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grosser part of the beer will cleave to the milk : the or in the bottom of a well within water; and best doubt is, whether the milk will sever well again; of all, the hanging of them in a deep well somewhat which is soon tried. And it is usual in clarifying above the water for some fortnight's space, is an hippocras to put in milk ; which after severeth and excellent means of making drink fresh and quick; carrieth with it the grosser parts of the hippocras, for the cold doth not cause any exhaling of the as hath been said elsewhere. Also for the better spirits at all, as heat doth, though it rarifieth the clarification by percolation, when they tun new beer, rest that remain : but cold maketh the spirits vigorthey use to let it pass through a strainer ; and it is ous, and irritateth them, whereby they incorporate like the finer the strainer is, the clearer it will be. the parts of the liquor perfectly.

316. As for the maturation of fruits; it is Experiments in consort touching maturation, and the wrought by the calling forth of the spirits of the accelerating thereof. And first, touching the ma

body outward, and so spreading them more smoothly: turation and quickening of drinks. And next, and likewise by digesting in some degree the grosser touching the maturation of fruits.

parts ; and this is effected by heat, motion, attracThe accelerating of maturation we will now in- tion; and by a rudiment of putrefaction: for the quire of.

And of maturation itself. It is of three inception of putrefaction hath in it a maturation. natures. The maturation of fruits: the maturation 317. There were taken apples, and laid in straw; of drinks : and the maturation of imposthumes and in hay; in flour; in chalk; in lime; covered over ulcers. This last we refer to another place, where with onions ; covered over with crabs ; closed up in we shall handle experiments medicinal. There be wax; shut in a box, &c. There was also an apple also other maturations, as of metals, &c. whereof we hanged up in smoke; of all which the experiment will speak as occasion serveth. But we will begin sorted in this manner. with that of drinks, because it hath such affinity 318. After a month's space, the apple enclosed with the clarification of liquors.

in wax was as green and fresh as at the first putting 312. For the maturation of drinks, it is wrought in, and the kernels continued white. The cause is, by the congregation of the spirits together, where for that all exclusion of open air, which is ever by they digest more perfectly the grosser parts: and predatory, maintaineth the body in its first freshness it is effected partly by the same means that clarifi- and moisture : but the inconvenience is, that it cation is, whereof we spake before; but then note, tasteth a little of the wax ; which I suppose, in a that an extreme clarification doth spread the spirits pomegranate, or some such thick-coated fruit, it so smooth, as they become dull, and the drink dead, would not do. which onght to have a little flowering. And there- 319. The apple hanged in the smoke, turned like fore all your clear amber drink is flat.

an old mellow apple, wrinkled, dry, soft, sweet, yel313. We see the degrees of maturation of drinks; low within. The cause is, for that such a degree in muste, in wine, as it is drunk, and in vinegar. of heat, which doth neither melt nor scorch, (for Whereof muste hath not the spirits well congre- we see that in a great heat, a roast apple softeneth gated; wine hath them well united, so as they make and melteth; and pigs' feet, made of quarters of the parts somewhat more oily; vinegar hath them wardens, scorch and have a skin of cole,) doth melcongregated, but more jejune, and in smaller quan- low, and not adure: the smoke also maketh the tity, the greatest and finest spirit and part being ex-apple, as it were, sprinkled with soot, which helpeth haled: for we see vinegar is made by setting the to mature. We see that in drying of pears and vessel of wine against the hot sun ; and therefore prunes in the oven, and removing of them often as vinegar will not burn; for that much of the finer they begin to sweat, there is a like operation ; but parts is exhaled.

