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effects before mentioned, whereunto these general | imagination. The cause of the imagination that notes give some light. For the dilatation of the things come upon them is, for that the spirits visual month and lips, continued expulsion of the breath themselves draw back; which maketh the object and voice, and shaking of the breast and sides, they seem to come on; and besides, when they see things proceed, all, from the dilatation of the spirits; espe- turn round and move, fear maketh them think they cially being sudden. So likewise, the running of come upon them. The cause that they cannot see the eyes with water, as hath been formerly touched, things afar off, is the weakness of the spirits ; for in where we spake of the tears of joy and grief, is an every megrim or vertigo there is an obtenebration effect of dilatation of the spirits. And for sud- joined with a semblance of turning round; which denness, it is a great part of the matter : for we see also in the lighter sort of swoonings. The we see, that any shrewd turn that lighteth upon cause of seeing things out of their place, is the reanother, or any deformity, &c. moveth laughter in fraction of the spirits visual; for the vapour is as the instant; which after a little time it doth not. an unequal medium ; and it is as the sight of things So we cannot laugh at any thing after it is stale, out of place in water. The cause of seeing things but whilst it is new: and even in tickling, if you double, is the swift and unquiet motion of the tickle the sides, and give warning; or give a hard spirits, being oppressed, to and fro; for as was said or continued touch, it doth not move laughter so before, the motion of the spirits visual, and the momuch.
tion of the object, make the same appearances; and 722. Lust causeth a flagrancy in the eyes, and for the swift motion of the object, we see, that if you priapism. The cause of both these is, for that in fillip a lute-string, it showeth double or treble. lust, the sight and the touch are the things desired; 726. Men are sooner drunk with small draughts and therefore the spirits resort to those parts which than with great. And again, wine sugared inebriare most affected. And note well in general, for that ateth less than wine pure. The cause of the former great use may be made of the observation, that, ever- is, for that the wine descendeth not so fast to the more, the spirits, in all passions, resort much to the bottom of the stomach, but maketh longer stay in parts that labour most, or are most affected. As in the upper part of the stomach, and sendeth vapours the last which hath been mentioned, they resort to faster to the head; and therefore inebriateth sooner. the eyes and venerous parts: in fear and anger to And for the same reason, sops in wine, quantity for the heart: in shame to the face: and in light dislikes quantity, inebriate more than wine of itself. The to the head.
cause of the latter is, for that the sugar doth inspisExperiments in consort touching drunkenness.
sate the spirits of the wine, and maketh them not so
easy to resolve into vapour. Nay farther, it is 723. It hath been observed by the ancients, and thought to be some remedy against inebriating, if is yet believed, that the sperm of drunken men is wine sugared be taken after wine pure. And the unfruitful. The cause is, for that it is over-moisten- same effect is wrought either by oil or milk, taken ed, and wanteth spissitude : and we have a merry upon much drinking. saying, that they that go drunk to bed get daughters. 724. Drunken men are taken with a plain defect,
Experiment solitary touching the help or hurt of or destitution in voluntary motion. They reel;
wine, though moderately used. they tremble; they cannot stand, nor speak strong- 727. The use of wine in dry and consumed bodies ly. The cause is, for that the spirits of the wine is hurtful; in moist and full bodies it is good. The oppress the spirits animal, and occupy part of the cause is, for that the spirits of the wine do prey place where they are; and so make them weak to upon the dew or radical moisture, as they term it,
And therefore drunken men are apt to fall of the body, and so deceive the animal spirits. But asleep and opiates, and stupefactives, as poppy, where there is moisture enough, or superfluous, hen-bane, hemlock, &c. induce a kind of drunken- there wine helpeth to digest, and desiccate the Dess, by the grossness of their vapour; as wine doth moisture. by the quantity of the vapour. Besides, they rob the spirits animal of their matter, whereby they are
Experiment solitary touching caterpillars. nourished: for the spirits of the wine prey upon it 728. The caterpillar is one of the most general as well as they: and so they make the spirits less of worms, and breedeth of dew and leaves; for we supple and apt to move.
