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en 358. The fourth is in the dulcoration of some

nature ; for that attenuateth the juice, and farthereth 356. The second is in the assimilation of nourishthe motion of the spirits upwards. Neither is it ment, made in the bodies of plants and living without cause, that Xenophon, in the nurture of the creatures; whereof plants turn the juice of mere Persian children, doth so much commend their feed- water and earth into a great deal of oily matter : ing upon cardamon; which, he saith, made them living creatures, though much of their fat and flesh grow better, and be of a more active habit. Car- are out of oily aliments, as meat and bread, yet they damon is in Latin nasturtium ; and with us water-assimilate also in a measure their drink of water, cresses; which, it is certain, is a herb that, whilst &c. But these two ways of version of water into oil, it is young, is friendly to life. As for the quicken- namely, by mixture and by assimilation, are by ing of natural heat, it must be done chiefly with many passages and percolations, and by long conexercise ; and therefore no doubt much going to tinuance of soft heats, and by circuits of time.

the growth of children ; whereas country people that as in water corrupted, and the mothers of waters go not to school, are commonly of better stature. distilled; both which have a kind of fatness or oil. And again men must beware how they give children any thing that is cold in operation ; for even long metals: as saccharum Saturni, &c. sucking doth hinder both wit and stature. This 359. The intention of version of water into a more hath been tried, that a whelp that hath been fed oily substance is by digestion ; for oil is almost nowith nitre in milk, hath become very little, but ex- thing else but water digested; and this digestion is treme lively : for the spirit of nitre is cold. And principally by heat; which heat must be either outthough it be an excellent medicine in strength of ward or inward: again, it may be by provocation years for prolongation of life; yet it is in children and or excitation; which is caused by the mingling of young creatures an enemy to growth : and all for bodies already oily or digested; for they will somethe same reason ; for heat is requisite to growth ; what communicate their nature with the rest. but after a man is come to his middle age, heat con- Digestion also is strongly effected by direct assimisumeth the spirits; which the coldness of the spirit lation of bodies crude into bodies digested ; as in of nitre doth help to condense and correct.

plants and living creatures, whose nourishment is

far more crude than their bodies : but this digestion Experiments in consort touching sulphur and mercury, two of Paracelsus's principles.

is by a great compass, as hath been said. As for

the more full handling of these two principles, There be two great families of things; you may whereof this is but a taste, the inquiry of which is term them by several names; sulphureous and mer- one of the profoundest inquiries of nature, we leave curial, which are the chemists' words, for as for their it to the title of version of bodies; and likewise to sal, which is their third principle, it is a compound the title of the first congregations of matter; which, of the other two; inflammable and not inflammable ; | like a general assembly of estates, doth give law to mature and crude ; oily and watery. For we see that all bodies. in subterranies there are, as the fathers of their tribes, brimstone and mercury ; in vegetables and

Experiment solitary touching chameleons. living creatures there is water and oil; in the in- 360. A chameleon is a creature about the bigness ferior order of pneumaticals there is air and flame ; of an ordinary lizard: his head unproportionably and in the superior there is the body of the star and big: his eyes great: he moveth his head without the pure sky. And these pairs, though they be un- the writhing of his neck, which is inflexible, as a like in the primitive differences of matter, yet they hog doth : his back crooked; his skin spotted with seem to have many consents: for mercury and sul- little tumours, less eminent near the belly; his tail phur are principal materials of metals; water and slender and long : on each foot he hath five fingers ; oil are principal materials of vegetables and ani- | three on the outside, and two on the inside: his mals; and seem to differ but in maturation or con- tongue of a marvellous length in respect of his body, coction: flame, in vulgar opinion, is but air incensed; and hollow at the end; which he will launch out to and they both have quickness of motion, and facility prey upon flies. Of colour green, and of a dusky of cession, much alike: and the interstellar sky, yellow, brighter and whiter towards the belly; yet though the opinion be vain, that the star is the spotted with blue, white, and red. If he be laid upon denser part of his orb, hath notwithstanding so much green, the green predominateth; if upon yellow, the affinity with the star, that there is a rotation of that, yellow; not so if he be laid upon blue, or red, or as well as of the star. Therefore it is one of the white; only the green spots receive a more orient greatest magnalia naturæ, to turn water or watery lustre ; laid upon black, he looketh all black, though juice into oil or oily juice : greater in nature, than not without a mixture of green. He feedeth not to turn silver or quicksilver into gold.

