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are covered aloft, and kept from the sun. Snow- and plump, and have great lips; all which betoken water is held unwholesome; insomuch as the people moisture retained, and not drawn out. We see also that dwell at the foot of the snow mountains, or that the Negrocs are bred in countries that have otherwise upon the ascent, especially the women, plenty of water, by rivers or otherwise ; for Meroë, by drinking of snow-water, have great bags hanging which was the metropolis of Æthiopia, was upon a under their throats. Well-water, except it be upon great lake: and Congo, where the Negroes are, is chalk, or a very plentiful spring, maketh meat red; full of rivers. And the confines of the river Niger, which is an ill sign. Springs on the tops of hills where the Negroes also are, are well watered: and are the best : for both they seem to have a light the region above Cape Verde is likewise moist, inness and appetite of mounting ; and besides, they somuch as it is pestilent through moisture : but the are most pure and unmingled; and again, are more countries of the Abyssenes, and Barbary, and Peru, percolated through a great space of earth. For where they are tawny, and olivaster, and pale, are waters in valleys join in effect under ground with all generally more sandy and dry. As for the Æthiopes, waters of the same level ; whereas springs on the as they are plump and fleshy, so, it may be, they tops of hills pass through a great deal of pure earth are sanguine and ruddy-coloured, if their black skin with less mixture of other waters.

would suffer it to be seen. 397. Seventhly, judgment may be made of waters by the soil whereupon the water runneth ; as pebble Experiment solitary touching motion after the instant is the cleanest and best tasted; and next to that,

of death. clay-water; and thirdly, water upon

chalk;

fourth- 400. Some creatures do move a good while after ly, that upon sand; and worst of all upon mud. their head is off; as birds : some a very little time; Neither may you trust waters that taste sweet; for as men and all beasts : some move, though cut in they are commonly found in rising grounds of great several pieces; as snakes, eels, worms, flies, &c. cities; which must needs take in a great deal of First, therefore, it is certain, that the immediate filth.

cause of death is the resolution or extinguishment of

the spirits ; and that the destruction or corruption Experiment solitary touching the temperate heat

of the organs is but the mediate cause.

But some under the equinoctial.

organs are so peremptorily necessary, that the ex398. In Peru, and divers parts of the West In- tinguishment of the spirits doth speedily follow; but dies, though under the line, the heats are not so yet so as there is an interim of a small time. It is intolerable as they be in Barbary, and the skirts of reported by one of the ancients of credit, that a sathe torrid zone. The causes are, first the great crificed beast hath lowed after the heart hath been breezes which the motion of the air in great cir- severed: and it is a report also of credit, that the cles, such as are under the girdle of the world, pro- | head of a pig hath been opened, and the brain put duceth ; which do refrigerate ; and therefore in into the palm of a man's hand, trembling, without those parts noon is nothing so hot, when the breezes breaking any part of it, or severing it from the marare great, as about nine or ten of the clock in the row of the back-bone ; during which time the pig forenoon. Another cause is, for that the length of hath been, in all appearance, stark dead, and without the night, and the dews thereof, do compensate the motion; and after a small time the brain hath been heat of the day. A third cause is the stay of the replaced, and the skull of the pig closed, and the sun; not in respect of day and night, for that we pig hath a little after gone about. And certain it is, spake of before, but in respect of the season; for that an eye upon revenge hath been thrust forth, so under the line the sun crosseth the line, and maketh as it hanged a pretty distance by the visual nerve; two summers and two winters, but in the skirts of and during that time the eye hath been without any the torrid zone it doubleth and goeth back again, power of sight; and yet after being replaced reand so maketh one long summer.

covered sight.

