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UNITED STATES (THE).

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been found in many parts of the Atlantic slope, and in | herself and defrayed the cost of their defence Alabama, &c.; in the S. part of the Mississippi basin; against foreign aggression. She, also, supplied but they seem to be almost exclusively confined to those regions. The most extensive and remarkable alluvial them with manufactured products at the lowest tract is that around the mouth of the Mississippi. If we possible rates, so that they were able to apply all except a few small insulated fields, all the bituminous their energies to agriculture, which, under the coal in the U. States lies W. of the Appalachian chain, circumstances, was especially profitable. where a vast series of coal-beds stretch from the mountains westward through Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois, and such a state of things, the demand for labour parts of Kentucky and Alabama, into the state of Mis- could not be otherwise than astonishingly great; souri, and even as far as 200 m. beyond the Mississippi! for a high rate of wages, combined with a faThe coal best suited for manufactures, &c., lies at the N. cility of procuring land, speedily changes the extremity of this great field, in Pennsylvania, and in the W. part of Virginia, the E. part of Ohio, and Illinois. Nu- labourers into landlords, who, in their turn, merous salt springs exist in New York, Virginia, Penn- become the employers of fresh labourers. Under sylvania, and the W. states. Iron is distributed most such circumstances every man might enter into abundantly through the coal measures in Pennsylvania, matrimonial engagements without being deOhio, Virginia, Tennessee, &c., where the ore contains from 25 to 33 per cent. of metal, though it has hitherto terred, as in old settled and densely peopled been little wrought. It also abounds in the N.W. states, countries, by the fear of not being able to proand in one part of Vermont the ore is said to yield 78 per vide for the children that might be expected to cent. of iron of the best quality. A large proportion of spring from them. In America, indeed, and the ore found in this part of the Union is magnetic. The produce of pig iron, in 1830, was estimated at 191,536 in all similarly situated countries, a large fatons; and as the make has increased rapidly in the in- mily is a source of wealth; marriages, in conterval, it may now (1842) be probably estimated at sequence, are at once comparatively general and 300,000 tons. Lead is next in importance: it is found early. And in addition to the extraordinary in various places, especially in Missouri, the Wisconsin territory, and Illinois; and its average annual produce stimulus thus given to the principle of population may estimated at about 32,000,000 lbs. In some parts of in the United States, they have been ever since the Wisconsin territory the lead ore is so very rich as to their settlement a "land of promise," to which yield from 60 to 70 per cent. of lead. Gold has been found industrious and ambitious individuals in depressed in certain parts of Virginia, both Carolinas, Georgia, and Tennessee; but its importance has been much exaggecircumstances have been emigrating from Eurated: the value of the quantity produced, which, in 1834, rope; and they have, also, been a "city of reamounted to 898,000 doll., had fallen off in 1840 to 176,766 fuge," in which the victims and the foes of doli. Copper, zinc, manganese, with lime, building-stone, political or religious intolerance have found a secure asylum.

&c., constitute the other chief mineral products. Sub stances of volcanic origin appear to be rarely, if ever, found in the U. States E. of the Rocky Mountains. We subjoin the following returns with regard to mines and mineral products, as ascertained by the marshals employed to take the late census: —

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Population. The progress of population in the U. States has been rapid beyond any previous example. This, however, may be easily explained, from the peculiar circumstances under which they have been placed. They have the good fortune to possess an all but boundless extent of fruitful soil, and a climate which, as it is, speaking generally, neither too hot nor too cold, is most favourable to the exercise of industry; they are, also, well situated for commerce, and enjoy an almost unequalled extent of inland navigation; and at the period of its discovery this vast country, possessing such natural advantages, was occupied only by a few thousand miserable savages. The colonists who left this country to settle in America had, therefore, after the difficulties incident to the foundation of the first settlements had been got over, unparalleled opportunities for increasing in wealth and population. They carried with them the science and the arts of the most civilized nations of the old world; and they applied them to the culture of a virgin and unoccupied soil. Each colonist got as much land as he could cultivate or occupy without being subject to any charge for lordship or rent, at the same time that his taxes were quite inconsiderable. In fact, all that the colonists had to do was to provide for their internal government, as Britain took upon

It is true that the progress of population in the ci-devant Spanish colonies has been much less rapid than in the English colonies; but the differences in their situation have not been less considerable than the points of resemblance, and are quite sufficient to account for the different rate at which their population has increased. The Spanish colonists were placed under the most degrading system of civil and religious intolerance; their industry and freedom of action were interfered with in a thousand different ways; and all emigration to them from foreign countries, and, in fact, all intercourse with the latter was strictly prohibited. The English colonies, on the other hand, have always enjoyed a remarkably free system of government; their mental and physical energies have been allowed to expand without let or hindrance; and they have been always open to all classes and descrip tions of immigrants, not from England only, but from all the world. We need not, therefore, wonder at the more rapid progress of the latter, or at the fact that they have gone on for a lengthened period doubling their population once in every 25 years!