that is with a far more intense degree of heat. 314. The refreshing and quickening of drink pall- 320. The apples covered in the lime and ashes ed or dead, is by enforcing the motion of the spirit: were well matured; as appeared both in their yelso we see that open weather relaxeth the spirit, and lowness and sweetness. The cause is, for that that maketh it more lively in motion. We see also bot- degree of heat which is in lime and ashes, being a tling of beer or ale, while it is new and full of spirit, smothering heat, is of all the rest most proper, for so that it spirteth when the stopple is taken forth, it doth neither liquefy nor arefy ; and that is true maketh the drink more quick and windy. A pan maturation. Note, that the taste of those apples of coles in the cellar doth likewise good, and maketh was good ; and therefore it is the experiment fittest the drink work again. New drink put to drink that for use. is dead provoketh it to work again: nay, which is 321. The apples covered with crabs and onions more, as some affirm, a brewing of new beer set by were likewise well matured. The cause is, not any old beer, maketh it work again. It were good also heat; but for that the crabs and the onions draw to enforce the spirits by some mixtures, that may forth the spirits of the apple, and spread them excite and quicken them; as by putting into the bot- equally throughout the body; which taketh away tles, nitre, chalk, lime, &c. We see cream is ma- hardness. So we see one apple ripeneth against tured, and made to rise more speedily by putting another. And therefore in making of cider they in cold water ; which, as it seemeth, getteth down turn the apples first upon a heap. So one cluster the whey.

of grapes that toucheth another whilst it grow315. It is tried, that the burying of bottles of eth, ripeneth faster ; “ botrus contra botrum citius drink well stopped, either in dry earth a good depth ; 1 maturescit."

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322. The apples in hay and the straw ripened | great effect. And we commend the wit of the Chiapparently, though not so much as the others; but nese, who despair of making of gold, but are mad the apple in the straw more. The cause is, for that upon the making of silver: for certain it is, that it is the hay and straw have a very low degree of heat, more difficult to make gold, which is the most ponbut yet close and smothering, and which drieth not. derous and materiate amongst metals, of other metals

323. The apple in the close box was ripened also: less ponderous and less materiate, than via versa, to the cause is, for that all air kept close hath a de- make silver of lead or quicksilver ; both which are gree of warmth : as we see in wool, fur, plush, &c. more ponderous than silver; so that they need rather Note, that all these were compared with another a farther degree of fixation, than any condensation. apple of the same kind, that lay of itself: and in In the mean time, by occasion of handling the axicomparison of that were more sweet and more oms touching maturation we will direct a trial yellow, and so appeared to be more ripe.

touching the maturing of metals, and thereby turn324 Take an apple, or pear, or other like fruit, ing some of them into gold: for we conceive indeed and roll it upon a table hard: we see in common that a perfect good concoction, or digestion, or maexperience, that the rolling doth softeñand sweeten turation of some metals, will produce gold. And the fruit presently ; which is nothing but the smooth here we call to mind, that we knew a Dutchman, distribution of the spirits into the parts : for the that had wrought himself into the belief of a great unequal distribution of the spirits maketh the harsh- person, by undertaking that he could make gold : ness : but this hard rolling is between concoction, whose discourse was, that gold might be made; and a simple maturation ; therefore, if you should but that the alchemists over-fired the work : for, he roll them but gently, perhaps twice a day; and con- said, the making of gold did require a very tempertinue it some seven days, it is like they would ma- ate heat, as being in nature a subterrany work, ture more finely, and like unto the natural maturation. where little heat cometh ; but yet more to the mak

325. Take an apple, and cut out a piece of the ing of gold than of any other metal; and therefore top, and cover it, to see whether that solution of that he would do it with a great lamp that should continuity will not hasten a maturation : we see that carry a temperate and equal heat: and that it was where a wasp, or a fly, or a worm hath bitten, in a the work of many months. The device of the lamp grape, or any fruit, it will sweeten hastily.

was folly ; but the over-firing now used, and the 326. Take an apple, &c. and prick it with a pin equal heat to be required, and the making it a full of holes, not deep, and smear it a little with work of some good time, are no ill discourses. sack, or cinnamon water, or spirit of wine, every We resort therefore to our axioms of maturation, day for ten days, to see if the virtual heat of the in effect touched before. The first is, that there wine or strong waters will not mature it.

be used a temperate heat; for they are ever temperIn these trials also, as was used in the first, set ate heats that digest and mature : wherein we mean another of the same fruits by, to compare them; temperate according to the nature of the subject; and try them by their yellowness and by their for that may be temperate to fruits and liquors, which sweetness.

will not work at all upon metals. The second is,

that the spirit of the metal be quickened, and the Experiment solitary touching the making of gold. tangible parts opened : for without those two opera

