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second joined with memory of that which is past ; | juggler was some strange man, and could do strange and the third is of things present, or as if they were things, that other man caught a strong imaginapresent; for I comprehend in this, imaginations tion." I hearkened unto him, thinking for a vanity feigned, and at pleasure ; as if one should imagine he spoke prettily. Then he asked me another such a man to be in the vestments of a pope, or to question : saith he, “ Do you remember, whether have wings. I single out, for this time, that which he bade the man think the card first, and afterwards is with faith or belief of that which is to come. The told the other man in his ear what he should think; inquisition of this subject in our way, which is by or else that he did whisper first in the man's ear induction, is wonderful hard : for the things that are that should tell the card, telling that such a man should reported are full of fables; and new experiments think such a card, and after bade the man think a can hardly be made, but with extreme caution; for card ?” I told him, as was true, that he did first the reason which we will hereafter declare.

whisper the man in the ear, that such a man should The power of imagination is of three kinds; the think such a card: upon this the learned man did first upon the body of the imaginant, including like much exult and please himself, saying; “ Lo, you wise the child in the mother's womb; the second is, may see that my opinion is right: for if the man the power of it upon dead bodies, as plants, wood, had thought first, his thought had been fixed; stone, metal, &c. ; the third is, the power of it upon but the other imagining first, bound his thought.” the spirits of men and living creatures : and with which though it did somewhat sink with me, yet this last we will only meddle.

I made it lighter than I thought and said ; I thought The problem therefore is, whether a man con- was confederacy between the juggler and the two stantly and strongly believing that such a thing shall servants; though, indeed, I had no reason so to be, as that such a one will love him; or that such think, for they were both my father's servants; and a one will grant him his request; or that such a he had never played in the house before. The jugone shall recover a sickness; or the like; it doth gler also did cause a garter to be held up; and took help any thing to the effecting of the thing itself. upon him to know, that such a one should point in And here again we must warily distinguish ; for it such a place of the garter; as it should be near so is not meant, as hath been partly said before, that many inches to the longer end, and so many to the it should help by making a man more stout, or shorter; and still he did it, by first telling the more industrious, in which kind a constant belief imaginer, and after bidding the actor think. doth much, but merely by a secret operation, or Having told this relation, not for the weight binding, or changing the spirit of another : and in thereof, but because it doth handsomely open the this it is hard, as we began to say, to make any new nature of the question, I return to that I said ; that experiment; for I cannot command myself to be experiments of imagination must be practised by lieve what I will, and so no trial can be made. Nay, others, and not by a man's self. For there be it is worse ; for whatsoever a man imagineth doubt three means to fortify belief: the first is experiingly, or with fear, must needs do hurt, if imagina-ence; the second is reason ; and the third is authotion have any power at all; for a man representethrity: and that of these which is far the most potent, that oftener that he feareth, than the contrary. is authority; for belief upon reason, or experience,

The help therefore is, for a man to work by will stagger. another, in whom he may create belief, and not by 947. For authority, it is of two kinds ; belief in himself; until himself have found by experience, an art; and belief in a man. And for things of that imagination doth prevail; for then experience belief in an art, a man may exercise them by himworketh in himself belief; if the belief that such a self; but for belief in a man, it must be by another. thing shall be, be joined with a belief that his Therefore if a man believe in astrology, and find a imagination may procure it.

figure prosperous; or believe in natural magic, and 946. For example ; I related one time to a man that a ring with such a stone, or such a piece of a that was curious and vain enough in these things, living creature, carried, will do good; it may help that I saw a kind of juggler, that had a pair of cards, his imagination : but the belief in a man is far the and would tell a man what card he thought. This more active. But howsoever, all authority must be pretended learned man told me, it was a mistaking out of a man's self, turned, as was said, either upon in me; “ for,” said he, “it was not the knowledge an art or upon a man: and where authority is from of the man's thought, for that is proper to God, one man to another, there the second must be ignobut it was the enforcing of a thought upon him, and rant, and not learned, or full of thoughts; and such binding his imagination by a stronger, that he could are, for the most part, all witches and superstitious think no other card.” And thereupon he asked me persons; whose beliefs, tied to their teachers and a question or two, which I thought he did but cun- traditions, are no whit controlled either by reason ningly, knowing before what used to be the feats of or experience; and upon the same reason, in magic, the juggler. “ Sir," said he,“ do you remember they use for the most part boys and young people, whether he told the card the man thought, himself, whose spirits easiliest take belief and imagination. or bade another to tell it?” I answered, as was Now to fortify imagination, there be three ways: trae, that he bade another tell it. Whereunto he the authority whence the belief is derived ; means said, “ So I thought: for,” said he, “ himself could to quicken and corroborate the imagination; and not have put on so strong an imagination; but by means to repeat it and refresh it. telling the other the card, who believed that the 948. For the authority, we have already spoken:

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as for the second, namely, the means to quicken, another, it is necessary that he, by whom you work, and corroborate the imagination; we see what hath have a precedent opinion of you that you can do been used in magic, if there be in those practices strange things; or that you are a man of art, as they any thing that is purely natural, as vestments, call it; for else the simple affirmation to another, characters, words, seals; some parts of plants, or that this or that shall be, can work but a weak imliving creatures ; stones; choice of the hour: ges- pression in his imagination. tures and motions; also incenses and odours; choice 952. It were good, because you cannot discern of society, which increaseth imagination ; diets and fully of the strength of imagination in one man more preparations for some time before. And for words, than another, that you did use the imagination of there have been ever used, either barbarous words, more than one, that so you may light upon a of no sense, lest they should disturb the imagination; strong one. As if a physician should tell three or or words of similitude, that may second and feed the four of his patient's servants, that their master shall imagination; and this was ever as well in heathen surely recover. charms, as in charms of latter times. There are 953. The imagination of one that you shall use, used also Scripture words; for that the belief that such is the variety of men's minds, cannot be always religious texts and words have power, may strengthen alike constant and strong; and if the success follow the imagination. And for the same reason, hebrew not speedily, it will faint and lose strength, Το words, which amongst us is counted the holy tongue, remedy this, you must pretend to him, whose imaand the words more mystical, are often used. gination you use, several degrees of means, by which

949. For the refreshing of the imagination, to operate: as to prescribe him that every three days, which was the third means of exalting it, we see if he find not the success apparent, he do use anthe practices of magic, as in images of wax, and other root, or part of a beast or ring, &c. as being the like, that should melt by little and little; or of more force; and if that fail, another; and if that, some other things buried in muck, that should another, till seven times. Also you must prescribe putrify by little and little ; or the like: for so oft a good large time for the effect you promise; as if as the imaginant doth think of those things, so oft you should tell a servant of a sick man that his doth he represent to his imagination the effect of master shall recover, but it will be fourteen days ere that he desireth.

he findeth it apparently, &c. All this to entertain 950. If there be any power in imagination, it is the imagination that it waver less. less credible that it should be so incorporeal, and 954. It is certain, that potions, or things taken immateriate a virtue, as to work at great distances, into the body ; incenses and perfumes taken at the or through all mediums, or upon all bodies : but nostrils; and ointments of some parts, do naturally that the distance must be competent, the medium work upon the imagination of him that taketh them. not adverse, and the body apt and proportionate. And therefore it must needs greatly co-operate with Therefore if there be any operation upon bodies in the imagination of him whom you use, if you preabsence by nature, it is like to be conveyed from scribe him, before he do use the receipt, for the man to man, as fame is ; as if a witch, by imagina- work which he desireth, that he do take such a pill, tion, should hurt any afar off, it cannot be natu- or a spoonful of liquor; or burn such an incense ; rally: but by working upon the spirit of some that or anoint his temples, or the soles of his feet, with cometh to the witch; and from that party upon the such an ointment or oil: and you must choose, for imagination of another; and so upon another ; till the composition of such pill, perfume, or ointment, it come to one that hath resort to the party such ingredients as do make the spirits a little more intended; and so by him to the party intended him- gross or muddy; whereby the imagination will fix self. And although they speak, that it susficeth to the better. make a point, or a piece of the garment, or the 955. The body passive, and to be wrought upon, name of the party, or the like; yet there is less I mean not of the imaginant, is better wronght upon, credit to be given to those things, except it be by as hath been partly touched, at some times than at working of evil spirits.