It is, however, to be observed, that this rate of increase, though it prevails at an average of the entire Union, does not prevail in each particular state. Indeed the western are now, in respect to the eastern states, what the latter formerly were in respect to Europe, -a field to which the impoverished, enterprising, industrious, and adventurous are glad to resort. There is, in fact, a constant emigration current setting from the eastern to the western states. And hence, while population is now but slowly increasing, in the old settled parts of the country, it is advancing with unprecedented rapidity in the valley of the Mississippi, and the territory to the W. of that great river. And the fair presumption is that this progress will continue till the country be occupied westward to the Pacific, or, which is the same thing, till the existing facilities for the support and employment of additional inhabitants begin to fail; when new habits and a slower rate of increase will, no doubt, also, begin to manifest themselves. We subjoin a

STATEMENT exhibiting the Area of the different States and Territories comprised within the limits of the Union in 1840, with the Progress of Population in each from 1790 downwards.

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*This is inclusive of the territory in dispute with Great Britain.-The area assigned to most of the states is merely approximative. Slaves. Of the 17,062,566 inhab. belonging to the U. States in 1840, no fewer than 2,487,113 were slaves. We subjoin an ACCOUNT of the Number of Slaves in the different States and Territories comprised within the Union, at the different Enumerations from 1790 downwards :

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697,897

893,011

1,246,408

1,240,705

2,487,113

Missouri

District. Columbia

Territ. Florida

Wisconsin
Jowa

Total

1,191,364 1,538,064 2,009,031 Not slaves, but " indented coloured servants." We borrow from the American edition of the Encyclo- already been formed with this prohibition incorporated pædia of Geography the following details with respect to in their constitution. The introduction of slaves from slavery in the U. States: abroad was prohibited by Virginia in 1798, and by Congress into the Mississippi Territory in the same year. In 1808 the importation of slaves into the U. States was forbidden; and it is believed that the number since clandestinely introduced into the country has been very small. Slavery may be said to exist in thirteen states: Delaware, Maryland, Missouri, Arkansas, and all the states S. of the Potomac and the Ohio. The slaves form rather more than one third of the whole pop. in the states in which the institution exists, but they are unequally distributed, although the white pop. generally predominates. In Missouri, Tennessee, and Kentucky, the whites are to the slaves in the proportion of about 4 to 1; in Maryland, of about 3 to 1; in North Carolina, of about 2 to Í and in Virginia, rather less; in Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi, the whites are little superior, and in South Carolina and Louisiana, a little inferior, in number to the slaves. Louisiana and other states have prohibited the introduction of slaves from the other states, except by an immigrant proprietor; but there is an active traffic in

"Slavery has been abolished in the eastern states, and prospectively in New York, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey, and has never been permitted in the north-western states. By the laws of Pennsylvania, all persons born within that state since 1780 are free, but the children of a slave are subject to a limited servitude to her owner. In New Jersey, every child born in the state after July 4. 1804, is declared to be free, and the traffic in slaves between that and other states was prohibited in 1798. The revised laws of New York declare that every person born in that state is free, and that all persons brought into the state, except for a limited period, become free; and no person can sell any other person in that state. Provision is, however, made in these and the other non-slaveholding states for the delivery of runaway slaves from the other states. The ordinance for the government of the territory north-west of the River Ohio passed in 1787 prohibits for ever the introduction of slavery into that tract of country, in which four states have

UNITED STATES (THE).

slaves carried on between the different states, consisting chiefly in their exportation from the worn-out tracts of more northern and eastern to the new cotton lands of

the southern districts.

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great measure defeated by the prejudices of the people, and the difficulties which the partiality of the law throws in the way of getting evidence sufficient for the legal conviction of a master of whose guilt no doubt can be entertained. We do not, however, suppose that acts of cruelty and ill treatment are more common in the U. States than in most other countries where slavery exists; but it is idle to imagine, where there is such tremendous power on the one hand, and nothing but abject submission on the other, that the former should not be sometimes abused.