see infinite number of caterpillars which breed upon 725. Drunken men imagine every thing turneth trees and hedges, by which the leaves of the trees round; they imagine also that things come upon or hedges are in great part consumed ; as well by them; they see not well things afar off ; those things their breeding out of the leaf, as by their feeding that they see near hand, they see out of their place; upon the leaf. They breed in the spring chiefly, and sometimes they see things double. The cause because then there is both dew and leaf. And they of the imagination that things turn round is, for breed commonly when the east winds have much that the spirits themselves turn, being compressed blown; the cause whereof is, the dryness of that by the vapour of the wine ; for any liquid body upon wind; for to all vivification upon putrefaction, it is compression turneth, as we see in water : and it is requisite the matter be not too moist : and therefore all one to the sight, whether the visual spirits move, we see they have cobwebs about them, which is a or the object moveth, or the medium moveth. And sign of a slimy dryness ; as we see upon the ground, We see that long turning round breedeth the same I whereupon, by dew and sun, cobwebs breed all over.
We see also the green caterpillar breedeth in the off, and crumble away by degrees. And they are inward parts of roses, especially not blown, where known by the extreme tenderness and softness of the the dew sticketh ; but especially caterpillars, both new shell, and sometimes by the freshness of the the greatest, and the most, breed upon cabbages, colour of it. The cause of the casting of skin and which have a fat leaf, and apt to putrify. The shell should seem to be the great quantity of matter caterpillar, towards the end of summer, waxeth in those creatures that is fit to make skin or shell: volatile, and turneth to a butterfly, or perhaps some and again, the looseness of the skin or shell, that other fly. There is a caterpillar that hath a fur or sticketh not close to the flesh. For it is certain, down upon it, and seemeth to have affinity with the that it is the new skin or shell that putteth off silk-worm.
the old : so we see, that in deer it is the young
horn that putteth off the old; and in birds, the Experiment solitary touching the flies cantharides.
young feathers put off the old : and so birds that 729. The flies cantharides are bred of a worm or have much matter for their beak, cast their beaks, caterpillar, but peculiar to certain fruit-trees; as are the new beak putting off the old. the fig-tree, the pine-tree, and the wild brier; all which bear sweet fruit, and fruit that hath a kind of Experiments in consort touching the postures of the
body. secret biting or sharpness: for the fig hath a milk in it that is sweet and corrosive; the pine-apple hath a 733. Lying not erect, but hollow, which is in the kernel that is strong and abstersive; the fruit of the making of the bed ; or with the legs gathered up, brier is said to make children, or those that eat them, which is in the posture of the body, is the more scabbed. And therefore no marvel, though cantha- wholesome. The reason is, the better comforting rides have such a corrosive and cauterising quality; of the stomach, which is by that less pensile : and for there is not any other of the insecta, but is bred we see that in weak stomachs, the laying up of the of a duller matter. The body of the cantharides is legs high, and the knees almost to the mouth, bright coloured; and it may be, that the delicate helpeth and comforteth. We see also, that galleycoloured dragon-flies may have likewise some corro-slaves, notwithstanding their misery otherwise, are sive quality.
commonly fat and fleshy; and the reason is, because
the stomach is supported somewhat in sitting, and Experiments in consort touching lassitude.
is pensile in standing or going. And therefore, for 730. Lassitude is remedied by bathing, or anoint- prolongation of life, it is good to choose those ing with oil and warm water. The cause is, for exercises where the limbs move more than the that all lassitude is a kind of contusion, and com- stomach and belly ; as in rowing, and in sawing, pression of parts; and bathing and anointing give a being set. relaxation or emollition; and the mixture of oil and 734. Megrims and giddiness are rather when we water is better than either of them alone ; because rise after long sitting, than while we sit. The water entereth better into the pores, and oil after cause is, for that the vapours, which were gathered entry softeneth better. It is found also, that the by sitting, by the sudden motion fly more up into taking of tobacco doth help and discharge lassitude. the head. The reason whereof is, partly, because by cheering 735. Leaning long upon any part maketh it or comforting of the spirits, it openeth the parts numb, and, as we call it, asleep. The cause is, for compressed or contused ; and chiefly because it re- that the compression of the part suffereth not the freshes the spirits by the opiate virtue thereof, and spirits to have free access; and therefore when we so dischargeth weariness, as sleep likewise doth. come out of it, we feel a stinging or pricking, which
731. In going up a hill, the knees will be most is the re-entrance of the spirits. weary ; in going down a hill, the thighs. The cause is, for that in the lift of the feet, when a man
Experiment solitary touching pestilential years. goeth up the hill, the weight of the body beareth 736. It hath been noted, that those years are most upon the knees; and in going down the hill, pestilential and unwholesome, when there are great upon the thighs.
