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more, fewer : or by the partitions and cells of the impulsion there is requisite the force of the body womb, which may sever the sperm.
that moveth, and the resistance of the body that is
moved: and if the body be too great, it yieldeth too Experiments in consort touching species visible.
little ; and if it be too small, it resisteth too little. 761. There is no doubt, but light by refraction 765. It is common experience, that no weight will show greater, as well as things coloured. For will press or cut so strong, being laid upon a body, like as a shilling in the bottom of the water will show as falling or strucken from above. It may be the greater ; so will a candle in a lanthorn, in the bottom air hath some part in farthering the percussion ; of the water. I have heard of a practice, that glow- but the chief cause I take to be, for that the parts worms in glasses were put in the water to make the of the body moved have by impulsion, or by the fish come. But I am not yet informed, whether when motion of gravity continued, a compression in them, a diver diveth, having his eyes open, and swimmeth as well downwards, as they have when they are upon his back; whether, I say, he seeth things in the thrown, or shot through the air, forwards. i conair, greater or less. For it is manifest, that when the ceive also, that the quick loss of that motion preeye standeth in the finer medium, and the object is in venteth the resistance of the body below; and prithe grosser, things show greater : but contrariwise, ority of the force always is of great efficacy, as when the eye is placed in the grosser medium, and appeareth in infinite instances. the object in the finer, how it worketh I know not. 762. It would be well bolted out, whether great
Experiment solitary touching titillation. refractions may not be made upon reflexions, as 766. Tickling is most in the soles of the feet, well as upon direct beams. For example, we see, and under the arm-holes, and on the sides. The that take an empty bason, put an angel of gold, or cause is the thinness of the skin in those parts, what you will, into it; then go so far from the joined with the rareness of being touched there : bason, till you cannot see the angel, because it is for all tickling is a light motion of the spirits, which not in a right line; then fill the bason with water, the thinness of the skin, and suddenness and rareness and you shall see it out of its place, because of the of touch do farther : for we see a feather, or a rush, reflexion. To proceed therefore, put a looking-glass drawn along the lip or cheek, doth tickle ; whereas into a bason of water ; I suppose you shall not see a thing more obtuse, or a touch more hard, doth the image in a right line, or at equal angles, but not. And for suddenness, we see no man can tickle aside. I know not whether this experiment may himself: we see also that the palm of the hand, not be extended so, as you might see the image, and though it hath as thin a skin as the other parts not the glass ; which for beauty and strangeness mentioned, yet is not ticklish, because it is accuswere a fine proof: for then you should see the image tomed to be touched. Tickling also causeth laughlike a spirit in the air. As for example, if there be ter. The cause may be the emission of the spirits, a cistern or pool of water, you shall place over and so of the breath, by a flight from titillation; against it a picture of the devil, or what you will, for upon tickling we see there is ever a starting or so as you do not see the water. Then put a look- shrinking away of the part to avoid it; and we see ing-glass in the water: now if you can see the also, that if you tickle the nostrils with a feather, devil's picture aside, not seeing the water, it would or straw, it procureth sneezing; which is a sudden look like a devil indeed. They have an old tale in emission of the spirits, that do likewise expel the Oxford, that Friar Bacon walked between two stee-moisture. And tickling is ever painful, and not well ples; which was thought to be done by glasses, endured. when he walked upon the ground.
Experiment solitary touching the scarcity of rain in Experiments in consort touching impulsion and
767. It is strange, that the river of Nilus over763. A weighty body put into motion is more flowing, as it doth, the country of Ægypt, there easily impelled than at first when it resteth. The should be, nevertheless, little or no rai cause is, partly because motion doth discuss the torpor country. The cause must be either in the nature of solid bodies; which beside their motion of gra- of the water, or in the nature of the air, or of both. vity, have in them a natural appetite not to move at In the water, it may be ascribed either unto the all; and partly, because a body that resteth, doth get, long race of the water; for swift-running waters by the resistance of the body upon which it resteth, vapour not so much as standing waters; or else to a stronger compression of parts than it hath of it the concoction of the water; for waters well conself: and therefore needeth more force to be put in cocted vapour not so much as waters raw ; no more motion. For if a weighty body be pensile, and than waters upon the fire do vapour so much after hang but by a thread, the percussion will make an some time of boiling as at the first. And it is true impulsion very near as easily as if it were already that the water of Nilus is sweeter than other waters in motion.