others : as if you should prescribe a servant about The experiments, which may certainly demon- a sick person, whom you have possessed that his strate the power of imagination upon other bodies, master shall recover, when his master is fast asleep, are few or none : for the experiments of witchcraft to use such a root, or such a root. For imagination are no clear proofs ; for that they may be by a is like to work better upon sleeping men, ihan men tacit operation of malign spirits : we shall therefore awake: as we shall show when we handle dreams. be forced, in this inquiry, to resort to new experi- 956. We find in the art of memory, that images ments; wherein we can give only directions of visible work better than other conceits: as if you trials, and not any positive experiments. And if would remember the word philosophy, you shall any man think that we ought to have stayed till we more surely do it, by imagining, that such a man, had made experiment of some of them ourselves, as for men are best places, is reading upon Aristotle's we do commonly in other titles, the truth is, that " Physics :" than if you should imagine him to say, these effects of imagination upon other bodies have “l'll go study philosophy.” And therefore this so little credit with us, as we shall try them at observation would be translated to the subject we leisure; but in the mean time we will lead others now speak of: for the more lustrous the imagination

is, it filleth and fixeth the better. And therefore I 951. When you work by the imagination of conceive, that you shall, in that experiment, whereof

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we spake before, of binding of thoughts, less fail, signed to work several effects. So much is true; if you tell one that such a one shall name one of that stones have in them fine spirits, as appeareth twenty men, than if it were one of twenty cards. The by their splendour ; and therefore they may work by experiment of binding of thoughts would be diver- consent upon the spirits of men, to comfort and exsified and tried to the full : and you are to note, hilarate them. Those that are the best, for that whether it hit for the most part, though not always. effect, are the diamond, the emerald, the hyacinth

957. It is good to consider, upon what things oriental, and the gold stone, which is the yellow imagination hath most force : and the rule, as I topaz. As for their particular proprieties, there is conceive, is, that it hath most force upon things that no credit to be given to them. But it is manifest, have the lightest and easiest motions. And there that light, above all things, excelleth in comforting fore above all, upon the spirits of men: and in them, the spirits of men: and it is very probable, that upon such affections as move lightest; as upon pro- light varied doth the same effect, with more novelty. curing of love ; binding of lust, which is ever with And this is one of the causes why precious stones imagination ; upon men in fear; or men in irreso comfort. And therefore it were good to have tinctlution; and the like. Whatsoever is of this kind ed lanthorns, or tincted screens, of glass coloured would be throughly inquired. Trials likewise would into green, blue, carnation, crimson, purple, &c. and be made upon plants, and that diligently : as if you to use them with candles in the light. So likewise should tell a man, that such a tree would die this to have round glasses, not only of glass coloured year; and will him at these and these times to go through, but with colours laid between crystals, unto it, to see how it thriveth. As for inanimate with handles to hold in one's hand. Prisms are things, it is true, that the motions of shuffling of also comfortable things. They have of Paris-work, cards, or casting of dice, are very light motions : looking-glasses, bordered with broad borders of small and there is a folly very usual, that gamesters ima- crystal, and great counterfeit precious stones, of all gine, that some that stand by them bring them ill colours, that are most glorious and pleasant to be. luck. There would be trial also made, of holding a hold ; especially in the night. The pictures of Inring by a thread in a glass, and telling him that dian feathers are likewise comfortable and pleasant holdeth it, before, that it shall strike so many times to behold. So also fair and clear pools do greatly against the side of the glass, and no more ; or of comfort the eyes and spirits, especially when the holding a key between two men's fingers, without a sun is not glaring, but over-cast; or when the moon

and to tell those that hold it, that at such shineth. a name it shall go off their fingers : for these two 961. There be divers sorts of bracelets fit to comare extreme light motions. And howsoever I have fort the spirits; and they be of three intentions; no opinion of these things, yet so much I conceive refrigerant, corroborant, and aperient. For refrigerto be true; that strong imagination hath more ant, I wish them to be of pearl, or of coral, as is force upon things living, or that have been living, used; and it hath been noted that coral, if the party than things merely inanimate : and more force like that weareth it be indisposed, will wax pale ; which wise upon light and subtile motions, than upon I believe to be true, because otherwise distemper of motions vehement or ponderous.