numbers of frogs, flies, locusts, &c. The canse is Experiment solitary touching the casting of the skin plain; for that those creatures being engendered of
putrefaction, when they abound, show a general disand shell in some creatures.
position of the year, and constitution of the air, to 732. The casting of the skin is by the ancients diseases of putrefaction. And the same prognostic, compared to the breaking of the secundine, or caul, as bath been said before, holdeth, if you find worms but not rightly : for that were to make every cast- in oak-apples : for the constitution of the air aping of the skin a new birth : and besides, the secun- peareth more subtilly in any of these things, than dine is but a general cover, not shaped according to to the sense of man. the parts, but the skin is shaped according to the parts. The creatures that cast their skin are the Experiment solitary touching the prognostics of hard snake, the viper, the grasshopper, the lizard, the
winters. silk-worm, &c. Those that cast their shell are, the 737. It is an observation amongst country people, lobster, the crab, the crawfish, the hodmandod or that years of store of haws and hips do commonly dodman, the tortoise, &c. The old skins are found, portend cold winters; and they ascribe it to God's but the old shells never : so as it is like, they scale providence, that, as the Scripture saith, reacheth
even to the falling of a sparrow ; and much more is like to reach to the preservation of birds in such
Experiment solitary touching the use of bathing seasons. The natural cause also may be the want
and anointing. of heat, and abundance of moisture, in the summer 740. It is strange that the use of bathing, as a precedent; which putteth forth those fruits, and part of diet, is left. With the Romans and Grecians must needs leave great quantity of cold vapours not it was as usual as eating or sleeping; and so is it dissipated; which causeth the cold of the winter amongst the Turks at this day; whereas with us it following.
remaineth but as a part of physic. I am of opinion,
that the use of it, as it was with the Romans, was Experiment solitary touching medicines that con- hurtful to health: for that it made the body soft, dense and relieve the spirits.
and easy to waste. For the Turks it is more pro
per, because that their drinking water and feeding 738. They have in Turkey a drink called coffee, upon rice, and other food of small nourishment, made of a berry of the same name, as black as soot, maketh their bodies so solid and hard, as you need and of a strong scent, but not aromatical; which not fear that bathing should make them frothy. they take, beaten into powder, in water, as hot as Besides, the Turks are great sitters, and seldom they can drink it: and they take it, and sit at it walk; whereby they sweat less and need bathing their coffee-houses, which are like our taverns. But yet certain it is that bathing, and espeThis drink comforteth the brain and heart, and cially anointing, may be so used as it may be a helpeth digestion. Certainly this berry coffee, the great help to health, and prolongation of life. But root and leaf beetle, the leaf tobacco, and the tear hereof we shall speak in due place, when we come of poppy, opium, of which the Turks are great to handle experiments medicinal. takers, supposing it expelleth all fear, do all condense the spirits, and make them strong and aleger.
Experiments in consort touching chambletting of But it seemeth they are taken after several manners ;
paper. for coffee and opium are taken down, tobacco but in 741. The Turks have a pretty art of chamblet. smoke, and beetle is but champed in the mouth with ting of paper, which is not with us in use. They a little lime. It is like there are more of them, if take divers oiled colours, and put them severally, in they were well found out, and well corrected. drops, upon water, and stir the water lightly, and Query, of henbane-seed; of mandrake; of saffron, then wet their paper, being of some thickness, with root and flower; of folium indicum ; of ambergrease; it, and the paper will be waved and veined, like of the Assyrian amomum, if it may be had ; and of chamblet or marble. the scarlet powder which they call kermes; and, generally, of all such things as do inebriate and
Experiment solitary touching cultle-ink. provoke sleep. Note, that tobacco is not taken in 742. It is somewhat strange, that the blood of all root or seed, which are more forcible ever than birds and beasts and fishes should be of a red colour, leaves.