in taste ; and it is excellent good for the stone, and 764. A body over-great or over-small, will not be hypochondriacal melancholy, which showeth it is thrown so far as a body of a middle size : so that, lenifying; and it runneth through a country of a it seemeth, there must be a commensuration, or pro- hot climate, and flat, without shade, either of woods portion between the body moved and the force, to or hills, whereby the sun must needs have great make it move well. The cause is, because to the power to concoct it. As for the air, from whence
I conceive this want of showers cometh chiefly, , periment concerning annihilation ; namely, that if the cause must be, for that the air is of itself thin you provide against three causes of putrefaction, and thirsty ; and as soon as ever it getteth any mois- bodies will not corrupt: the first is, that the air ture from the water, it imbibeth and dissipateth it be excluded, for that undermineth the body, and in the whole body of the air, and suffereth it not to conspireth with the spirit of the body to dissolve it. remain in vapour, whereby it might breed rain. The second is, that the body adjacent and ambient
be not commaterial, but merely heterogeneal toExperiment solitary touching clarification.
wards the body that is to be preserved; for if no768. It hath been touched in the title of perco- thing can be received by the one, nothing can issue lations, namely, such as are inwards, that the from the other; such are quicksilver and white whites of eggs and milk do clarify; and it is certain, amber, to herbs, and flies, and such bodies. The that in Ægypt they prepare and clarify the wa- third is, that the body to be preserved be not of that ter of Nile, by putting it into great jars of stone, gross that it may corrupt within itself, although no and stirring it about with a few stamped almonds, part of it issue into the body adjacent: and therewherewith they also besmear the mouth of the fore it must be rather thin and small, than of bulk. vessel; and so draw it off, after it hath rested some There is a fourth remedy also, which is, that if the time. It were good to try this clarifying with body to be preserved be of bulk, as a corpse is, then almonds in new beer, or muste, to hasten and perfect the body that encloseth it must have a virtue to the clarifying.
draw forth, and dry the moisture of the inward Experiment solitary touching plants without leaves. body; for else the putrefaction will play within,
though nothing issue forth. I remember Livy doth 769. There be scarce to be found any vegetables, relate, that there were found at a time two coffins of that have branches and no leaves, except you allow lead in a tomb; whereof the one contained the body coral for one. But there is also in the deserts of of king Numa, it being some four hundred years S. Macaria in Ægypt, a plant which is long, leafless, after his death: and the other, his books of sacred brown of colour, and branched like coral, save that rites and ceremonies, and the discipline of the ponit closeth at the top. This being set in water with- tiffs; and that in the coffin that had the body, there in a house, spreadeth and displayeth strangely; and was nothing at all to be seen, but a little light cinthe people thereabout have a superstitious belief, ders about the sides; but in the coffin that had the that in the labour of women it helpeth to the easy books, they were found as fresh as if they had been deliverance.
but newly written, being written on parchment, Experiment solitary touching the materials of glass.
and covered over with watch-candles of wax three
or four fold. By this it seemeth that the Romans 770. The crystalline Venice glass is reported to
in Numa's time were not so good embalmers as the be a mixture in equal portions of stones brought
Ægyptians were ; which was the cause that the body from Pavia by the river Ticinum, and the ashes of was utterly consumed. But I find in Plutarch, and a weed called by the Arabs kal, which is gathered
others, that when Augustus Cæsar visited the sepulin a desert between Alexandria and Rosetta ; and is
chre of Alexander the Great in Alexandria, he found by the Ægyptians used first for fuel ; and then they
the body to keep its dimension; but withal, that crush the ashes into lumps like a stone, and so notwithstanding all the embalming, which no doubt sell them to the Venetians for their glass-works. was of the best, the body was so tender, as Cæsar, Experiment solitary touching prohibition of putre
touching but the nose of it, defaced it. Which faction, and the long conservation of bodies.