The world hath been much abused by the opinion tions, the spirit of the metal wrought upon will not of making of gold: the work itself I judge to be be able to digest the parts. The third is, that the possible ; but the means, hitherto propounded, to spirits do spread themselves even, and move not effect it, are in the practice, full of error and im- subsultorily; for that will make the parts close and posture, and in the theory, full of unsound imagina- pliant. And this requireth a heat that doth not tions. For to say, that nature hath an intention to rise and fall, but continue as equal as may be. The make all metals gold; and that, if she were delivered fourth is, that no part of the spirit be emitted, but from impediments, she would perform her own detained : for if there be emission of spirit, the body work; and that, if the crudities, impurities, and le- of the metal will be hard and churlish. And this prosities of metals were cured, they would become will be performed, partly by the temper of the fire, gold; and that a little quantity of the medicine, in and partly by the closeness of the vessel. The the work of projection, will turn a sea of the baser fifth is, that there be choice made of the likeliest metal into gold by multiplying : all these are but and best prepared metal for the version ; for that dreams; and so are many other grounds of alchemy. will facilitate the work. The sixth is, that you And to help the matter, the alchemists call in like give time enough for the work ; not to prolong wise many vanities out of astrology, natural magic, hopes, as the alchemists do, but indeed to give nasuperstitious interpretations of Scriptures, auricular ture a convenient space to work in. These printraditions, feigned testimonies of ancient authors, ciples are most certain and true; we will now deand the like. It is true, on the other side, they have rive a direction of trial out of them, which may, brought to light not a few profitable experiments, perhaps, by farther meditation be improved. and thereby made the world some amends. But we, 327. Let there be a small furnace made of a when we shall come to handle the version and trans- temperate heat; let the heat be such as may keep mutation of bodies, and the experiments concerning the metal perpetually molten, and no more; for that metals and minerals, will lay open the true ways above all importeth to the work. For the material, and passages of nature, which may lead to this take silver, which is the metal that in nature sym


bolizeth most with gold ; put in also with the silver, | already putrified, is added to other bodies. And this a tenth part of quicksilver, and a twelfth part of is also notably seen in church-yards where they nitre, by weight: both these to quicken and open bury much, where the earth will consume the corpse the body of the metal : and so let the work be con- in far shorter time than other earth will. tinued by the space of six months at the least. I 331. The third is by closeness and stopping, wish also, that there be at some times an injection which detaineth the spirits in prison more than they of some oiled substance ; such as they use in the would; and thereby irritateth them to seek issue ; recovering of gold, which by vexing with separa- as in corn and clothes which wax musty; and tions hath been made churlish: and this is to lay therefore open air, which they call aër perflabilis, the parts more close and smooth, which is the main doth preserve: and this doth appear more evidently work. For gold, as we see, is the closest and there in agues, which come, most of them, of obstructions, fore the heaviest, of metals; and is likewise the and penning the humours, which thereupon putrify. most flexible and tensible. Note, that to think to 332. The fourth is by solution of continuity; as make gold of quicksilver, because it is the heaviest, we see an apple will rot sooner if it be cut or is a thing not to be hoped; for quicksilver will not pierced; and so will wood, &c. And so the flesh of endure the manage of the fire. Next to silver, I creatures alive, where they have received any wound. think copper were fittest to be the material.

333. The fifth is either by the exhaling or by the

driving back of the principal spirits which preserve Experiment solitary touching the nature of gold.

the consistence of the body; so that when their 328. Gold hath these natures ; greatness of government is dissolved, every part returneth to his weight; closeness of parts; fixation; pliantness, or nature or homogeny. And this appeareth in urine softness ; immunity from rust; colour or tincture of and blood when they cool, and thereby break : it yellow. Therefore the sure way, though most appeareth also in the gangrene, or mortification of about, to make gold, is to know the causes of the flesh, either by opiates or by intense colds. I conseveral natures before rehearsed, and the axioms ceive also the same effect is in pestilences; for that concerning the same. For if a man can make a the malignity of the infecting vapour danceth the metal that hath all these properties, let men dispute principal spirits, and maketh them fly and leave their whether it be gold or no.

regiment; and then the humours, flesh, and secondary

spirits, do dissolve and break, as in an anarchy. Experiments in consort touching the inducing and

