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ward spirits of the body; and partly also from the the one assimilation, or absolute conversion and subambient body, be it air, liquor, or whatsoever else. action; the other maturation ; whereof the former And this last, by two means: either by ingress of is most conspicuous in the bodies of living creathe substance of the ambient body into the body tures; in which there is an absolute conversion and putrified; or by excitation and solicitation of the assimilation of the nourishment into the body: and body putrified, and the parts thereof, by the body likewise in the bodies of plants: and again in metals, ambient. As for the received opinion, that putre- where there is a full transmutation. The other, faction is caused, either by cold, or peregrine and which is maturation, is seen in liquors and fruits : preternatural heat, it is but nugation : for cold in wherein there is not desired, nor pretended, an utter things inanimate, is the greatest enemy that is to conversion, but only an alteration to that form which putrefaction ; though it extinguisheth vivification, is most sought for man's use ; as in clarifying of which ever consisteth in spirits attenuate, which the drinks, ripening of fruits, &c. But note, that there cold doth congeal and coagulate. And as for the be two kinds of absolute conversions; the one is, peregrine heat, it is thus far true, that if the pro- when a body is converted into another body, which portion of the adventive heat be greatly predomi- was before ; as when nourishment is turned into nant to the natural heat and spirits of the body, it flesh; that is it which we call assimilation. The tendeth to dissolution, or notable alteration. But other is, when the conversion is into a body merely this is wrought by emission, or suppression, or suf- new, and which was not before; as if silver should focation, of the native spirits; and also by the dis- be turned to gold, or iron to copper : and this conordination and discomposure of the tangible parts, version is better called, for distinction sake, transand other passages of nature, and not by a conflict mutation. of heats.

Experiment solitary touching alterations, which may Experiment solitary touching bodies unperfectly

be called majors. mixed.

839. There are also divers other great alterations 837. In versions, or main alterations of bodies, of matter and bodies, besides those that tend to conthere is a medium between the body, as it is at first, coction and maturation; for whatsoever doth so alter and the body resulting; which medium is corpus a body, as it returneth not again to that it was, may imperfecte mistum, and is transitory and not durable; be called alteratio major; as when meat is boiled, or as mists, smokes, vapours, chylus in the stomach, roasted, or fried, &c.; or when bread and meat are living creatures in the first vivification: and the baked; or when cheese is made of curds, or butter middle action, which produceth such imperfect of cream, or coals of wood, or bricks of earth ; and bodies, is fitly called, by some of the ancients, inqui- a number of others. But to apply notions philosonation, or inconcoction, which is a kind of putre- phical to plebeian terms; or to say, where the notions faction : for the parts are in confusion, till they cannot fitly be reconciled, that there wanteth a term settle one way or other.

or nomenclature for it, as the ancients used, they be Experiment solitary touching concoction and

but shifts of ignorance; for knowledge will be ever

a wandering and indigested thing, if it be but a crudity.

commixture of a few notions that are at hand and 838. The word concoction, or digestion, is chiefly occur, and not excited from sufficient number of taken into use from living creatures and their organs; instances, and those well collated. and from thence extended to liquors and fruits, &c. The consistences of bodies are very diverse: Therefore they speak of meat concocted; urine and dense, rare; tangible, pneumatical; volatile, fixed; excrements concocted ; and the four digestions, in determinate, not determinate ; hard, soft; cleaving, the stomach, in the liver, in the arteries and nerves, not cleaving; congelable, not congelable ; liqnefiand in the several parts of the body, are likewise able, not liquefiable; fragile, tough: flexible, inflexcalled concoctions : and they are all made to be the ible; tractile, or to be drawn forth in length, inworks of at; all which notions are but ignorant tractile; porous, solid; equal and smooth, unequal; catches of a few things, which are most obvious to venous and fibrous, and with grains, entire; and men's observations. The constantest notion of con- divers others; all which to refer to heat, and cold, coction is, that it should signify the degrees of alter- and moisture, and drought, is a compendious and ation, of one body into another, from crudity to per- inutile speculation. But of these see principally fect concoction; which is the ultimity of that action our "Abecedarium Naturæ;" and otherwise sparsim or process; and while the body to be converted and in this our “Sylva Sylvarum:" nevertheless, in some altered is too strong for the efficient that should con- good part, we shall handle divers of them now vert or alter it, whereby it resisteth and holdeth fast presently. in some degree the first form or consistence, it is all that while crude and inconcoct : and the process is Experiment solitary touching bodies liquefiable, and to be called crudity and inconcoction. It is true,