maketh me find it very strange, that the Ægyptian
mummies should be reported to be as hard as stone771. It is strange, and well to be noted, how pitch; for I find no difference but one, which in. long carcasses have continued uncorrupt, and in their deed may be very material; namely, that the anformer dimensions, as appeareth in the mummies cient Ægyptian mummies were shrowded in a numof Ægypt; having lasted, as is conceived, some of ber of folds of linen, besmeared with gums, in manthem, three thousand years. It is true, they find ner of sear-cloth, which it doth not appear was means to draw forth the brains, and to take forth practised upon the body of Alexander. the entrails, which are the parts aptest to corrupt. But that is nothing to the wonder : for we see what
Experiment solitary touching the abundance of nitre
in certain sea-shores. a soft and corruptible substance the flesh of all the other parts of the body is. But it should seem, that, 772. Near the castle of Caty, and by the wells according to our observation and axiom in our of Assan, in the land of Idumea, a great part of the hundredth experiment, putrefaction, which we con- way you would think the sea were near at hand, ceive to be so natural a period of bodies, is but an though it be a good distance off: and it is nothing accident; and that matter maketh not that haste to but the shining of the nitre upon the sea sands, such corruption that is conceived. And therefore bodies abundance of nitre the shores there do put forth. in shining amber, in quicksilver, in balms, whereof we now speak, in wax, in honey, in gums, and, it
Experiment solitary touching bodies that are borne may be, in conservatories of snow, &c. are preserved
up by water. very long. It need not go for repetition, if we re- 773. The Dead sea, which vomiteth up bitumen, sume again that which we said in the aforesaid ex- is of that crassitude, as living bodies bound hand
and foot cast into it have been borne up, and not
Experiment solitary touching the trials of airs. sunk; which showeth, that all sinking into water is but an over-weight of the body put into the water 777. There would be used much diligence in the in respect of the water; so that you may make wa- choice of some bodies and places, as it were, for the ter so strong and heavy, of quicksilver, perhaps, or tasting of air; to discover the wholesomeness or the like, as may bear up iron; of which I see no use, unwholesomeness, as well of seasons, as of the seats but imposture. We see also, that all metals, except of dwellings. It is certain, that there be some gold, for the same reason, swim upon quicksilver. houses wherein confitures and pies will gather
mould more than in others. And I am persuaded, Experiment solitary touching fuel that consumeth
that a piece of raw flesh or fish will sooner corrupt little or nothing
in some airs than in others. They be noble expe774. It is reported, that at the foot of the hill riments that can make this discovery; for they serve near the Mare mortuum there is a black stone, for a natural divination of seasons, better than the whereof pilgrims make fires, which burneth like a astronomers can by their figures: and again, they coal, and diminisheth not, but only waxeth brighter teach men where to choose their dwelling for their and whiter. That it should do so is not strange: better health. for we see iron red-hot burneth, and consumeth not; Experiment solitary touching increasing of milk in but the strangeness is, that it should continue any
milch beasts. time so: for iron, as soon as it is out of the fire, deadeth straightways. Certainly it were a thing 778. There is a kind of stone about Bethlehem, of great use and profit, if you could find out fuel that which they grind to powder, and put into water, would burn hot, and yet last long: neither am I whereof cattle drink, which maketh them give more altogether incredulous, but there may be such candles milk. Surely there should be some better trials as they say are made of salamander's wool; being made of mixtures of water in ponds for cattle, to a kind of mineral, which whiteneth also in the make them more milch, or to fatten them, or to keep burning, and consumeth not. The question is this; them from murrain. It may be chalk and nitre are flame must be made of somewhat, and commonly of the best. it is made of some tangible body which hath weight: but it is not impossible perhaps that it should be Experiment solitary touching sand of the nature of
glass. made of spirit, or vapour, in a body, which spirit or vapour hath no weight, such as is the matter of 779. It is reported, that in the valley near the ignis fatuus. But then you will say, that that va- mountain Carmel in Judea there is a sand, which of pour also can last but a short time : to that it may all other hath most affinity with glass : insomuch be answered, that by the help of oil, and wax, and as other minerals laid in it turn to a glassy subother candle-stuff, the flame may continue, and the stance without the fire; and again, glass put into it wick not burn.