only upon air, though that be his principal suste355. The instances we have wherein crude and nance, for sometimes he taketh flics, as was said; watery substance turneth into fat and oily, are of yet some that have kept chameleons a whole year four kinds. First in the mixture of earth and together, could never perceive that ever they fed water; which mingled by the help of the sun gather upon any thing else but air; and might observe their a nitrous fatness, more than either of them have bellies to swell after they had exhausted the air severally; as we see in that they put forth plants, and closed their jaws; which they open commonly which need both juices.

against the rays of the sun. They have a foolish

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tradition in magic, that if a chameleon be burnt upon the earth narrower at the bottom than at the top, the top of a house, it will raise a tempest; sup- in fashion of a sugar-loaf reversed, it will help the posing, according to their vain dreams of sympathies, experiment. For it will make the ice, where it isbecause he nourisheth with air, his body should sueth, less in bulk; and evermore smallness of have great virtue to make impression upon the air. quantity is a help to version.

Experiment solitary touching subterrany fires. Experiment solitary touching preserving of rose361. It is reported by one of the ancients, that in

leaves both in colour and smell, part of Media there are eruptions of flames out of 365. Take damask roses, and pull them; then plains; and that those flames are clear, and cast not dry them upon the top of a house, upon a lead or forth such smoke, and ashes, and pumice, as moun- terras, in the hot sun, in a clear day, between the tain flames do. The reason, no doubt, is, because hours only of twelve and two, or thereabouts. Then the flame is not pent as it is in mountains and earth- put them into a sweet dry earthen bottle, or a glass, quakes which cast flame. There be also some blind with narrow mouths, stuffing them close together, fires under stone, which flame not out, but oil being but without bruising: stop the bottle or glass close, poured upon them they flame out.

The cause and these roses will retain not only their smell perwhereof is, for that it seemeth that the fire is so fect, but their colour fresh for a year at least. Note, choked, as not able to remove the stone, it is heat that nothing do so much destroy any plant, or other rather than flame; which nevertheless is sufficient body, either by putrefaction or arefaction, as the to inflame the oil.

adventitious moisture which hangeth loose in the Experiment solitary touching nitre.

body, if it be not drawn out. For it betrayeth and

tolleth forth the innate and radical moisture along 362. It is reported, that in some lakes the water with it, when itself goeth forth. And therefore in is so nitrous, as, if foul clothes be put into it, it living creatures, moderate sweat doth preserve the scoureth them of itself: and if they stay any whit juice of the body. Note, that these roses, when long, they moulder away. And the scouring virtue you take them from the drying, have little or no of nitre is the more to be noted, because it is a body smell ; so that the smell is a second smell, that iscold ; and we see warm water scoureth better than sueth out of the flower afterwards. cold. But the cause is, for that it hath a subtle spirit, which severeth and divideth any thing that is Experiments in consort touching the continuance of foul and viscous, and sticketh upon a body.

flame.

366. The continuance of flame, according unto Experiment solitary touching congealing of air.

the diversity of the body inflamed, and other cir363. Take a bladder, the greatest you can get : cumstances, is worthy the inquiry ; chiefly, for that fill it full of wind, and tie it about the neck with though flame be almost of a momentary lasting, yet a silk thread waxed ; and upon that put likewise it receiveth the more and the less : we will first wax very close ; so that when the neck of the blad- therefore speak at large of bodies inflamed wholly der drieth, no air may possibly get in or out. Then and immediately, without any wick to help the inbury it three or four foot under the earth in a vault, flammation. A spoonful of spirit of wine, a little or in a conservatory of snow, the snow being made heated, was taken, and it burnt as long as came to hollow about the bladder; and after some fortnight's a hundred and sixteen pulses. The same quantity distance, see whether the bladder be shrunk; for if of spirit of wine, mixed with the sixth part of a it be, then it is plain that the coldness of the earth spoonful of nitre, burnt but to the space of ninetyor snow hath condensed the air, and brought it a four pulses. Mixed with the like quantity of baydegree nearer to water: which is an experiment of salt, eighty-three pulses. Mixed with the like great consequence.

quantity of gunpowder, which dissolved into a black water, one hundred and ten pulses.