Now the spirits are chiefly in the

head and cells of the brain, which in men and beasts Experiment solitary touching the coloration of black

re large; and therefore, when the head is off, they and tawny Moors.

move little or nothing. But birds have small heads, 399. The heat of the sun maketh men black in and therefore the spirits are a little more dispersed some countries, as in Æthiopia and Guinea, &c. in the sinews, whereby motion remaineth in them a Fire doth it not, as we see in glass-men, that are little longer; insomuch, as it is extant in story, that continually about the fire. The reason may be, be- an emperor of Rome, to show the certainty of his cause fire doth lick up the spirits and blood of the hand, did shoot a great forked arrow at an ostrich, body, so as they exhale; so that it ever maketh men as she ran swiftly upon the stage, and struck off her look pale and sallow ; but the sun, which is a gen- head; and yet she continued the race a little way tler heat, doth but draw the blood to the outward with her head off. As for worms, and flies, and parts; and rather concocteth it than soaketh it; eels, the spirits are diffused almost all over; and and therefore we see that all Æthiopes are fleshy therefore they move in their several pieces.

CENTURY V.

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culture did rather retard than advance. As for those Experiments in consort touching the acceleration

that were steeped in malmsey, and spirit of wine, of germination.

they came not up at all. This is a rich experiment We will now inquire of plants or vegetables: and for profit; for the most of the steepings are cheap we shall do it with diligence. They are the prin- things; and the goodness of the crop is a great matcipal part of the third day's work. They are the ter of gain; if the goodness of the crop answer the first producat

, which is the word of animation : for earliness of the coming up, as it is like it will, both the other words are but the words of essence : and being from the vigour of the seed; which also they are of excellent and general use for food, partly appeared in the former experiments, as hath medicine, and a number of mechanical arts.

been said. This experiment would be tried in other 401. There were sown in a bed, turnip-seed, grains, seeds, and kernels; for it may be some steepradish-seed, wheat, cucumber-seed, and peas. The ing will agree best with some seeds. It would be bed we call a hot-bed, and the manner of it is this : tried also with roots steeped as before, but for longer there was taken horse-dung, old and well rotted ; time. It would be tried also in several seasons of this was laid upon a bank half a foot high, and sup- the year, especially the spring. ported round about with planks; and upon the top 403. Strawberries watered now and then, as once was cast sifted earth, some two fingers deep; and in three days, with water wherein hath been steepthen the seed sprinkled upon it, having been ed sheeps-dung or pigeons-dung, will prevent and steeped all night in water mixed with cow-dung. come early. And it is like the same effect would The turnip-seed and the wheat came up half an follow in other berries, herbs, flowers, grains, or inch above ground within two days after, without trees. And therefore it is an experiment, though any watering. The rest the third day. The ex-vulgar in strawberries, yet not brought into use periment was made in October; and, it may be, in generally : for it is usual to help the ground with the spring, the accelerating would have been the 'muck; and likewise to recomfort it sometimes with speedier. This is a noble experiment; for without muck put to the roots; but to water it with muck this help they would have been four times as long water, which is like to be more forcible, is not in coming up. But there doth not occur to me, at practised. this present, any use thereof for profit; except it 404. Dung, or chalk, or blood, applied in subshould be for sowing of peas, which have their price stance, seasonably, to the roots of trees, doth set very much increased by the early coming. It may them forwards. But to do it unto herbs, without be tried also with cherries, strawberries, and other mixture of water or earth, it may be these helps are fruit, which are dearest when they come early. too hot.