heat will make coral lose colour. I commend also 958. It is a usual observation, that if the body beads, or little plates of lapis lazuli ; and beads of of one murdered be brought before the murderer, nitre, either alone, or with some cordial mixture. the wounds will bleed afresh. Some do affirm, that 962. For corroboration and confortation, take the dead body, upon the presence of the murderer, such bodies as are of astringent quality, without hath opened the eyes; and that there have been manifest cold. I commend bead-amber, which is such like motions, as well where the parties murder- full of astriction, but yet is unctuous, and not cold; ed have been strangled or drowned, as where they and is conceived to impinguate those that wear such have been killed by wounds. It may be, that this beads; I commend also beads of hartshorn and participateth of a miracle, by God's just judgment, ivory ; which are of the like nature; also orange who usually bringeth murders to light: but if it be beads; also beads of lignum aloës, macerated first natural, it must be referred to imagination.

in rose-water, and dried. 959. The tying of the point upon the day of 963. For opening, I commend beads, or pieces of marriage, to make men impotent towards their wives, the roots of carduus benedictus : also the roots of which, as we have formerly touched, is so frequent piony the male; and of orrice ; and of calamus aroin Zant and Gascony, if it be natural, must be re- maticus ; and of rue. ferred to the imagination of him that tieth the point. 964. The cramp no doubt cometh of contraction I conceive it to have the less affinity with witch- of sinews; which is manifest, in that it cometh craft, because not peculiar persons only, such as either by cold or dryness; as after consumptions, and witches are, but any body may do it.

long agues ; for cold and dryness do, both of them, Erperiments in consort touching the secrel virtue of a little above the place in pain, easeth the cramp ;

contract and corrugate. We see also, that chafing sympathy and antipathy.

which is wrought by the dilatation of the contracted 960. There be many things that work upon the sinews by heat. There are in use for the prevenspirits of man by secret sympathy and antipathy: tion of the cramp, two things; the one, rings of seathe virtues of precious stones worn, have been an- horse teeth worn upon the fingers; the other, bands ciently and generally received, and curiously as- of green periwinkle, the herb, tied about the calf of the

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leg, or the thigh, &c. where the cramp useth to snake is thought to renew her youth, by casting her

I do find this the more strange, because nei- spoil. They might as well take the beak of an ther of these have any relaxing virtue, but rather eagle, or a piece of a hart's horn, because those the contrary. I judge therefore, that their working renew. is rather upon the spirits, within the nerves, to make 970. It hath been anciently received, for Pericles them strive less, tha upon the bodily substance of the Athenian used it, and it is yet in use, to wear the nerves.

little bladders of quicksilver, or tablets of arsenic, as 965. I would have trial made of two other kinds preservatives against the plague: not as they conof bracelets, for comforting the heart and spirits : ceive for any comfort they yield to the spirits, but the one of the trochisk of vipers, made into little for that being poisons themselves, they draw the pieces of beads; for since they do great good in- venom to them from the spirits. wards, especially for pestilent agues, it is like they 971. Vide the experiments 95, 96, and 97, will be effectual outwards ; where they may be ap- touching the several sympathies and antipathies for plied in greater quantity. There would be trochisk medicinal use. likewise made of snakes; whose flesh dried is 972. It is said, that the guts or skin of a wolf, thought to have a very opening and cordial virtue. being applied to the belly, do cure the colic. It is The other is, of beads made of the scarlet powder, true, that the wolf is a beast of great edacity and which they call kermes; which is the principal in- digestion ; and so it may be the parts of him comgredient in their cordial confection alkermes : the fort the bowels. beads would be made up with ambergrease, and 973. We see scare-crows are set up to keep birds some pomander.