turneth into the mother sand. The thing is very
strange, if it be true: and it is likeliest to be caused Experiment solitary æconomical touching cheap fuel. by some natural furnace or heat in the earth : and
775. Sea-coal lasts longer than charcoal; and yet they do not speak of any eruption of flames. It charcoal of roots, being coaled into great pieces, were good to try in glass-works, whether the crude lasts longer than ordinary charcoal. Turf and peat, materials of glass, mingled with glass already made, and cow-sheards, are cheap fuels, and last long and re-molten, do not facilitate the making of glass Small coal, or brier-coal, poured upon charcoal, with less heat. make them last longer. Sedge is a cheap fuel to brew or bake with the rather because it is good Experiment solitary touching the growth of coral. for nothing else. Trial would be made of some 780. In the sea, upon the south-west of Sicily, mixture of sea-coal with earth or chalk; for if that much coral is found. It is a submarine plant. It mixture be, as the sea-coal men use it, privily, to hath no leaves : it brancheth only when it is under make the bulk of the coal greater, it is deceit; but water; it is soft, and green of colour ; but being if it be used purposely, and be made known, it is brought into the air, it becometh hard and shining saving
red, as we see. It is said also to have a white
berry; but we find it not brought over with the Experiment solitary touching the gathering of wind coral. Belike it is cast away as nothing worth: for freshness.
inquire better of it, for the discovery of the nature 776. It is at this day in use in Gaza, to couch of the plant. potsherds or vessels of earth in their walls, to gather the wind from the top, and to pass it down in spouts
Experiment solitary touching the gathering of into rooms.
It a device for freshness in great heats : and it is said, there are some rooms in Italy 781. The manna of Calabria is the best, and in and Spain for freshness, and gathering the winds most plenty. They gather it from the leaf of the and air in the heats of summer; but they be but mulberry-tree ; but not of such mulberry-trees as pennings of the winds, and enlarging them again, grow in the valleys. And manna falleth upon the and making them reverberate, and go round in cir- leaves by night, as other dews do. It should seem, cles, rather than this device of spouts in the wall. that before those dews come upon trees in the yal
leys, they dissipate and cannot hold out. It should the head require it not; but contrariwise dryness seem also, the mulberry leaf itself hath some coagu- maketh them more apt to consolidate. And in lating virtue, which inspissateth the dew, for that it modern observation, the like difference hath been is not found upon other trees: and we see by the found between Frenchmen and Englishmen; whereof silk-worm, which feedeth upon that leaf, what a the one's constitution is more dry, and the other's dainty smooth juice it hath ; and the leaves also, more moist. And therefore a hurt of the head is especially of the black mulberry, are somewhat harder to cure in a Frenchman, and of the leg in an bristly, which may help to preserve the dew. Cer- Englishman. tainly it were not amiss to observe a little better the dews that fall upon trees, or herbs, growing on
Experiment solitary touching the healthfulness or mountains; for it may be many dews fall, that spend
unhealthfulness of the southern wind. before they come to the valleys. And I suppose, 786. It hath been noted by the ancients, that that he that would gather the best May-dew for southern winds, blowing much, without rain, do cause medicine, should gather it from the hills.
a feverous disposition of the year ; but with rain,
not. The cause is, for that southern winds do of Experiment solitary touching the correcting of wine. themselves qualify the air, to be apt to cause fevers ;
782. It was said they have a manner to prepare but when showers are joined, they do refrigerate in their Greek wines, to keep them from fuming and part, and check the sultry heat of the southern inebriating, by adding some sulphur or alum: whereof wind. Therefore this holdeth not in the sea-coasts, the one is unctuous, and the other is astringent because the vapour of the sea, without showers, And certain it is, that those two natures do best doth refresh. repress fumes. This experiment would be transferred unto other wine and strong beer, by putting
Experiment solitary touching wounds. in some like substances while they work; which may 787. It hath been noted by the ancients, that make them both to fume less, and to inflame less. wounds which are made with brass heal more easily
than wounds made with iron. The cause is, for that Experiment solitary touching the materials of
brass hath in itself a sanative virtue; and so in the wild-fire.