402. There was wheat steeped in water mixed 405. The former means of helping germination, with cow-dung; other in water mixed with horse- are either by the goodness and strength of the dung; other in water mixed with pigeon-dung ; nourishment; or by the comforting and exciting the other in urine of man; other in water mixed with spirits in the plant to draw the nourishment better. chalk powdered; other in water mixed with soot ; | And of this latter kind, concerning the comforting other in water mixed with ashes; other in water of the spirits of the plant, are also the experiments mixed with bay-salt; other in claret wine; other in that follow; though they be not applications to the malmsey; other in spirit of wine. The proportion root or seed. The planting of trees warm upon a of the mixture was a fourth part of the ingredients wall against the south, or south-east sun, doth hasten to the water; save that there was not of the salt their coming on and ripening; and the south-east is above an eighth part. The urine, and wines, and found to be better than the south-west, though the spirit of wine, were simple without mixture of water. south-west be the hotter coast. But the cause is The time of the steeping was twelve hours. The chiefly, for that the heat of the morning succeedeth time of the year October. There was also other the cold of the night: and partly, because many wheat sown unsteeped, but watered twice a day with times the south-west sun is too parching. So likewarm water. There was also other wheat sown wise the planting of them upon the back of a simple, to compare it with the rest. The event chimney where a fire is kept, doth hasten their comwas, that those that were in the mixture of dung, ing on and ripening: nay more, the drawing of the and urine, and soot, chalk, ashes, and salt, came up boughs into the inside of a room where a fire is within six days; and those that afterwards proved continually kept, worketh the same effect; which the highest, thickest, and most lusty, were first the hath been tried with grapes ; insomuch as they will urine; and then the dungs; next the chalk; next come a month earlier than the grapes abroad. the soot; next the ashes; next the salt; next the 406. Besides the two means of accelerating wheat simple of itself, unsteeped and unwatered; germination formerly described ; that is to say, the next the watered twice a day with warm water ; mending of the nourishment, and comforting of the next the claret wine. So that these three last were spirit of the plant; there is a third, which is the slower than the ordinary wheat of itself; and this | making way for the easy coming to the nourishment, and drawing it. And therefore gentle digging that the earth doth but keep the plant upright, and and loosening of the earth about the roots of trees; save it from over-heat and over-cold; and therefore and the removing herbs and flowers into new earth is a comfortable experiment for good drinkers. It once in two years, which is the same thing, for the proveth also that our former opinion, that drink new earth is ever looser, doth greatly further the incorporate with flesh or roots, as in capon-beer, prospering and earliness of plants.

&c. will nourish more easily, than meat and drink 407. But the most admirable acceleration by taken severally. facilitating the nourishment is that of water. For 412. The housing of plants, I conceive, will both a standard of a damask rose with the root on, was accelerate germination, and bring forth flowers and set in a chamber where no fire was, upright in an plants in the colder seasons: and as we house hotearthen pan, full of fair water, without any mixture, country plants, as lemons, oranges, myrtles, to save half a foot under the water, the standard being more them ; so we may house our own country plants, to than two foot high above the water : within the forward them, and make them come in the cold space of ten days the standard did put forth a fair seasons; in such sort, that you may have violets, green leaf, and some other little buds, which stood strawberries, peas, all winter: so that you sow or at a stay, without any show of decay or withering, remove them at fit times. This experiment is to be more than seven days. But afterwards that leaf referred unto the comforting of the spirit of the faded, but the young buds did sprout on ; which plant by warmth, as well as housing their boughs, afterward opened into fair leaves in the space of &c. So then the means to accelerate germination, three months; and continued so a while after, till are in particular eight, in general three. upon removal we left the trial. But note, that the leaves were somewhat paler and lighter-coloured

Experiments in consort touching the putting back than the leaves used to be abroad. Note, that the

or retardation of germination. first buds were in the end of October; and it is likely that if it had been in the spring time, it would 413. To make roses, or other flowers come late, it have put forth with greater strength, and, it may be, is an experiment of pleasure. For the ancients to have grown on to bear flowers. By this means esteemed much of the rosa sera. And indeed the you may have, as it seemeth, roses set in the midst, November rose is the sweetest, having been less exof a pool, being supported with some stay; which is haled by the sun. The means are these. First, matter of rareness and pleasure, though of small use. the cutting off their tops immediately after they This is the more strange, for that the like rose- have done bearing; and then they will come again standard was put at the same time into water mixed the same year about November: but they will not with horse-dung, the horse-dung about the fourth come just on the tops where they were cut, but out part to the water, and in four months' space, while of those shoots which were, as it were, water boughs. it was observed, put not forth any leaf, though the cause is, for that the sap, which otherwise divers buds at the first, as the other.