A cube or pel Experiment solitary touching congealing of water

let of yellow wax was taken, as much as half the into crystal.

spirit of wine, and set in the midst, and it burnt only 364. It is a report of some good credit, that in to the space of eighty-seven pulses. Mixed with deep caves there are pensile crystals, and degrees of the sixth part of a spoonful of milk, it burnt to the crystal that drop from above; and in some other, space of one hundred pulses; and the milk was though more rarely, that rise from below: which curdled. Mixed with the sixth part of a spoonful though it be chiefly the work of cold, yet it may of water, it burnt to the space of eighty-six pulses; be that water that passeth through the earth, ga- with an equal quantity of water, only to the space thereth a nature more clammy and fitter to congeal of four pulses. A small pebble was laid in the and become solid than water of itself. Therefore midst, and the spirit of wine burnt to the space of trial would be made, to lay a heap of earth, in great ninety-four pulses. A piece of wood of the bigness frosts, upon a hollow vessel, putting a canvass be- of an arrow, and about a finger's length, was set up tween, that it falleth not in : and pour water upon in the midst, and the spirit of wine burnt to the it, in such quantity as will be sure to soak through; space of ninety-four pulses. So that the spirit of and see whether it will not make a harder ice in wine simple endured the longest; and the spirit of the bottom of the vessel, and less apt to dissolve wine with the bay-salt, and the equal quantity of than ordinarily. I suppose also, that if you make water, were the shortest.

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367. Consider well, whether the more speedy | they came to the wax, and then go out: of the other going forth of the flame be caused by the greater three, the thread consumed faster than the cotton, vigour of the flame in burning ; or by the resistance by a sixth part of time: the cotton next; then the of the body mixed, and the aversion thereof to take rush consumed slower than the cotton, by at least a flame : which will appear by the quantity of the third part of time. For the bigness of the flame, spirit of wine that remaineth after the going out of the cotton and thread cast a flame much alike; and the flame. And it seemeth clearly to be the latter; the rush much less and dimmer. Query, whether for that the mixture of things least apt to burn, is wood and wicks both, as in torches, consume faster the speediest in going out. And note, by the way, than the wicks simple ? that spirit of wine burned, till it go out of itself, 371. We have spoken of the several materials, will bumu no more ; and tasteth nothing so hot in and the several wicks: but to the lasting of the the mouth as it did; no, nor yet sour, as if it were flame it importeth also, not only what the material a degree towards vinegar, which burnt wine doth; is, but in the same material whether it be hard, soft, but flat and dead.

old, new, &c. Good housewives, to make their 368. Note, that in the experiment of wax afore- candles burn the longer, use to lay them, one by said, the wax dissolved in the burning, and yet did one, in bran or flour, which make them harder, and not incorporate itself with the spirit of wine, to pro- so they consume the slower: insomuch as by this duce one flame; but wheresoever the wax floated, means they will outlast other candles of the same the flame forsook it, till at last it spread all over, stuff almost half in half. For bran and flour have a and put the flame quite out.