and only the blood of the cuttle should be as black
as ink. A man would think, that the cause should Experiment solitary touching paintings of the body.
be the high concoction of that blood; for we see in 739. The Turks have a black powder, made of a ordinary puddings, that the boiling turneth the mineral called alcohol, which with a fine long pen- blood to be black; and the cuttle is accounted a decil they lay under their eye-lids, which doth colour licate meat, and is much in request. them black; whereby the white of the eye is set off more white. With the same powder they colour | Experiment solitary touching increase of weight in also the hairs of their eye-lids, and of their eye
earth. brows, which they draw into embowed arches. You shall find that Xenophon maketh mention, that the 743. It is reported of credit, that if you take Medes used to paint their eyes. The Turks use earth from land adjoining to the river of Nile, and with the same tincture to colour the hair of their preserve it in that manner that it neither come to beads and beards black. And divers with us that be wet nor wasted; and weigh it daily, it will not are grown grey, and yet would appear young, find alter weight until the seventeenth of June, which is means to make their hair black, by combing it, as the day when the river beginneth to rise ; and then they say, with a leaden comb, or the like. As for it will grow more and more ponderous, till the river the Chineses, who are of an ill complexion, being cometh to its height. Which if it be true, it cannot olivaster, they paint their cheeks scarlet, especially be caused but by the air, which then beginneth to their king and grandees. Generally, barbarous peo- condense; and so turneth within that small mold into ple, that go naked, do not only paint themselves, a degree of moisture, which produceth weight. So
, but they pounce and raise their skin, that the paint it hath been observed, that tobacco cut, and weighed, ing may not be taken forth; and make it into works. and then dried by the fire, loseth weight; and after So do the West Indians; and so did the ancient being laid in the open air, recovereth weight again. Picts and Britons; so that it seemeth men would And it should seem that as soon as ever the river have the colours of birds' feathers, if they could tell beginneth to increase, the whole body of the air how; or at least they will have gay skins instead thereabouts suffereth a change: for, that which is of gay clothes.
more strange, it is credibly affirmed, that upon that
very day when the river first riseth, great plagues 748. Bones, after full growth, continue at a stay ; in Cairo use suddenly to break up.
and so doth the skull: horns, in some creatures, are
cast and renewed: teeth stand at a stay, except Experiments in consort touching sleep.
their wearing : as for nails, they grow continually : 744. Those that are very cold, and especially in and bills and beaks will overgrow, and sometimes their feet, cannot get to sleep : the cause may be, be cast ; as in eagles and parrots. for that in sleep is required a free respiration, which 749. Most of the hard substances fly to the excold doth shut in and hinder; for we see that in tremes of the body : as skull, horns, teeth, nails, and great colds one can scarce draw his breath. An- beaks : only the bones are more inward, and clad other cause may be, for that cold calleth the spirits with flesh. As for the entrails, they are all withto succour; and therefore they cannot so well close, out bones ; save that a bone is, sometimes, found in and go together in the head : which is ever requi- | the heart of a stag; and it may be in some other site to sleep. And for the same cause, pain and creature. noise hinder sleep; and darkness, contrariwise, fur- 750. The skull hath brains, as a kind of marrow, thereth sleep.
within it. The back-bone hath one kind of marrow, 745. Some noises, whereof we spake in the which hath an affinity with the brain ; and other hundred and twelfth experiment, help sleep: as the bones of the body have another. The jaw-bones blowing of the wind, the trickling of water, hum- have no marrow severed, but a little pulp of marrow ming of bees, soft singing, reading, &c. The cause diffused. Teeth likewise are thought to have a is, for that they move in the spirits a gentle atten- kind of marrow diffused, which causeth the sense tion ; and whatsoever moveth attention without too and pain ; but it is rather sinew; for marrow hath much labour stilleth the natural and discursive mo- no sense; no more than blood. Horn is alike tion of the spirits.