very instant helpeth somewhat; but iron is corrosive, 783. It is conceived by some, not improbably, and not sanative. And therefore it were good, that that the reason why wild-fires, whereof the principal the instruments which are used by chirurgeons about ingredient is bitumen, do not quench with water, is, wounds, were rather of brass than iron. for that the first concretion of bitumen is a mixture of a fiery and watery substance; so is not sulphur. Experiment solitary touching mortification by cold. This appeareth, for that in the place near Puteoli, 788. In the cold countries, when men's noses and which they call the court of Vulcan, you shall hear ears are mortified, and, as it were, gangrened with under the earth a horrible thundering of fire and cold, if they come to a fire they rot off presently. water conflicting together; and there break forth The cause is, for that the few spirits that remain in also spouts of boiling water. Now that place yield- those parts, are suddenly drawn forth, and so putreeth great quantities of bitumen ; whereas Ætna, and faction is made complete. But snow put upon them Vesuvius, and the like, which consist upon sulphur, helpeth ; for that it preserveth those spirits that shoot forth smoke, and ashes, and pumice, but no remain, till they can revive ; and besides, snow hath water. It is reported also, that bitumen mingled in it a secret warmth : as the monk proved out of with lime, and put under water, will make as it were the text; “ qui dat nivem sicut lanam, gelu sicut an artificial rock ; the substance becometh so hard. cineres spargit.” Whereby he did infer, that snow
did warm like wool, and frost did fret like ashes. Experiment solitary touching plaster growing as
Warm water also doth good ; because by little and hard as marble.
little it openeth the pores, without any sudden work784. There is a cement, compounded of flour, ing upon the spirits. This experiment may be whites of eggs, and stone powder, that becometh transferred to the cure of gangrenes, either coming of hard as marble : wherewith Piscina Mirabilis, near themselves, or induced by too much applying of opiCuma, is said to have the walls plastered. And it ates; wherein you must beware of dry heat, and is certain and tried, that the powder of loadstone resort to things that are refrigerant, with an inward and flint, by the addition of whites of eggs, and gum-warmth, and virtue of cherishing. dragon, made into paste, will in a few days harden to the hardness of a stone.
Experiment solitary touching weight.
789. Weigh iron and Experiment solitary touching judgment of the cure
fortis severally; then
dissolve the iron in the aqua fortis, and weigh the in some ulcers and hurts.
dissolution ; and
shall find it to bear as good 785. It hath been noted by the ancients, that in weight as the bodies did severally : notwithstanding full or impure bodies, ulcers or hurts in the legs are a good deal of waste by a thick vapour that issueth hard to cure, and in the head more easy. The cause during the working; which showeth that the openis, for that ulcers or hurts in the legs require desic-ing of a body doth increase the weight. This was cation, which by the defluxion of humours to the tried once or twice, but I know not whether there lower parts is hindered ; whereas hurts and ulcers in I were any error in the trial.
Experiment solitary touching the super-natation of their flight, the parts are, in some degree, destitute;
offensive, do cause the spirits to retire: and upon bodies.
and so there is induced in them a trepidation and 790. Take of aqua fortis two ounces, of quick- horror. For sounds, we see that the grating of a silver two drams, for that charge the aqua fortis saw, or any very harsh noise, will set the teeth on will bear; the dissolution will not bear a flint as edge, and make all the body shiver. For tastes, we big as a nutmeg: yet, no doubt, the increasing of see that in the taking of a potion or pills, the head the weight of water will increase its power of and the neck shake. For odious smells, the like bearing; as we see brine, when it is salt enough, effect followeth, which is less perceived, because will bear an egg. And I remember well a physician, there is a remedy at hand by stopping of the nose; that used to give some mineral baths for the gout, but in horses, that can use no such help, we see the &c. and the body when it was put into the bath, smell of a carrion, especially of a dead horse, maketh could not get down so easily as in ordinary water. them fly away, and take on almost as if they were But it seemeth, the weight of the quicksilver more mad. For feeling, if you come out of the sun sudthan the weight of a stone, doth not compense the denly into a shade, there followeth a chillness or weight of a stone more than the weight of the aqua shivering in all the body. And even in sight, which fortis.