334. The sixth is when a foreign spirit, stronger accelerating of putrefaction.

and more eager than the spirit of the body, entereth The inducing and accelerating of putrefaction, is the body; as in the stinging of serpents. And this a subject of a very universal inquiry : for corruption is the cause, generally, that upon all poisons followis a reciprocal to generation : and they two are as eth swelling: and we see swelling followeth also nature's two terms or boundaries; and the guides to when the spirits of the body itself congregate too life and death. Putrefaction is the work of the much, as upon blows and bruises; or when they are spirits of bodies, which ever are unquiet to get forth pent in too much, as in swelling upon cold. And and congregate with the air, and to enjoy the sun- we see also, that the spirits coming of putrefaction beams. The getting forth, or spreading of the of humours in agues, &c. which may be counted as spirits, which is a degree of getting forth, hath five foreign spirits, though they be bred within the differing operations. If the spirits be detained body, do extinguish and suffocate the natural spirits within the body, and move more violently, there fol. and heat. loweth colliquation, as in metals, &c.

335. The seventh is by such a weak degree of mildly, there followeth digestion, or maturation; as heat, as setteth the spirits in a little motion, but is in drinks and fruits. If the spirits be not merely not able either to digest the parts, or to issue the detained, but protrude a little, and that motion be spirits; as is seen in flesh kept in a room, that is confused and inordinate, there followeth putrefac- not cool : whereas in a cool and wet larder it will tion; which ever dissolveth the consistence of the keep longer. And we see that vivification, whereof body into much inequality; as in flesh, rotten fruits, putrefaction is the bastard brother, is effected by shining wood, &c. and also in the rust of metals. such soft heats; as the hatching of eggs, the heat But if that motion be in a certain order, there fol- of the womb, &c.

336. The eighth is by the releasing of the spirits, creatures bred of putrefaction, and in living creatures which before were close kept by the solidness of their perfect. But if the spirits issue out of the body, coverture, and thereby their appetite of issuing there followeth desiccation, induration, consumption, checked; as in the artificial rusts induced by strong &c. as in brick, evaporation of bodies liquid, &c. waters in iron, lead, &c., and therefore wetting

329. The means to induce and accelerate putre- hasteneth rust or putrefaction of any thing, because faction, are, first, by adding some crude or watery it softeneth the crust for the spirits to come forth. moisture; as in wetting of any flesh, fruit, wood, with 337. The ninth is by the interchange of heat and water, &c. for contrariwise unctuous and oily sub- cold, or wet and dry; as we see in the mouldering stances preserve.

of earth in frosts and sun ; and in the more hasty 330. The second is by invitation or excitation ; rotting of wood, that is sometimes wet, someas when a rotten apple lieth close to another apple times dry. that is sound; or when dung, which is a substance 338. The tenth is by time, and the work and pro

If more

cedure of the spirits themselves, which cannot keep the diversity is, that in bodies that need detention their station; especially if they be left to them- of spirits, the exclusion of the air doth good; as selves, and there be not agitation or local motion. in drinks and corn: but in bodies that need emisAs we see in corn not stirred; and men's bodies not sion of spirits to discharge some of the superfluexercised.

ous moisture, it doth hurt, for they require airing. 339. All moulds are inceptions of putrefaction ; 344. The fourth is motion and stirring; for puas the moulds of pies and flesh; the moulds of trefaction asketh rest: for the subtle motion which oranges and lemons, which moulds afterwards turn putrefaction requireth, is disturbed by any agitation ; into worms, or more odious putrefactions : and there and all local motion keepeth bodies integral, and fore, commonly, prove to be of ill odour. And if their parts together; as we see that turning over of the body be liquid, and not apt to putrify totally, it corn in a garner, or letting it run like an hour-glass, will cast up a mother in the top, as the mothers of from an upper-room into a lower, doth keep it distilled waters.

sweet; and running waters putrify not: and in 340. Moss is a kind of mould of the earth and men's bodies, exercise hindereth putrefaction; and trees. But it may be better sorted as a rudiment of contrariwise, rest and want of motion, or stoppings, germination; to which we refer it.

whereby the run of humours, or the motion of per

spiration is stayed, further putrefaction; as we Experiments in consort touching prohibiting and

partly touched a little before. preventing putrefaction.