throughout; and so is the nail. 746. Sleep nourisheth, or at least preserveth bo- 751. None other of the hard substances have dies, a long time, without other nourishment. Beasts sense, but the teeth ; and the teeth have sense, not that sleep in winter, as it is noted of wild bears, only of pain but of cold. during their sleep wax very fat, though they eat no- But we will leave the inquiries of other hard subthing. Bats have been found in ovens and other hol- stances unto their several places; and now inquire low close places, matted one upon another: and there only of the teeth. fore it is likely that they sleep in the winter time, 752. The teeth are, in men, of three kinds ; and eat nothing. Query, whether bees do not sleep sharp, as the fore-teeth ; broad, as the back-teeth, all winter, and spare their honey? Butterflies, and which we call the molar-teeth, or grinders; and other flies, do not only sleep, but lie as dead all win-pointed teeth, or canine, which are between both. ter: and yet with a little heat of sun or fire, revive But there have been some men that have had their again. A dormouse both winter and summer, will teeth undivided, as of one whole bone, with some sleep some days together, and eat nothing.
little mark in the place of the division; as Pyrrhus
had. Experiments in consort touching teeth and hard teeth, which we call fangs, or tusks: as boars, pikes,
Some creatures have over-long or out-growing substances in the bodies of living creatures.
salmons, and dogs, though less. Some living To restore teeth in age, were magnale naturæ. creatures have teeth against teeth; as men and It may be thought of. But howsoever, the nature horses ; and some have teeth, especially their masof the teeth deserveth to be inquired of, as well as ter-teeth, indented one within another like saws, as the other parts of living creatures' bodies.
lions; and so again have dogs. Some fishes have 747. There be five parts in the bodies of living divers rows of teeth in the roofs of their mouths; creatures, that are of hard substance; the skull, the as pikes, salmons, trouts, &c. And many more in teeth, the bones, the horns, and the nails. The salt waters. Snakes and other serpents have venomgreatest quantity of hard substance continued is to- ous teeth ; which are sometimes mistaken for their wards the head. For there is the skull of an entire sting. bone ; there are the teeth; there are the maxillary 753. No beast that hath horns hath upper teeth; bones; there is the hard bone that is the instrument and no beast that hath teeth above wanteth them of hearing; and thence issue the horns ; so that the below : but yet if they be of the same kind, it folbuilding of living creatures' bodies is like the build- loweth not, that if the hard matter goeth not into ing of a timber house, where the walls and other upper teeth, it will go into horns ; nor yet e conparts have columns and beams; but the roof is, in verso; for does, that have no horns, have no upper the better sort of houses, all tile, or lead, or stone, teeth. As for birds, they have three other hard substances 754. Horses have, at three years old, a tooth put proper to them; the bill, which is of like matter forth, which they call a colt's tooth ; and at four
1 with the teeth : for no birds have teeth: the shell years old there cometh the mark tooth, which hath of the egg: and their quills : for as for their spur, a hole as big as you may lay a pea within it: and it is but a nail. But no living creatures that have that weareth shorter and shorter every year; till shells very hard, as oysters, cockles, muscles, scal. that at eight years old the tooth is smooth, and the lops, crabs, lobsters, crawfish, shrimps, and especi- hole gone; and then they say, that the mark is out ally the tortoise, have bones within them, but only of the horse's mouth. little gristles.
755. The teeth of men breed first, when the
child is about a year and half old : and then they of a dry substance in comparison of beasts. Fishes cast them, and new come about seven years old. are cold. For the second cause, fulness of food; But divers have backward teeth come forth at twenty, men, kine, swine, dogs, &c. feed full; and we see yea, some at thirty and forty. Query, of the man- that those creatures, which being wild, generate selner of the coming of them forth. They tell a tale dom, being tame, generate often; which is from of the old Countess of Desmond, who lived till she warmth, and fulness of food. We find, that the was seven score years old, that she did dentire twice time of going to rut of deer is in September; for or thrice; casting her old teeth, and others coming that they need the whole summer's feed and grass in their place.
to make them fit for generation. And if rain come 756. Teeth are much hurt by sweetmeats; and early about the middle of September, they go to rut by painting with mercury; and by things over-hot; somewhat the sooner; if drought, somewhat the and things over-cold ; and by rheums. And the later. So sheep, in respect of their small heat, pain of the teeth is one of the sharpest of pains. generate about the same time, or somewhat before.