not liquefiable. that concoction is in great part the work of heat, 840. Liquefiable, and not liquefiable, proceed but not the work of heat alone : for all things that from these causes : liquefaction is ever caused by farther the conversion, or alteration, as rest, mixture the detention of the spirits, which play within the of a body already concocted, &c. are also means to body and open it. Therefore such bodies as are concoction. And there are of concoction two periods ; ( more turgid of spirit; or that have their spirits


more straitly imprisoned; or, again, that hold them as we call them, of bodies : but the air intermixed better pleased and content, are liquefiable: for these is without virtues, and maketh things insipid, and three dispositions of bodies do arrest the emission of without any exstimulation. the spirits. An example of the first two properties is in metals; and of the last in grease, pitch, sul

Experiment solitary touching concretion and dissophur, butter, wax, &c. The disposition not to lique

lution of bodies. fy proceedeth from the easy emission of the spirits, 843. The concretion of bodies is commonly solved whereby the grosser parts contract; and therefore by the contrary; as ice, which is congealed by cold, bodies jejune of spirits, or which part with their is dissolved by heat; salt and sugar, which are exspirits more willingly, are not liquefiable ; as wood, cocted by heat, are dissolved by cold and moisture. clay, free-stone, &c. But yet even many of those The cause is, for that these operations are rather rebodies that will not melt, or will hardly melt, will turns to their former nature, than alterations; so notwithstanding soften ; as iron, in the forge; and that the contrary cureth. As for oil, it doth neither a stick bathed in hot ashes, which thereby becom- easily congeal with cold, nor thicken with heat. eth more flexible. Moreover there are some bodies The cause of both effects, though they be produced which do liquefy or dissolve by fire: as metals, by contrary efficients, seemeth to be the same ; and wax, &c. and other bodies which dissolve in water; that is, because the spirit of the oil by either means as salt, sugar, &c. The cause of the former pro exhaleth little, for the cold keepeth it in ; and the ceedeth from the dilatation of the spirits by heat: heat, except it be vehement, doth not call it forth. the cause of the latter proceedeth from the opening As for cold, though it take hold of the tangible of the tangible parts, which desire to receive the parts, yet as to the spirits, it doth rather make them liquor. Again, there are some bodies that dissolve swell than congeal them : as when ice is congealed with both; as gum, &c. And those be such bodies, in a cup, the ice will swell instead of contracting, as on the one side have good store of spirit; and and sometimes rift. on the other side, have the tangible parts indigent of moisture ; for the former helpeth to the dilating

Experiment solitary touching hard and soft

bodies. of the spirits by the fire; and the latter stimulateth the parts to receiye the liquor.

844. Of bodies, some we see are hard, and some

soft : the hardness is caused chiefly by the jejuneExperiment solitary touching bodies fragile and

ness of the spirits, and their imparity with the tantough.

gible parts: both which, if they be in a greater de841. Of bodies some are fragile; and some are gree, make them not only hard, but fragile, and less tough, and not fragile ; and in the breaking, some enduring of pressure; as steel, stone, glass, dry fragile bodies break but where the force is; some wood, &c. Softness cometh, contrariwise, by the shatter and fly in many places. Of fragility, the greater quantity of spirits, which ever helpeth to cause is an impotency to be extended ; and there- induce yielding and cession, and by the more equal fore stone is more fragile than metal; and so fic- spreading of the tangible parts, which thereby are tile earth is more fragile than crude earth; and more sliding and following: as in gold, lead, wax, dry wood than green. And the cause of this un- &c. But note, that soft bodies, as we use the word, aptness to extension, is the small quantity of are of two kinds; the one, that easily giveth place spirits ; for it is the spirit that farthereth the exten- to another body, but altereth not bulk, by rising in sion or dilatation of bodies; and it is ever concomi- other places : and therefore we see that wax, if you tant with porosity, and with dryness in the tangi- put any thing into it, doth not rise in bulk, but only ble parts : contrariwise, tough bodies have more giveth place : for you may not think, that in printspirit, and fewer pores, and moister tangible parts: ing of wax, the wax riseth up at all; but only the therefore we see that parchment or leather will depressed part giveth place, and the other remainstretch, paper will not; woollen cloth will tenter, eth as it was. The other that altereth bulk in the linen scarcely.