would have fed the top, though after bearing, will, 408. A Dutch flower that had a bulbous root, was by the discharge of that, divert unto the side likewise put at the same time all under water, some sprouts ; and they will come to bear, but later. two or three fingers deep; and within seven days 414. The second is the pulling off the buds of sprouted, and continued long after farther growing. the rose, when they are newly knotted; for then the There were also put in, a beet-root, a borage-root, side branches will bear. The cause is the same and a radish-root, which had all their leaves cut with the former; for cutting off the tops, and pulling almost close to the roots; and within six weeks had off the buds, work the same effect, in retention of fair leaves ; and so continued till the end of the sap for a time, and diversion of it to the sprouts November.

that were not so forward. 409. Note, that if roots, or peas, or flowers, may 415. The third is the cutting off some few of the be accelerated in their coming and ripening, there top boughs in the spring time, but suffering the lower is a double profit; the one in the high price that boughs to grow on. The cause is, for that the those things bear when they come early; the other boughs do help to draw up the sap more strongly ; in the swiftness of their returns : for in some grounds and we see that in polling of trees, many do use to which are strong, you shall have a radish, &c. come leave a bough or two on the top, to help to draw up in a month, that in other grounds will not come in the sap. And it is reported also, that if you graft two, and so make double returns.

upon the bough of a tree, and cut off some of the 410. Wheat also was put into the water, and old boughs, the new cions will perish. came not forth at all; so as it seemeth there

416. The fourth is by laying the roots bare about must be some strength and bulk in the body put into Christmas some days. "The cause is plain, for that the water, as it is in roots ; for grains, or seeds, the it doth arrest the sap from going upwards for a time; cold of the water will mortify. But casually some which arrest is afterwards released by the covering wheat lay under the pan, which was somewhat of the root again with earth; and then the sap moistened by the suing of the pan; which in six getteth up, but later. weeks, as aforesaid, looked mouldy to the eye, but 417. The fifth is the removing of the tree some it was sprouted forth half a finger's length. month before it buddeth. The cause is, for that

411. It seemeth by these instances of water, that some time will be required after the remove for the for nourishment the water is almost all in all, and re-settling, before it can draw the juice; and that

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time being lost, the blossom must needs come forth | their trees to keep them upright; but after a year's later.

rooting, then shaking doth the tree good, by loosen418. The sixth is the grafting of roses in May, | ing of the earth, and, perhaps, by exercising, as it which commonly gardeners do not till July; and were, and stirring the sap of the tree. then they bear not till the next year ; but if you 424, Generally the cutting away of boughs and graft them in May, they will bear the same year, suckers at the root and body doth make trees grow but late.

high ; and contrariwise, the polling and cutting of 419. The seventh is the girding of the body of the the top maketh them grow spread and bushy. As tree about with some pack-thread; for that also in we see in pollards, &c. a degree restraineth the sap, and maketh it come 425. It is reported, that to make hasty-growing op more late and more slowly.

coppice woods, the way is, to take willow, sallow, 420. The eighth is the planting of them in a poplar, alder, of some seven years' growth; and to shade, or in a hedge ; the cause is, partly the keep- set them, not upright, but aslope, a reasonable ing out of the sun, which hasteneth the sap to rise; depth under the ground; and then instead of one root and partly the robbing them of nourishment by the they will put forth many, and so carry more shoots stuff in the hedge. These means may be practised upon a stem. upon other, both trees and flowers, mutatis mutandis. 426. When you would have many new roots of

421. Men have entertained a conceit that show- fruit trees, take a low tree and bow it, and lay all eth prettily ; namely, that if you graft a late-com- its branches aflat upon the ground, and cast earth ing fruit upon a stock of a fruit-tree that cometh upon them; and every twig will take root. And early, the graft will bear early ; as a peach upon a this is a very profitable experiment for costly trees, eherry; and contrariwise, if an early-coming fruit for the boughs will make stocks without charge ; upon a stock of a fruit-tree that cometh late, the such as are apricots, peaches, almonds, cornelians, graft will bear fruit late ; as a cherry upon a peach. mulberries, figs, &c. The like is continually pracBut these are but imaginations, and untrue. The tised with vines, roses, musk-roses, &c. cause is, for that the cion overruleth the stock quite: 427. From May to July you may take off the and the stock is but passive only, and giveth aliment, bark of any bough, being of the bigness of three or but no motion to the graft.