345. The fifth is the breathing forth of the adIt is an inquiry of excellent use, to inquire of the ventitious moisture in bodies ; for as wetting doth means of preventing or staying putrefaction; for hasten putrefaction, so convenient drying, whereby therein consisteth the means of conservation of bo- the more radical moisture is only kept in, putteth dies: for bodies have two kinds of dissolutions ; the back putrefaction; so we see that herbs and flowers, one by consumption and desiccation; the other by if they be dried in the shade, or dried in the hot putrefaction. But as for the putrefactions of the sun for a small time, keep best. For the emission bodies of men and living creatures, as in agues, of the loose and adventitious moisture doth beworms, consumptions of the lungs, imposthumes, and tray the radical moisture; and carrieth it out for ulcers both inwards and outwards, they are a great company. part of physic and surgery; and therefore we will 346. The sixth is the strengthening of the spirits reserve the inquiry of them to the proper place, of bodies ; for as a great heat keepeth bodies from where we shall handle medical experiments of all putrefaction, but a tepid heat inclineth them to pusorts. Of the rest we will now enter into an in- trefaction; so a strong spirit likewise preserveth, quiry : wherein much light may be taken from that and a weak or faint spirit disposeth to corruption. which hath been said of the means to induce or So we find that salt water corrupteth not so soon as accelerate putrefactions; or the removing that which fresh : and salting of oysters, and powdering of caused putrefaction, doth prevent and avoid putre-meat, keepeth them from putrefaction. It would be faction.

tried also, whether chalk put into water or drink, 341. The first means of prohibiting or checking doth not preserve it from putrifying or speedy sourputrefaction, is cold : for so we see that meat and ing. So we see that strong beer will last longer drink will last longer unputrified or unsoured, in than small; and all things that are hot and arowinter than in summer : and we see that flowers matical, do help to preserve liquors, or powders, and fruits, put in conservatories of snow, keep fresh. &c. which they do as well by strengthening the And this worketh by the detention of the spirits, spirits, as by soaking out the loose moisture. and constipation of the tangible parts.

347. The seventh is separation of the cruder 342. The second is astriction : for astriction pro- parts, and thereby making the body more equal; for hibiteth dissolution: as we see generally in medi. all imperfect mixture is apt to putrify; and watery cines, whereof such as are astringents do inhibit substances are more apt to putrify than oily. So putrefaction: and by the same reason of astringency, we see distilled waters will last longer than raw some small quantity of oil of vitriol will keep fresh waters; and things that have passed the fire do water long from putrifying. And this astriction is last longer than those that have not passed the fire; in a substance that hath a virtual cold: and it as dried pears, &c. worketh partly by the same means that cold doth. 348. The eighth is the drawing forth continually

343. The third is the excluding of the air ; and of that part where the putrefaction beginneth ; again, the exposing to the air: for these contraries, which is commonly, the loose and watery moisture; as it cometh often to pass, work the same effect, ac- not only for the reason before given, that it procording to the nature of the subject matter.

voketh the radical moisture to come forth with it; see, that beer or wine, in bottles close stopped, last but because being detained in the body, the putrelong ; that the garners under ground keep corn faction taking hold of it, infecteth the rest: as we longer than those above ground; and that fruit see in the embalming of dead bodies; and the same closed in wax keepeth fresh; and likewise bodies reason is of preserving herbs, or fruits, or flowers, put in honey and flour keep more fresh: and liquors, in bran or meal. drinks, and juices, with a little oil cast on the top, 349. The ninth is the commixture of any thing keep fresh. Contrariwise, we see that cloth and that is more oily or sweet; for such bodies are least apparel not aired do breed moths and mould ; and I apt to putrify, the air working little upon them;

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and they not putrifying, preserve the rest. And house, within five or six days lost the shining; and therefore we see syrups and ointments will last laid abroad again, recovered the shining. 9. Shinlonger than juices.

ing woods being laid in a dry room, within a seven350. The tenth is the commixture of somewhat night lost their shining; but being laid in a cellar, that is dry; for putrefaction beginneth first from or dark room, kept the shining. 10. The boring of the spirits, and then from the moisture : and that holes in that kind of wood, and then laying it abroad, that is dry is unapt to putrify: and therefore smoke seemeth to conduce to make it shine : the cause is, preserveth flesh; as we see in bacon and neats' for that all solution of continuity doth help on putongues, and Martlemas beef, &c.