cession, as water, or other liquors, if you put a stone Experiment solitary touching the two kinds of

or any thing into them, they give place indeed easily, pneumaticals in bodies.

but then they rise all over ; which is a false cession;

for it is in place, and not in body. 842. All solid bodies consist of parts of two several natures, pneumatical and tangible ; and it is

Experiment solitary touching bodies ductile and

tensile. well to be noted, that the pneumatical substance is in some bodies the native spirit of the body, and in 845. All bodies ductile and tensile, as metals, some other, plain air that is gotten in; as in bodies that will be drawn into wires; wool, and tow, that desiccate by heat or age: for in them, when the will be drawn into yarn or thread, have in them the native spirit goeth forth, and the moisture with it, appetite of not discontinuing strong, which maketh the air with time getteth into the pores. And those them follow the force that pulleth them out; and bodies are ever the more fragile ; for the native yet so, as not to discontinue or forsake their own spirit is more yielding and extensive, especially to body. Viscous bodies likewise, as pitch, wax, birdfollow the parts, than air. The native spirits also lime, cheese toasted, will draw forth and rope. But admit great diversity; as hot, cold, active, dull, &c. the difference between bodies fibrous and bodies whence proceed most of the virtues and qualities, viscous is plain : for all wool, and tow, and cotton,


and silk, especially raw silk, have, besides their de- for to ascribe it only to the vapour of lead, is less sire of continuance, in regard of the tenuity of their probable. Query, whether the fixing may be in thread, a greediness of moisture : and by moisture such a degree, as it will be figured like other to join and incorporate with other thread; especially metals ? For if so, you may make works of it for if there be a little wreathing; as appeareth by the some purposes, so they come not near the fire. twisting of thread, and the practice of twirling about of spindles. And we see also, that gold and

Eaperiment solitary touching honey and sugar. silver thread cannot be made without twisting. 848. Sugar hath put down the use of honey, in

somuch as we have lost those observations and pre. Experiment solitary touching other passions of

parations of honey which the ancients had, when it matter, and characters of bodies.

was more in price. First, it seemeth that there 846. The differences of impressible and not im- was in old time tree-honey, as well as bee-honey, pressible; figurable and not figurable; mouldable which was the tear or blood issuing from the tree: and not mouldable; scissile and not scissile ; and insomuch as one of the ancients relateth, that in many other passions of matter, are plebeian notions, Trebisond there was honey issuing from the boxapplied unto the instruments and uses which men trees, which made men mad. Again, in ancient ordinarily practise ; but they are all but the effects time there was a kind of honey, which either of its of some of these causes following, which we will own nature, or by art, would grow as hard as sugar, enumerate without applying them, because that will and was not so luscious as ours. They had also a be too long. The first is the cession or not cession wine of honey, which they made thus.

They of bodies, into a smaller space or room, keeping the crushed the honey into a great quantity of water, outward bulk, and not flying up. The second is the and then strained the liquor: after they boiled it in stronger or weaker appetite in bodies to continuity, a copper to the half; then they poured it into earthen and to fly discontinuity. The third is the disposi- vessels for a small time; and after turned it into tion of bodies to contract or not contract : and again, vessels of wood, and kept it for many years. They to extend or not extend. The fourth is the small have also at this day, in Russia and those northern quantity or great quantity of the pneumatical in countries, mead simple, which, well made and bodies. The fifth is the nature of the pneumatical, seasoned, is a good wholesome drink, and very clear. whether it be native spirit of the body, or common They use also in Wales a compound drink of mead, air. The sixth is the nature of the native spirits in with herbs and spices. But meanwhile it were the body, whether they be active and eager, or dull good, in recompence of that we have lost in honey, and gentle. The seventh is the emission or deten- there were brought in use a sugar-mead, for so we tion of the spirits in bodies. The eighth is the may call it, though without any mixture at all of dilatation or contraction of the spirits in bodies, honey; and to brew it, and keep it stale, as they while they are detained. The ninth is the colloca- use mead: for certainly, though it would not be so tion of the spirits in bodies, whether the collocation abstersive, and opening, and solutive a drink as be equal or unequal; and again, whether the spirits mead; yet it will be more grateful to the stomach, be coacervate or diffused. The tenth is the density and more lenitive, and fit to be used in sharp disor rarity of the tangible parts. The eleventh is the eases : for we see, that the use of sugar in beer and equality or inequality of the tangible parts. The ale hath good effects in such cases. twelfth is the digestion or crudity of the tangible parts. The thirteenth is the nature of the matter,