four inches, and cover the bare place, somewhat

above and below, with loam well tempered with Experiments in consort touching the melioration of horse-dung, binding it fast down. Then cut off the fruits, trees, and plants.

bough about Allhollontide in the bare place, and set We will speak now, how to make fruits, flowers, it in the ground; and it will grow to be a fair tree and roots larger, in more plenty, and sweeter than in one year. The cause may be, for that the baring they use to be; and how to make the trees them from the bark keepeth the sap from descending toselves more tall, more spread, and more hasty and wards winter, and so holdeth it in the bough ; and sudden than they use to be. Wherein there is no it may be also that the loam and horse-dung applied doubt but the former experiments of acceleration to the bare place do moisten it, and cherish it, and will serve much to these purposes. And again, that make it more apt to put forth the root. Note, that these experiments, which we shall now set down, do this may be a general means for keeping up the serve also for acceleration, because both effects pro- sap of trees in their boughs; which may serve to ceed from the increase of vigour in the tree; but other effects. yet to avoid confusion, and because some of the 428. It hath been practised in trees that show means are more proper for the one effect, and some fair and bear not, to bore a hole through the heart for the other, we will handle them apart.

of the tree, and thereupon it will bear. Which may 422. It is an assured experience, that a heap of be, for that the tree before had too much repletion, flint or stone, laid about the bottom of a wild tree, and was oppressed with its own sap; for repletion is as an oak, elm, ash, &c.; upon the first planting, doth an enemy to generation. make it prosper double as much as without it. The 429. It hath been practised in trees that do not cause is, for that it retaineth the moisture which bear, to cleave two or three of the chief roots, and falleth at any time upon the tree, and suffereth it to put into the cleft a small pebble, which may not to be exhaled by the sun. Again, it keepeth the keep it open, and then it will bear. The cause tree warm from cold blasts, and frosts, as it were in may be, for that a root of a tree may be, as it a house. It may be also there is somewhat in the were, hide-bound, no less than the body of the tree; keeping of it steady at the first. Query, If laying but it will not keep open without somewhat put of straw some height about the body of a tree, will into it. not make the tree forwards. For though the root 430. It is usually practised, to set trees that regiveth the sap, yet it is the body that draweth it. quire much sun upon walls against the south ; as But you must note, that if you lay stones about the apricots, peaches, plums, vines, figs, and the like. stalk of lettuce, or other plants that are more soft, It hath a double commodity : the one, the heat of it will over-moisten the roots, so as the worms will the wall by reflexion ; the other, the taking away eat them.

of the shade ; for when a tree groweth round, the 423. A tree, at the first setting, should not be upper boughs overshadow the lower ; but when it shaken, until it hath taken root fully : and therefore is spread upon a wall, the sun cometh alike upon some have put two little forks about the bottom of the upper and the lower branches.

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431. It hath also been practised by some, to pull | tread down any loose ground after they have sown off some leaves from the trees so spread, that the sun onions, or turnips, &c. may come upon the bough and fruit the better. 438. If panicum be laid below and about the There hath been practised also a curiosity, to set a bottom of a root, it will cause the root to grow to tree upon the north side of a wall, and at a little an excessive bigness. The cause is, for that being height to draw it through the wall, and spread it itself of a spongy substance, it draweth the moisture upon the south side : conceiving that the root and of the earth to it, and so feedeth the root. This is lower part of the stock should enjoy the freshness of of greatest use for onions, turnips, parsnips, and the shade ; and the upper boughs, and fruit, the carrots. comfort of the sun. But it sorted not; the cause is, 439. The shifting of ground is a means to better for that the root requireth some comfort from the the tree and fruit; but with this caution, that all sun, though under earth, as well as the body; and things do prosper best when they are advanced to the lower part of the body more than the upper, as the better: your nursery of stocks ought to be in a we see in compassing a tree below with straw. more barren ground than the ground is whereunto