virtue to harden; so that both age, and lying in the 369. The experiments of the mixture of the bran, doth help to the lasting. And we see that spirit of wine inflamed, are things of discovery, and wax candles last longer than tallow candles, because not of use: but now we will speak of the continu- wax is more firm and hard. ance of flames, such as are used for candles, lamps, 372. The lasting of flame also dependeth upon or tapers; consisting of inflammable matters, and of the easy drawing of the nourishment; as we see in a wick that provoketh inflammation. And this im- the Court of England there is a service which they porteth not only discovery, but also use and profit; call Allnight; which is as it were a great cake of for it is a great saving in all such lights, if they can wax, with the wick in the midst; whereby it cometh be made as fair and bright as others, and yet last to pass, that the wick fetcheth the nourishment longer. Wax pure made into a candle, and wax farther off. We see also that lamps last longer, bemixed severally into candle-stuff, with the particulars cause the vessel is far broader than the breadth of that follow ; viz. water, aqua vitæ, milk, bay-salt, oil, a taper or candle. butter, nitre, brimstone, saw-dust, every of these 373. Take a turreted lamp of tin, made in the bearing a sixth part to the wax; and every of these form of a square; the height of the turret being candles mixed, being of the same weight and wick thrice as much as the length of the lower part with the wax pure, proved thus in the burning and whereupon the lamp standeth : make only one hole lasting The swiftest in consuming was that with in it, at the end of the return farthest from the saw-dust; which first burned fair till some part of turret. Reverse it, and fill it full of oil by that the candle was consumed, and the dust gathered hole; and then set it upright again; and put a wick about the snaste; but then it made the snaste big in at the hole, and lighten it: you shall find that it and long, and to burn duskishly, and the candle will burn slow, and a long time: which is caused, as wasted in half the time of the wax pure. The next was said last before, for that the flame fetcheth the in swiftness were the oil and butter, which consumed nourishment afar off. You shall find also, that as by a fifth part swifter than the pure wax. Then the oil wasteth and descendeth, so the top of the followed in swiftness the clear wax itself. Then turret by little and little filleth with air; which is the bay-salt, which lasted about an eighth part longer caused by the rarefaction of the oil by the heat. It than the clear wax. Then followed the aqua vitæ, were worthy the observation, to make a hole in the which lasted about a fifth part longer than the clear top of the turret, and to try when the oil is almost wax. Then followed the milk, and water, with little consumed, whether the air made of the oil, if you difference from the aqua vitæ, but the water slowest. put to it the flame of a candle, in the letting of it And in these four last, the wick would spit forth forth, will inflame. It were good also to have the little sparks. For the nitre, it would not hold light- lamp made, not of tin, but of glass, that you may ed above some twelve pulses : but all the while it see how the vapour or air gathereth by degrees in would spit out portions of fame, which afterwards the top. would go out into a vapour. For the brimstone, it 374. A fourth point that importeth the lasting of would hold lighted much about the same time with the flame, is the closeness of the air wherein the the nitre; but then after a little while it would hard-flame burneth. We see that if wind bloweth upon en and cake about the snaste ; so that the mixture of a candle it wasteth apace. We see also it lasteth bay-salt with wax will win an eighth part of the longer in a lanthorn than at large. And there are time of lasting, and the water a fifth.

traditions of lamps and candles, that have burnt a 370. After the several materials were tried, trial very long time in caves and tombs. was likewise made of several wicks; as of ordinary 375. A fifth point that importeth the lasting of cotton, sewing thread, rush, silk, straw, and wood. the flame, is the nature of the air where the flame The silk, straw, and wood, would flame a little, till I burneth ; whether it be hot or cold, moist or dry.

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The air, if it be very cold, irritateth the flame, and

Experiment solitary touching the effects in men's maketh it burn more fiercely, as fire scorcheth in

bodies from several winds. frosty weather, and so farthereth the consumption. The air once heated, I conceive, maketh the flame 381. Men's bodies are heavier, and less disposed burn more mildly, and so helpeth the continuance. to motion, when southern winds blow, than when The air, if it be dry, is indifferent: the air, if it be northern. The cause is, for that when the southern moist, doth in a degree quench the flame, as we see winds blow, the humours do, in some degree, melt lights will go out in the damps of mines, and how- and wax fluid, and so flow into the parts; as it is soever maketh it burn more dully, and so helpeth seen in wood and other bodies, which when the the continuance.

southern winds blow, do swell. Besides, the motion

and activity of the body consisteth chiefly in the Experiments in consort touching burials or infusions sinews, which, when the southern wind bloweth, are of divers bodies in earth.

more relax. 376. Burials in earth sérve for preservation; and for condensation; and for induration of bodies. And