Experiment solitary touching the finer sort of

base metals. whether sulphureous or mercurial, watery or oily, dry and terrestrial, or moist and liquid ; which 849. It is reported by the ancients, that there was natures of sulphureous and mercurial, seem to be a kind of steel in some places, which would polish natures radical and principal. The fourteenth is almost as white and bright as silver. And that there the placing of the tangible parts in length or trans- was in India a kind of brass, which, being polished, verse, as it is in the warp and the woof of textiles, could scarce be discerned from gold. This was in more inward, or more outward, &c. The fifteenth the natural ure: but I am doubtful, whether men is the porosity or imporosity betwixt the tangible have sufficiently refined metals, which we count parts, and the greatness or smallness of the pores. base ; as whether iron, brass, and tin be refined to The sixteenth is the collocation and posture of the the height ? But when they come to such a finepores. There may be more causes; but these do ness, as serveth the ordinary use, they try no occur for the present.

farther. Experiment solitary touching induration by Experiment solitary touching cements and quarries. sympathy.

850. There have been found certain cements un847. Take lead and melt it, and in the midst of it, der earth that are very soft; and yet, taken forth when it beginneth to congeal, make a little dint or into the sun, harden as hard as marble: there are hole, and put quicksilver wrapped in a piece of also ordinary quarries in Somersetshire, which in linen into that hole, and the quicksilver will fix and the quarry cut soft to any bigness, and in the buildrun no more, and endure the hammer. This is a ing prove firm and hard. noble instance of induration, by consent of one body with another, and motion of excitation to imitate;



Experiment solitary touching the altering of the

the most part, are larger than the bulls ; which is colour of hairs and feathers.

caused by abundance of moisture, which in the

horns of the bull faileth. Again, heat causeth pilo851. Living creatures generally do change their sity and crispation, and so likewise beards in men. It hair with age, turning to be grey and white: as is seen also expelleth finer moisture, which want of heat in men, though some earlier, some later; in horses cannot expel ; and that is the cause of the beauty that are dappled, and turn white; in old squirrels that and variety of feathers. Again, heat doth put forth turn grisly; and many others. So do some birds; as many excrescences, and much solid matter, which cygnets from grey turn white; hawks from brown want of heat cannot do : and this is the cause of turn more white. And some birds there be that upon horns, and of the greatness of them; and of the their moulting do turn colour; as robin-red-breasts, greatness of the combs and spurs of cocks, gills of after their moulting, growing to be red again by turkey-cocks, and fangs of boars. Heat also dilateth degrees; so do goldfinches upon the head. The cause the pipes and organs, which causeth the deepness is, for that moisture doth chiefly colour hair and fea of the voice. Again, heat refineth the spirits, and thers, and dryness turneth them grey and white: now that causeth the cock singing-bird to excel the hen. hair in age waxeth dryer ; so do feathers. As for feathers, after moulting, they are young feathers, Experiment solitary touching the comparative magand so all one as the feathers of young birds. So

nitude of living creatures. the beard is younger than the hair of the head, and 853. There be fishes greater than any beasts; as doth, for the most part, wax hoary later. Out of the whale is far greater than the elephant: and this ground a man may devise the means of alter- beasts are generally greater than birds. For fishes, ing the colour of birds, and the retardation of hoary the cause may be, that because they live not in the hairs. But of this see the fifth experiment. air, they have not their moisture drawn and soaked Experiment solitary touching the differences of

by the air and sun-beams. Also they rest always in

a manner, and are supported by the water : whereas living creatures, male and female.