from corn and fruit; it is reported by some, that 966. It hath been long received and confirmed the head of a wolf, whole, dried, and hanged up in by divers trials, that the root of the male piony dried, a dove-house, will scare away vermin; such as are tied to the neck, doth help the falling sickness; weasels, pole-cats, and the like. It may be the and likewise the incubus, which we call the mare. head of a dog will do as much; for those vermin The cause of both these diseases, and especially of with us know dogs better than wolves. the epilepsy from the stomach, is the grossness of 974. The brains of some creatures, when their the vapours which rise and enter into the cells of heads are roasted, taken in wine, are said to strengththe brain : and therefore the working is by extreme en the memory; as the brains of hares, brains of and subtile attenuation; which that simple hath. hens, brains of deers, &c. And it seemeth to be I judge the like to be in castoreum, musk, rue seed, incident to the brains of those creatures that are agnus castus seed, &c.

fearful. 967. There is a stone which they call the blood- 975 The ointment that witches use, is reported stone, which worn is thought to be good for them that to be made of the fat of children digged out of their bleed at the nose: which, no doubt, is by astriction graves of the juices of smallage, wolf-bane, and and cooling of the spirits. Query, if the stone taken cinque-foil, mingled with the meal of fine wheat. out of the toad's head, not of the like virtue ; for But I suppose, that the soporiferous medicines are the toad loveth shade and coolness.

likest to do it; which are henbane, hemlock, man968. Light may be taken from the experiment drake, moonshade, tobacco, opium, saffron, poplar of the horse-tooth ring, and the garland of peri- leaves, &c. winkle, how that those things which assuage the 976. It is reported by some, that the affections of strife of the spirits, do help diseases contrary to the beasts when they are in strength do add some virtue intention desired : for in the curing of the cramp, unto inanimate things; as that the skin of a sheep the intention is to relax the sinews; but the con- devoured by a wolf, moveth itching; that a stone traction of the spirits that they strive less, is the best bitten by a dog in anger, being thrown at him, drunk help: so to procure easy travails of women, the in- in powder, provoketh choler. tention is to bring down the child ; but the best help 977. It hath been observed, that the diet of is, to stay the coming down too fast: whereunto women with child doth work much upon the infant; they say, the toad-stone likewise helpeth. So in as if the mother eat quinces much, and corianderpestilent fevers, the intention is to expel the infec- seed, the nature of both which is to repress and stay tion by sweat and evaporation : but the best means vapours that ascend to the brain, it will make the to do it is by nitre, diascordium, and other cool child ingenious; and on the contrary side, if the things, which do for a time arrest the expulsion, mother eat much onions or beans, or such vaporous till nature can do it more quietly. For as one saith food; or drink wine or strong drink immodeprettily ; “ In the quenching of the flame of a pesti- rately ; or fast much; or be given to much musing; lent ague, nature is like people that come to quench all which send or draw vapours to the head; it enthe fire of a house ; which are so busy, as one of dangereth the child to become lunatic, or of imperthem letteth another." Surely it is an excellent fect memory: and I make the same judgment of axiom, and of manifold use, that whatsoever ap- tobacco often taken by the mother. peaseth the contention of the spirits, farthereth 978. The writers of natural magic report, that their action.

the heart of an ape, worn near the heart, comforteth 969. The writers of natural magic commend the the heart, and increaseth audacity. It is true that wearing of the spoil of a snake, for preserving of the ape is a merry and bold beast. And that the health, I doubt it is but a conceit: for that the same heart likewise of an ape, applied to the neck

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or head, helpeth the wit; and is good for the falling | petty fellow is sent out to kill the dogs ; and that sickness: the ape also is a witty beast, and hath a though they have never seen him before, yet they dry brain ; which may be some cause of attenuation will all come forth, and bark and Ny at him. of vapours in the head. Yet it is said to move 986. The relations touching the force of imagidreams also. It may be the heart of a man would nation, and the secret instincts of nature, are so undo more, but that it is more against men's minds to certain, as they require a great deal of examination use it; except it be in such as wear the reliques ofere we conclude upon them. I would have it first saints.

throughly inquired, whether there be any secret 979. The flesh of a hedge-hog, dressed and eaten, passages of sympathy between persons of near blood; is said to be a great drier: it is true that the juice as parents, children, brothers, sisters, nurse-children, of a hedge-hog must needs be harsh and dry, be- husbands, wives, &c. There be many reports in cause it putteth forth so many prickles: for plants history, that upon the death of persons of such nearalso that are full of prickles are generally dry; as ness, men have had an inward feeling of it. I mybriers, thorns, berberries; and therefore the ashes self remember, that being in Paris, and my father of an hedge-hog are said to be a great desiccative dying in London, two or three days before my faof fistulas.