757. Concerning teeth, these things are to be But for the most part, creatures that generate at i considered. 1. The preserving of them. 2. The certain seasons, generate in the spring; as birds and
keeping of them white. 3. The drawing of them fishes; for that the end of the winter, and the heat with least pain. 4. The staying and easing of the and comfort of the spring prepareth them. There toothache. 5. The binding in of artificial teeth, is also another reason why some creatures generate where teeth have been strucken out. 6. And last at certain seasons ; and that is the relation of their of all, that great one of restoring teeth in age. The time of bearing to the time of generation; for no instances that give any likelihood of restoring teeth creature goeth to generate whilst the female is full; in age, are the late coming of teeth in some ; and nor whilst she is busy in sitting, or rearing her the renewing of the beaks in birds, which are com- young.
And therefore it is found by experience, material with teeth. Query, therefore, more par. that if you take the eggs or young ones out of the ticularly how that cometh. And again, the renew- nests of birds, they will fall to generate again three ing of horns. But yet that hath not been known to or four times one after another. have been provoked by art; therefore let trial be 759. Of living creatures, some are longer time in made, whether horns may be procured to grow in the womb, and some shorter. Women go commonbeasts that are not horned, and how ? And whether ly nine months; the cow and the ewe about six they may be procured to come larger than usual; as months; does go about nine months ; mares eleven to make an ox or a deer have a greater head of months; bitches nine weeks; elephants are said to horns ? And whether the head of a deer, that by go two years; for the received tradition of ten years age is more spitted, may be brought again to be is fabulous. For birds there is double inquiry; the more branched ? for these trials, and the like, will distance between the treading or coupling, and the show, whether by art such hard matter can be call laying of the egg; and again, between the egg laid, ed and provoked. It may be tried also, whether and the disclosing or hatching. And amongst birds may not have something done to them when birds, there is less diversity of time than amongst they are young, whereby they may be made to have other creatures; yet some there is; for the hen greater or longer bills; or greater and longer talons? sitteth but three weeks, the turkey-hen, goose, and And whether children may not have some wash, or duck, a month : Query, of others. The cause of the something to make their teeth better and stronger ? great difference of times amongst living creatures is, Coral is in use as a help to the teeth of children. either from the nature of the kind, or from the con
stitution of the womb. For the former, those that Erperiments in consort touching the generation and are longer in coming to their maturity or growth are bearing of living creatures in the womb. longer in the womb; as is chiefly seen in men : and
so elephants, which are long in the womb, are long 758. Some living creatures generate but at cer- time in coming to their full growth. But in most tain seasons of the year; as deer, sheep, wild conies, other kinds, the constitution of the womb, that is, &c. and most sorts of birds and fishes : others at any the hardness or dryness thereof, is concurrent with time of the year, as men; and all domestic creatures, the former cause. For the colt hath about four as horses, hogs, dogs, cats, &c. The cause of years of growth ; and so the fawn ; and so the calf. generation at all seasons seemeth to be fulness: for But whelps, which come to their growth, commongeneration is from redundance. This fulness ariseth ly, within three quarters of a year, are but nine from two causes ; either from the nature of the weeks in the womb. As for birds, as there is less creature, if it be hot, and moist, and sanguine; or diversity amongst them in the time of their bringing from plenty of food. For the first, men, horses, forth; so there is less diversity in the time of their dogs, &c. which breed at all seasons, are full of heat growth : most of them coming to their growth within and moisture ; doves are the fullest of heat and a twelvemonth. moisture amongst birds, and therefore breed often ; 760. Some creatures bring forth many young the tame dove almost continually. But deer are a ones at a burden: as bitches, hares, conies, &c. melancholy dry creature, as appeareth by their fear- Some ordinarily but one ; as women, lionesses, &c. fulness, and the hardness of their flesh. Sheep are This may be caused, either by the quantity of sperm a cold creature, as appeareth by their mildness, and required to the producing one of that kind; which for that they seldom drink. Most sort of birds are l if less be required, may admit greater number; if