motion and labourdo consume. As for the greatness of 852. The difference between male and female, beasts more than of birds, it is caused, for that beasts in some creatures, is not to be discerned, otherwise stay longer time in the womb than birds, and there than in the parts of generation : as in horses and nourish and grow; whereas in birds, after the egg laid, mares, dogs and bitches, doves he and she, and there is no farther growth or nourishment from the others. But some differ in magnitude, and that di- female; for the sitting doth vivify, and not nourish. versly; for in most the male is the greater ; as in man, pheasants, peacocks, turkeys, and the like : Experiment solitary touching exossation of fruits. and in some few, as in hawks, the female. Some 854. We have partly touched before the means differ in the hair and feathers, both in the quantity, of producing fruits without cores or stones. And crispation, and colours of them; as he-lions are this we add farther, that the cause must be abunhirsute, and have great manes: the she-lions are dance of moisture ; for that the core and stone are smooth like cats. Bulls are more crisp upon the made of a dry sap: and we see, that it is possible to forehead than cows; the peacock, and pheasant-cock, make a tree put forth only in blossom, without fruit; and goldfinch-cock, have glorious and fine colours ; as in cherries with double flowers; much more into the hens have not. Generally the males in birds fruit without stone or cores. It is reported, that a have fairest feathers. Some differ in divers features: cion of an apple, grafted upon a colewort stalk, as bucks have horns, does none ; rams have more sendeth forth a great apple without a core. It is wreathed horns than ewes ; cocks have great combs not unlikely, that if the inward pith of a tree were and spurs, hens little or none; boars have great taken out, so that the juice came only by the bark, fangs, sows much less; the turkey-cock hath great it would work the effect. For it hath been observed, and swelling gills, the hen hath less; men have that in pollards, if the water get in on the top, and generally deeper and stronger voices than women. they become hollow, they put forth the more. We Some differ in faculty; as the cocks amongst sing-add also, that it is delivered for certain by some, ing-birds are the best singers. The chief cause of that if the cion be grafted the small end downwards, all these, no doubt, is, for that the males have more it will make fruit have little or no cores and stones. strength of heat than the females; which appeareth manifestly in this, that all young creatures males

Experiment solitary touching the melioration of

tobacco. are like females ; and so are eunuchs, and gelt creatures of all kinds, like females. Now heat causeth 855. Tobacco is a thing of great price, if it be greatness of growth, generally, where there is mois-in request : for an acre of it will be worth, as is ture enough to work upon : but if there be found affirmed, two hundred pounds by the year towards in any creature, which seen rarely, an over-great charge. The charge of making the ground and heat in proportion to the moisture, in them the fe- otherwise is great, but nothing to the profit; but the male is the greater ; as in hawks and sparrows. English tobacco hath small credit, as being too dull And if the heat be balanced with the moisture, and earthy : nay, the Virginian tobacco, though that then there is no difference to be seen between male be in a hotter climate, can get no credit for the and female ; as in the instances of horses and dogs. same cause : so that a trial to make tobacco more We see also, that the horns of oxen and cows, for aromatical, and better concocted, here in England,


were a thing of great profit. Some have gone about fish, flesh, &c.: by rottenness is, for that the spirits to do it by drenching the English tobacco in a de- of the fruit by putrefaction gather heat, and thereby coction or infusion of Indian tobacco : but those are digest the harder part, for in all putrefactions there but sophistications and toys; for nothing that is is a degree of heat: by time and keeping is, because once perfect, and hath run its race, can receive much the spirits of the body do ever feed upon the tangiamendment. You must ever resort to the beginnings ble parts, and attenuate them : by several maturaof things for melioration. The way of maturation of tions is, by some degree of heat: and by fire is, betobacco must, as in other plants, be from the heat cause it is the proper work of heat to refine, and to either of the earth or of the sun : we see some incorporate; and all sourness consisteth in some leading of this in musk-melons, which are sown grossness of the body; and all incorporation doth upon a hot-bed dunged below, upon a bank turned make the mixture of the body more equal in all its upon the south sun, to give heat by reflection ; laid parts; which ever induceth a milder taste. upon tiles, which increaseth the heat, and covered with straw to keep them from cold. They remove