ther's death, I had a dream, which I told to divers 980. Mummy hath great force in stanching of English gentlemen, that my father's house in the blood; which, as it may be ascribed to the mixture country was plastered all over with black mortar. of balms that are glutinous ; so it may also partake There is an opinion abroad, whether idle or no I of a secret propriety, in that the blood draweth cannot say, that loving and kind husbands have a man's flesh. And it is approved that the moss which sense of their wives breeding children, by some accigroweth upon the skull of a dead man unburied, will dent in their own body. stanch blood potently : and so do the dregs or pow- 987. Next to those that are near in blood, there der of blood, severed from the water, and dried. may be the like passage, and instincts of nature, be

981. It hath been practised, to make white swal-tween great friends and enemies: and sometimes lows, by anointing of the eggs with oil. Which the revealing is unto another person, and not to the effect may be produced, by the stopping of the pores party himself. I remember Philippus Commineus, of the shell, and making the juice that putteth forth a grave writer, reporteth, that the archbishop of the feathers afterwards more penurious. And it Vienna, a reverend prelate, said one day after mass may be, the anointing of the eggs will be as effec- to king Lewis the eleventh of France : “ Sir, your tual as the anointing of the body; of which vide the mortal enemy is dead;" what time duke Charles of experiment 93.

Burgundy was slain at the battle of Granson against 982. It is reported, that the white of an egg, or

the Switzers. Some trial also would be made, blood mingled with salt-water, doth gather the salt- whether pact or agreement do any thing; as if two ness, and maketh the water sweeter. This may be friends should agree, that such a day in every week, by adhesion; as in the sixth experiment of clarifi | they, being in far distant places, should pray one for cation : it may be also, that blood, and the white of another; or should put on a ring or tablet one for an egg, which is the matter of a living creature, another's sake; whether if one of them should have some sympathy with salt: for all life hath a break their vow and promise, the other should have sympathy with salt. We see that salt laid to a cut any feeling of it in absence. finger healeth it; so as it seemeth salt draweth blood, 988. If there be any force in imaginations and as well as blood draweth salt.

affections of singular persons, it is probable the 983. It hath been anciently received, that the force is much more in the joint imaginations and sea-air hath an antipathy with the lungs, if it com- affections of multitudes : as if a viotory should be eth near the body, and erodeth them. Whereof the won or lost in remote parts, whether is there not cause is conceived to be, a quality it hath of heating some sense thereof in the people whom it concernthe breath and spirits; as cantharides have upon eth; because of the great joy or grief that many the watery parts of the body, as urine and hydropi- men are possessed with at once ? Pius Quintus, at cal water. And it is a good rule, that whatsoever the very time when that memorable victory was hath an operation upon certain kinds of matters, won by the christians against the Turks, at the that, in man's body, worketh most upon those parts naval battle of Lepanto, being then hearing of causes wherein that kind of matter aboundeth.

in consistory, brake off suddenly, and said to those 984. Generally that which is dead, or corrupted, about him, “ It is now more time we should give of excerned, hath antipathy with the same thing thanks to God for the great victory he hath granted when it is alive, and when it is sound; and with us against the Turks:" it is true, that victory had a those parts which do excern: as a carcass of man sympathy with his spirit; for it was merely his work is most infectious and odious to man; a carrion of to conclude that league. It may be that revelation a horse to a horse, &c.; purulent matter of wounds, was divine; but what shall we say then to a number and ulcers, carbuncles, pocks, scabs, leprosy, to of examples amongst the Grecians and Romans ? sound fesh; and the excrement of every species to where the people being in theatres at plays, have that creature that excerneth them: but the excre- had news of victories and overthrows, some few ments are less pernicious than the corruptions. days before any messenger could conic.

985. It is a common experience, that dogs know It is true, that that may hold in these things, the dog-killer; when, as in times of infection, some

which is the general root of superstition : namely,

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