432. The lowness of the bough where the fruit you remove them. So all graziers prefer their cattle cometh, maketh the fruit greater, and to ripen bet- from meaner pastures to better. We see also, that ter; for you shall ever see, in apricots, peaches, or hardness in youth lengtheneth life, because it leaveth melocotones upon a wall, the greatest fruits towards a cherishing to the better of the body in age : nay, the bottom. And in France, the grapes that make in exercises, it is good to begin with the hardest, as the wine, grow upon low vines bound to small stakes; dancing in thick shoes, &c. and the raised vines in arbours make but verjuice. 440. It hath been observed, that hacking of trees It is true, that in Italy and other countries where in their bark, both downright and across, so as you they have hotter sun, they raise them upon elms may make them rather in slices than in continued and trees; but I conceive, that if the French manner hacks, doth great good to trees; and especially deof planting low were brought in use there, their livereth them from being hide-bound, and killeth wines would be stronger and sweeter. But it is their moss. more chargeable in respect of the props. It were 441. Shade to some plants conduceth to ke good to try whether a tree grafted somewhat near them large and prosperous, more than sun; as in the ground, and the lower boughs only maintained, strawberries and bays, &c. Therefore among strawand the higher continually pruned off, would not berries sow here and there some borage seed; and make a larger fruit.

you shall find the strawberries under those leaves 433. To have fruit in great plenty, the way is to far more large than their fellow's. And bays you graft not only upon young stocks, but upon divers must plant to the north, or defend them from the boughs of an old tree; for they will bear great sun by a hedge-row; and when you sow the berries, numbers of fruit: whereas if you graft but upon one weed not the borders for the first half year; for the stock, the tree can bear but few.

weed giveth them shade. 434. The digging yearly about the roots of trees, 442. To increase the crops of plants, there would which is a great means both to the acceleration and be considered not only the increasing the lust of the melioration of fruits, is practised in nothing but in earth, or of the plant, but the saving also of that vines: which if it were transferred unto other trees which is spilt. So they have lately made a trial to and shrubs, as roses, &c. I conceive would advance set wheat; which nevertheless hath been left off, them likewise.

because of the trouble and pains : yet so much is 435. It hath been known, that a fruit tree hath true, that there is much saved by the setting, in been blown up, almost, by the roots, and set up comparison of that which is sown; both by keeping again, and the next year bear exceedingly. The it from being picked up by birds, and by avoiding cause of this was nothing but the loosening of the the shallow lying of it, whereby much that is sown earth, which comforteth any tree, and is fit to be taketh no root. practised more than it is in fruit-trees: for trees 443. It is prescribed by some of the ancients, cannot be so fitly removed into new grounds, as that you take small trees, upon which figs or other flowers and herbs may.

fruit grow, being yet unripe, and cover the trees in 436. To revive an old tree, the digging of it about the middle of autumn with dung until the spring; the roots, and applying new mould to the roots, is and then take them up in a warm day, and replant the way. We see also that draught oxen put into them in good ground; and by that means the former fresh pasture gather new and tender flesh; and in year's tree will be ripe, as by a new birth, when all things better nourishment than hath been used other trees of the same kind do but blossom.

But doth help to renew ; especially if it be not only this seemeth to have no great probability.

444. It is reported, that if you take nitre, and 437. If an herb be cut off from the roots in the mingle it with water, to the thickness of honey, and beginning of winter, and then the earth be trodden therewith anoint the bud after the vine is cut, it and beaten down hard with the foot and spade, the will sprout forth within eight days. The cause is roots will become of very great magnitude in sum- like to be, if the experiment be true, the opening of mer. The reason is, for that the moisture being the bud and of the parts contiguous, by the spirit forbidden to come up in the plant, stayeth longer of the nitre ; for nitre is, as it were, the life of in the root, and dilateth it. And gardeners use to vegetables.

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better, but changed and differing from the former. 14

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