Experiment solitary touching flesh edible, and not

edible. them also, which addeth some life: and by these helps they become as good in England, as in Italy 859. Of fleshes, some are edible; some, except or Provence. These, and the like means, may be it be in famine, not. For those that are not edible, tried in tobacco. Inquire also of the steeping of the the cause is, for that they have commonly too much roots in some such liquor as may give them vigour bitterness of taste; and therefore those creatures to put forth strong.

which are fierce and choleric are not edible ; as Experiment solitary touching several heats working for kine, sheep, goats, deer, swine, conies, hares, &c.

lions, wolves, squirrels, dogs, foxes, horses, &c. As the same effects.

we see they are mild and fearful. Yet it is true, 856. Heat of the sun for the maturation of fruits; that horses, which are beasts of courage, have been, yea, and the heat of vivification of living creatures, and are eaten by some nations; as the Scythians are both represented and supplied by the heat of were called Hyppophagi ; and the Chinese eat fire; and likewise the heats of the sun, and life, are horse-flesh at this day ; and some gluttons have represented one by the other. Trees set upon the used to have colt's flesh baked. In birds, such as backs of chimneys do ripen fruit sooner. Vines, are carnivoræ, and birds of prey, are commonly no that have been drawn in at the window of a kitchen, good meat; but the reason is, rather the choleric have sent forth grapes ripe a month at least before nature of those birds, than their feeding upon flesh: others. Stoves at the back of walls bring forth for pewets, gulls, shovellers, ducks, do feed upon flesh, oranges here with us. Eggs, as is reported by some, and yet are good meat. And we see that those have been hatched in the warmth of an oven. It birds which are of prey, or feed upon flesh, are good is reported by the ancients, that the ostrich layeth meat when they are very young; as hawks, rooks her eggs under sand, where the heat of the sun out of the nest, owls, &c. Man's flesh is not eaten. discloseth them.

The reasons are three : first, because men in humaExperiment solitary touching swelling and dilatation nity do abhor it: secondly, because no living creain boiling.

ture that dieth of itself is good to eat : and therefore

the cannibals themselves eat no man's flesh of those 857. Barley in the boiling swelleth not much; that die of themselves, but of such as are slain. wheat swelleth more ; rice extremely ; insomuch as The third is, because there must be generally some a quarter of a pint, unboiled, will arise to a pint disparity between the nourishment and the body boiled. The cause no doubt is, for that the more nourished; and they must not be over-near, or like: close and compact the body is, the more it will yet we see, that in great weaknesses and consumpdilate: now barley is the most hollow; wheat more tions, men have been sustained with women's milk; solid than that; and rice most solid of all. It may and Ficinus, fondly, as I conceive, adviseth, for the be also that some bodies have a kind of lentour, prolongation of life, that a vein be opened in the and more depertible nature than others : as we see arm of some wholesome young man, and the blood it evident in coloration ; for a small quantity of saf to be sucked. It is said that witches do greedily fron will tinct more than a very great quantity of. eat man's flesh: which if it be true, besides a devilbrasil or wine.

ish appetite in them, it is likely to proceed, for that

man's flesh may send up high and pleasing vapours, Experiment solitary touching the dulcoration of

which may stir the imagination ; and witches' felifruits.

city is chiefly in imagination, as hath been said. 858. Fruit groweth sweet by rolling, or pressing them gently with the hand; as rolling pears, dama

Experiment solitary touching the salamander. scenes, &c.: by rottenness; as medlars, services, 860. There is an ancient received tradition of the sloes, hips, &c.: by time ; as apples, wardens, pome- salamander, that it liveth in the fire, and hath force granates, &c. : by certain special maturations; as also to extinguish the fire. It must have two things, by laying them in hay, straw, &c. : and by fire; as if it be true, to this operation : the one a very close in roasting, stewing, baking, &c. The cause of the skin, whereby flame, which in the midst is not so sweetness by rolling and pressing, is emollition, hot, cannot enter; for we see that if the palm of the which they properly induce; as in beating of stock-hand be anointed thick with white of egg, and then


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