Experiment solitary touching winter and summer

sicknesses. if you intend condensation or induration, you may bury the bodies so as earth may touch them: as if 382. It is commonly seen, that more are sick in you will make artificial porcelane, &c. And the the summer, and more die in the winter; except it like you may do for conservation, if the bodies be be in pestilent diseases, which commonly reign in hard and solid ; as clay, wood, &c. But if you in- summer or autumn. The reason is, because diseases tend preservation of bodies more soft and tender, are bred, indeed, chiefly by heat; but then they are then you must do one of these two: either you must cured most by sweat and purge ; which in the sumput them in cases, whereby they may not touch the mer cometh on or is provoked more easily. As for earth; or else you must vault the earth, whereby pestilent diseases, the reason why most die of them it may hang over them, and not touch them ; for if in summer is, because they are bred most in the the earth touch them, it will do more hurt by the summer : for otherwise those that are touched are moisture, causing them to putrify, than good by the in most danger in the winter. virtual cold, to conserve them; except the earth be

Experiment solitary touching pestilential seasons. very dry and sandy.

377. An orange, lemon, and apple, wrapt in a 383. The general opinion is, that years hot and linen cloth, being buried for a fortnight's space four moist are most pestilent; upon the superficial ground feet deep within the earth, though it were in a that heat and moisture cause putrefaction. In Engmoist place, and a rainy time, yet came forth no land it is not found true ; for many times there have ways mouldy or rotten, but were become a little been great plagues in dry years. Whereof the cause harder than they were ; otherwise fresh in their may be, for that drought in the bodies of islanders colour ; but their juice somewhat flatted. But with habituate to moist airs, doth exasperate the humours, the burial of a fortnight more they became putrified. and maketh them more apt to putrify or inflame :

378. A bottle of beer, buried in like manner as besides, it tainteth the waters, commonly, and maketh before, became more lively, better tasted, and clearer them less wholesome. And again in Barbary, the than it was.

And a bottle of wine in like manner. plagues break up in the summer months, when the A bottle of vinegar so buried came forth more lively weather is hot and dry. and more odoriferous, smelling almost like a violet. And after the whole month's burial, all the three Experiment solitary touching an error received about came forth as fresh and lively, if not better than

epidemical diseases. before.

384. Many diseases, both epidemical and others, 379. It were a profitable experiment to preserve break forth at particular times. And the cause is oranges, lemons, and pomegranates, till summer : falsely imputed to the constitution of the air at that for then their price will be mightily increased. This time when they break forth or reign; whereas it may be done, if you put them in a pot or vessel well proceedeth, indeed, from a precedent sequence and covered, that the moisture of the earth come not at series of the seasons of the year: and therefore them; or else by putting them in a conservatory of Hippocrates in his prognostics doth make good

And generally, whosoever will make experi- observations of the diseases that ensue upon the ments of cold, let him be provided of three things; nature of the precedent four seasons of the year. a conservatory of snow ; a good large vault, twenty Experiment solitary touching the alteration or prefeet at least under the ground; and a deep well. 380. There hath been a tradition, that pearl, and

servation of liquors in wells or deep vaults. coral, and turquois-stone, that have lost their colours, 385. Trial hath been made with earthen bottles may be recovered by burying in the earth; which well stopped, hanged in a well of twenty fathom is a thing of great profit, if it would sort : but upon deep at the least; and some of the bottles have been trial of six weeks burial, there followed no effect. let down into the water, some others have hanged It were good to try it in a deep well, or in a conser- above, within about a fathom of the water; and the vatory of snow ; where the cold may be more con- liquors so tried have been beer, not new, but ready stringent; and so make the body more united, and for drinking, and wine, and milk. The proof hath thereby more resplendent.

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water as above, have not been palled or deaded at roses, wall-flowers, gilly-flowers, pinks, woodbines, all; but as good or somewhat better than bottles of vine-flowers, apple-blooms, lime-tree-blooms, beanthe same drinks and staleness kept in a cellar. But blooms, &c. The cause is, for that where there is those which did hang above water were apparently heat and strength enough in the plant to make the best; and that beer did flower a little ; whereas the leaves odorate, there the smell of the flower is that under water did not, though it were fresh. The rather evanid and weaker than that of the leaves ; milk soured and began to putrify. Nevertheless it as it is in rosemary flowers, lavender flowers, and is true, that there is a village near Blois, where in sweet-briar roses. But where there is less heat, deep caves they do thicken milk, in such sort that there the spirit of the plant is digested and refined, it becometh very pleasant : which was some cause and severed from the grosser juice, in the effloresof this trial of hanging milk in the well : but our cence, and not before. proof was naught; neither do I know whether that 390. Most odours smell best broken or crushed, milk in those caves be first boiled. It were good as hath been said; but flowers pressed or beaten do