hath in effect no odious object, coming into sudden
darkness, induceth an offer to shiver. Experiment solitary touching the flying of unequal bodies in the air.
Experiment solitary touching the super-reflection 791. Let there be a body of unequal weight, as
of echos. of wood and lead, or bone and lead ; if you throw it 794. There is in the city of Ticinum in Italy, a from you with the light end forward, it will turn, church that hath windows only from above; it is in and the weightier end will recover to be forwards ; length a hundred feet, in breadth twenty feet, and unless the body be over-long. The cause is, for in height near fifty; having a door in the midst. It that the more dense body hath a more violent pres- reporteth the voice twelve or thirteen times, if you sure of the parts from the first impulsion ; which is stand by the close end-wall over-against the door. the cause, though heretofore not found out, as hath The echo fadeth, and dieth by little and little, as been often said, of all violent motions; and when the the echo at Pont-Charenton doth. And the voice hinder part moveth swifter, for that it less endureth soundeth as if it came from above the door. And if pressure of parts, than the forward part can make way you stand at the lower end, or on either side of the for it, it must needs be that the body turn over: for, door, the echo holdeth ; but if you stand in the door, turned, it can more easily draw forward the lighter or in the midst, just over-against the door, not. part. Galilæus noteth it well, that if an open Note, that all echos sound better against old walls trough, wherein water is, be driven faster than the than new; because they are more dry and hollow. water can follow, the water gathereth upon a heap Experiment solitary touching the force of imaginatowards the hinder end, where the motion began, which he supposeth, holding confidently the mo
tion, imitating that of the sense. tion of the earth, to be the cause of the ebbing and
795. Those effects which are wrought by the flowing of the ocean; because the earth over-runneth percussion of the sense, and by things in fact, are the water. Which theory, though it be false, yet produced likewise in some degree by the imaginathe first experiment is true. As for the inequality tion. Therefore if a man see another eat sour or of the pressure of parts, it appeareth manifestly in acid things, which set the teeth on edge, this obthis ; that if you take a body of stone or iron, and ject tainteth the imagination. So that he that seeth another of wood, of the same magnitude and shape, the thing done by another, hath his own teeth also and throw them with equal force, you cannot pos- set on edge. So if a man see another turn swiftly sibly throw the wood so far as the stone or iron. and long, or if he look upon wheels that turn, him
self waxeth turn-sick. So if a man be upon a Experiment solitary touching water, that it may be high place without rails or good hold, except he be the medium of sounds.
used to it, he is ready to fall : for imagining a fall, 792. It is certain, as it hath been formerly in partit putteth his spirits into the very action of a fall. touched, that water may be the medium of sounds. So many upon the seeing of others bleed, or If you dash a stone against a stone in the bottom of strangled, or tortured, themselves are ready to faint, the water, it maketh a sound. So a long pole struck as if they bled, or were in strife. upon gravel in the bottom of the water maketh a sound. Nay, if you should think that the sound Experiment solitary touching preservation of bodies. cometh up by the pole, and not by the water, you 796. Take a stock-gilly-flower, and tie it gently shall find that an anchor let down by a rope maketh upon a stick, and put them both into a stoop-glass a sound : and yet the rope is no solid body whereby full of quicksilver, so that the flower be covered : the sound can ascend.
then lay a little weight upon the top of the glass Experiment solitary of the flight of the spirits upon after four or five days; and you shall find the
that may keep the stick down; and look upon them odious objects.
flower fresh, and the stalk harder and less flexible 793. All objects of the senses which are very than it was. If you compare it with another flower