trefaction, as was touched before. 11. No wood 351. The opinion of some of the ancients, that hath been yet tried to shine, that was cut down alive, blown airs do preserve bodies longer than other but such as was rotted both in stock and root while airs, seemeth to me probable; for that the blown it grew. 12. Part of the wood that shined was airs, being overcharged and compressed, will hardly steeped in oil, and retained the shining a fortnight. receive the exhaling of any thing, but rather re- 13. The like succeeded in some steeped in water, pulse it. It was tried in a blown bladder, whereinto and much better. 14. How long the shining will flesh was put, and likewise a flower; and it sorted continue, if the wood be laid abroad every night, and not: for dry bladders will not blow; and new blad taken in and sprinkled with water in the day, is not ders rather farther putrefaction: the way were there yet tried. 15. Trial was made of laying it abroad fore to blow strongly with a pair of bellows into a in frosty weather, which hurt it not. 16. There hogshead, putting into the hogshead, before, that was a great piece of a root which did shine, and the which you would have preserved; and in the in- shining part was cut off till no more shined; yet stant that you withdraw the bellows stop the hole after two nights, though it were kept in a dry room, close.

it got a shining. Experiment solitary touching wood shining in the

Experiments solitary touching the acceleration of dark.

birth. 352. The experiment of wood that shineth in the 353. The bringing forth of living creatures may be dark, we have diligently driven and pursued; the accelerated in two respects; the one, if the embryo rather, for that of all things that give light here ripeneth and perfecteth sooner; the other, if there be below, it is the most durable, and hath least apparent some cause from the mother's body, of expulsion motion. Fire and flame are in continual expense; or putting it down : whereof the former is good, sugar shineth only while it is in scraping ; and salt- and argueth strength; the latter is ill, and cometh water while it is in dashing ; glow-worms have their by accident or disease. And therefore the ancient shining while they live, or a little after; only scales observation is true, that the child born in the seventh of fishes putrified seem to be of the same nature month doth commonly well; but born in the eighth with shining wood: and it is true, that all putrefac- month, doth for the most part die. But the cause tion hath with it an inward motion, as well as fire assigned is fabulous ; which is, that in the eighth or light. The trial sorted thus : 1. The shining is should be the return of the reign of the planet Saturn, in some pieces more bright, in some more dim; which, as they say, is a planet malign; whereas in but the most bright of all doth not attain to the the seventh is the reign of the moon, which is a light of a glow-worm. 2. The woods that have planet propitious. But the true cause is, for that been tried to shine, are chiefly sallow and willow ; where there is so great a prevention of the ordinary also the ash and hazel; it may be it holdeth in others. time, it is the lustiness of the child; but when it is 3. Both roots and bodies do shine, but the roots less, it is some indisposition of the mother. better. 4. The colour of the shining part, by daylight, is in some pieces white, in some pieces inclin

Experiment solitary touching the acceleration of ing to red; which in the country they call the white

growth and stature. and red garret. 5. The part that shineth is, for 354. To accelerate growth or stature, it must the most part, somewhat soft, and moist to feel to; proceed either from the plenty of the nourishment; but some was found to be firm and hard, so as it or from the nature of the nourishment; or from the might be figured into a cross, or into beads, &c. quickening and exciting of the natural heat. For But you must not look to have an image, or the like, the first, excess of nourishment is hurtful; for it in any thing that is lightsome : for even a face in maketh the child corpulent ; and growing in breadth iron red-hot will not be seen, the light confounding rather than in height. And you may take an exthe small differences, of lightsome and darksome, periment from plants, which if they spread much which show the figure. 6. There was the shining are seldom tall. As for the nature of the nourishpart pared off, till you came to that that did not ment; first, it may not be too dry, and therefore shine; but within two days the part contiguous be- children in dairy countries do wax more tall, than gan also to shine, being laid abroad in the dew ; so where they feed more upon bread and flesh. There as it seemeth the putrefaction spreadeth. 7. There is also a received tale ; that boiling of daisy roots was other dead wood of like kind that was laid in milk, which it is certain are great driers, will abroad, which shined not at first; but after a night's make dogs little. But so much is true, that an overlying abroad began to shine. 8. There was other dry nourishment in childhood putteth back stature. wood that did first shine; and being laid dry in the Secondly, the nourishment must be of an opening

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