therefore to try it with milk sodden, and with cream; lose the freshness and sweetness of their odour. : for that milk of itself is such a compound body, of the cause is, for that when they are crushed, the

cream, curds, and whey, as it is easily turned and grosser and more earthy spirit cometh out with the dissolved. It were good also to try the beer when finer, and troubleth it; whereas in stronger odours it is in wort, that it may be seen whether the hang. there are no such degrees of the issue of the smell. ing in the well will accelerate the ripening and clarifying of it.

Experiments in consort touching the goodness and

choice of water. Experiment solitary touching stutting.

391. It is a thing of very good use to discover 386. Divers, we see, do stut. The cause may the goodness of waters. The taste, to those that be, in most, the refrigeration of the tongue ; where drink water only, doth somewhat: but other experiby it is less apt to move. And therefore we see ments are more sure. First, try waters by weight; that naturals do generally stut: and we see that wherein you may find some difference, though not in those that stut, if they drink wine moderately, much; and the lighter you may account the better. they stut less, because it heateth: and so we see, that 392. Secondly, try them by boiling upon an equal they that stut do stut more in the first offer to speak fire; and that which consumeth away fastest you than in continuance; because the tongue is by mo- may account the best. tion somewhat heated. In some also, it may be, 393. Thirdly, try them in several bottles or open though rarely, the dryness of the tongue ; which vessels, matches in every thing else, and see which likewise maketh it less apt to move as well as cold : of them last longest without stench or corruption, for it is an effect that cometh to some wise and great | And that which holdeth unputrified longest, you men; as it did unto Moses, who was linguæ præpe- may likewise account the best. ditæ; and many stutters, we find, are very choleric 394. Fourthly, try them by making drinks strongmen; choler inducing a dryness in the tongue. er or smaller, with the same quantity of malt; and

you may conclude, that that water which maketh Experiments in consort touching smells.

the stronger drink, is the more concocted and nour387. Smells and other odours are sweeter in the ishing ; though perhaps it be not so good for mediair at some distance, than near the nose; as hath cinal use. And such water commonly is the water been partly touched heretofore. The cause is double: of large and navigable rivers; and likewise in large first, the finer mixture or incorporation of the smell: and clean ponds of standing water; for upon both for we see that in sounds likewise, they are sweet. them the sun hath more power than upon fountains est when we cannot hear every part by itself. The or small rivers. And I conceive that chalk-water other reason is, for that all sweet smells have joined is next them the best for going farthest in drink : with them some earthy or crude odours; and at for that also helpeth concoction; so it be out of a some distance, the sweet which is the more spiritual, deep well; for then it cureth the rawness of the is perceived, and the earthy reacheth not so far. water ; but chalky water, towards the top of the

388. Sweet smells are most forcible in dry sub- earth, is too fretting ; as it appeareth in laundry of stances when they are broken; and so likewise in clothes, which wear out apace if you use such waters. oranges and lemons, the nipping of their rind giveth 395. Fifthly, the housewives do find a difference out their smell more; and generally when bodies in waters, for the bearing or not bearing of soap : are moved or stirred, though not broken, they smell and it is likely that the more fat water will bear more; as a sweet-bag waved. The cause is double: soap best; for the hungry water doth kill the uncthe one, for that there is a greater emission of tuous nature of the soap. the spirit when way is made; and this holdeth in 396. Sixthly, you may make a judgment of wathe breaking, nipping, or crushing; it holdeth also, ters according to the place whence they spring or in some degree, in the moving : but in this last come: the rain-water is, by the physicians, esteemed there is a concurrence of the second cause, which the finest and the best; but yet it is said to putrify is the impulsion of the air, that bringeth the scent soonest; which is likely, because of the fineness of faster upon us.

the spirit: and in conservatories of rain-water, such 389. The daintiest smells of flowers are out of as they have in Venice, &c. they are found not so those plants whose leaves smell not; as violets, I choice waters; the worse, perhaps, because they

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