounted to be 7. Red alchemy is made of copper and auri- more brittle, and yet otherwise poorer in itself. pigment.

3. For principiation, I cannot affirm whether There be divers imperfect minerals, which will there be any such thing or not; and I think the incorporate with the metals: being indeed metals chemists make too much ado about it: but howsoinwardly, but clothed with earths and stones: as ever it be, be it solution or extraction, or a kind of pyritis, calaminaris, misy, chalcitis, sory, vitriolum. conversion by the fire ; it is diligently to be inquired

Metals incorporate not with glass, except they be what salts, sulphur, vitriol, mercury, or the like brought into the form of glass.

simple bodies are to be found in the several metals, Metals dissolved. The dissolution of gold and and in what quantity. silver disagree, so that in their mixture there is great ebullition, darkness, and in the end a precipi- | Dr. Merereľs answers to the foregoing questions, tation of black powder.

touching the separations of metals and minerals. The mixture of gold and mercury agree.

1. For the means of separating. After that the Gold agrees with iron. In a word, the dissolution ore is washed, or cleansed from the earth, there is of mercury and iron agree with all the rest. nothing simply necessary, save only a wind furnace

Silver and copper disagree, and so do silver and well framed, narrow above and at the hearth, in lead. Silver and tin agree.

shape oval, sufficiently fed with charcoal and ore,

in convenient proportions. The second letter of the cross-row, touching the

For additions in this first separation, I have obseparation of metals and minerals.

served none; the dross the mineral brings being Separation is of three sorts; the first is, the sufficient. The refiners of iron observe, that that separating of the pure metal from the ore or dross, iron-stone is hardest to melt which is fullest of which we call refining. The second is, the draw-metal, and that easiest which hath most dross. ing one metal or mineral out of another, which we But in lead and tin the contrary is noted. Yet in call extracting The third is, the separating of any melting of metals, when they have been calcined metal into its original or materia prima, or element, formerly by fire, or strong waters, there is good use or call them what you will; which work we will of additaments, as of borax, tartar, armoniac, and call principiation.

salt-petre. 1. For refining, we are to inquire of it according 2. In extracting of metals. Note, that lead and to the several metals; as gold, silver, &c. Inci- tin contain silver. Lead and silver contain gold, dentally we are to inquire of the first stone, or ore, Iron contains brass. Silver is best separated from or spar, or marcasite of metals severally, and what lead by the test. So gold from silver. Yet the kind of bodies they are, and of the degrees of rich- best way for that is aqua regia.

Also we are to inquire of the means of sepa- 3. For principiation. I can truly and boldly afrating, whether by fire, parting waters, or otherwise. firm, that there are no such principals as sal, sulAlso for the manner of refining, you are to see how phur, and mercury, which can be separated from any you can multiply the heat, or hasten the opening, perfect metals. For every part so separated, may and so save the charge in the fining.

easily be reduced into perfect metal without substiThe means of this in three manners; that is to tution of that, or those principles which chemists say, in the blast of the fire ; in the manner of the imagine to be wanting. As suppose you take the furnace, to multiply heat by union and reflexion; salt of lead; this salt, or as some name it, sulphur, and by some additament, or medicines which will may be turned into perfect lead, by melting it with help the bodies to open them the soone .

the like quantity of lead which contains principles Note, the quickening of the blast, and the multi-only for itself. plying of the heat in the furnace, may be the same I acknowledge that there is quicksilver and brimfor all metals ; but the additaments must be several, / stone found in the imperfect minerals: but those

ness.

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