"In the slave-holding states slaves are chattels personal, except in Louisiana, and, with certain qualifications, may be sold to pay the debts and bequests of their master. Slavery is hereditary, and the servitude of the mother determines that of the child. When a coloured person claims to be a freeman, the burden of proof is thrown upon him, his colour being, à priori, a sufficient indication of slavery. The life and person of the slave are protected by law under the same penalties as those of whites, but the master or overseer may punish minor offences by flogging; for greater offences, the slaves are tried by justices of the peace and from two to five freeholders. But if the treatment of slaves by their masters The slave can make no contracts, nor can he legally hold be, on the whole, favourable, nothing can be said any property: the instruction of slaves is prohibited by in favour of their treatment by the law. law, but they often receive some education from the Whemembers of the family, and they are generally allowed to ther it be that the rapidly increasing magnitude, attend public worship, which must be conducted by a of their numbers has alarmed the legislatures of white. There are in all the states restraints upon manu- the states in which they are most numerous, or mission, as a pop. of free blacks is felt to be dangerous to the subordination of the slaves. Although some of the that they are resolved that slavery shall be mainlaws relating to slaves are severe, it is to be observed tained at all hazards without any relaxation, certhat many of these are not enforced, or are of very rare tain it is that the legal condition of the slaves application. There are various laws restraining cruel has, in most of the slave-holding states, been punishments or tasks, and prescribing suitable food and clothing for the slaves; but their best security is in the latterly altered for the worse; and that few or no force of custom and public opinion, and in the humanity measures have been taken either for their moral and interest of their masters. They are in general hu- or religious improvement. In 1830, the legisla. manely and even kindly treated, well fed, and lightly ture of Louisiana passed certain laws in relation worked; they are commonly allowed a little patch of ground to cultivate for their own benefit; they may raise to slaves, in which, among other things, their poultry and hogs, which, with the produce of their farm, instruction in reading and writing is expressly they may sell to the family or elsewhere at their option; forbidden; and in which the penalty of death, or in this way they often acquire a little property, or expend of imprisonment at hard labour for life, or, at their earnings in ornaments. It is a sufficient proof of their general ease in this country, that their numbers least, for three years, is denounced against every have increased with amazing rapidity, and that many of one who shall print, publish, or distribute anythem live to a great age. All those,' says Paulding, thing "having a tendency" to create insubordiwho have visited the states in which slavery prevails, nation among the slaves, or who shall use any whatever may have been their previous impressions of the horrors of that condition, must have been struck language in any public discourse from the bar, with the uniform hilarity and cheerfulness which prevail the bench, the stage, or the pulpit, or in private, among the blacks. Labouring generally in large num- having the above-mentioned tendency! (Stuart's bers together, they partake of the influence which com- America, ii. 208.) And laws of an equally sepanionship always exercises over man, the most social of all beings. In the meadows and harvest fields they vere character have been enacted in most of the lighten their labours by songs, the measures of which other slave-holding states. People of colour, inaccord with the strokes of the cradle and scythe; and including all who have any taint, how slight sowhatever employment they may be associated, they are always joking, quizzing, or bantering each other. The ever, of African blood, are, also, almost every children enjoy a life of perfect ease, and are maintained where treated with contempt, and are deprived by the products of the land which belongs to them and of various privileges enjoyed by the whites. theirs. The parents, being freed from all anxiety or exertion for the present or future support of their offspring, are never beset by the gnawing cares of the free white man, whose whole life is one continued effort to provide for himself and his children. The aged and infirm are also taken care of by the master, either from the dictates of his own humanity, or the obligation imposed on him by law.' "The slaves do not work on Sundays, and they have generally several days at Christmas, Easter, and Whitsuntide, and often other holydays. The usual hours of Jabour are from sunrise to sunset, -with about two or three hours' intermission at breakfast and dinner, accord

ing to the season and the nature of the work; they frequently gain a day by doing the task of three days in two, and women with a certain number of children are allowed some further indulgences. Their food and clothing vary in different sections of the country, but they generally. receive from nine to twelve quarts of Indian corn a week, with bacon and salt fish; instead of the corn, a bushel of sweet potatoes or two pecks of paddy are given by way of change, and on the rice plantations rice is the principal article of food. For clothing each man receives six or seven yards of woollen cloth, each woman five or six, and the children in proportion; new blanket is given to each grown person, and one for every two children, once in two years, and in winter a handkerchief is given to the women, and a cap to the men. A suit of cotton or linen clothes is also allowed in summer. On every plantation there is a nurse, and the overseer has a chest of medicines. The marriages of the slaves are merely a connection subsisting during pleasure. Their amusements are chiefly music and dancing, many of them being

able to play and sing in a rude manner."

But this, though on the whole a pretty fair statement, certainly sets the condition of the slaves in too favourable a point of view. The truth is, that the American legislators have done but little for the protection of the slave against the tyranny and caprice of his master; and that little is in a

It is as impossible to foresee, as it would be presumptuous to conjecture, how this state of things may terminate. It seems, however, to be reasonable to suppose, seeing the rapid growth of the black population, that it will be extremely difficult to maintain the existing constitution of society, without incurring the most imminent hazard of servile wars and of the most formidable outrages. But it is easier to point out the probable consequences of maintaining the present order of things, than to suggest the means by which they may be obviated. This is a problem that has puzzled, and will, no doubt, continue for a lengthened period to puzzle, American legislators and philosophers. But, perhaps, on the whole, the best and safest plan would be gradually to modify the severity of the laws against blacks, to hinder the separation of families, to endeavour to improve their moral and religious habits, to enable them to accumulate a little property, and to train them up for that entire or modified emancipation which sooner or later most likely awaits them. The subject, however, is one that should be approached with extreme caution. And though we do not state it in the view either of justifying the existence of slavery or of extenuating the abuses to which it has given rise, it will, we apprehend, be found to be impossible to continue the cultivation of the southern states on the same scale and with the same vigour that it is now conducted without the aid of slaves of one kind or other. The climate is too hot and the labour too

obtain soil of an equal or better quality, and in a finer climate, usually at one twentieth part of the price. In from 3 to 6 dolls. an acre, the government upset price is Michigan, &c., though the prairie lands sometimes fetch only 14 doll.; and the rich land in Illinois, and elsewhere in the Union, is often to be had at the same low rate. The terms of rent, at least in the N., are almost equally small rent is paid in money, and a lease of several years variable. Near towns, and in thickly peopled districts, à taken. In remote situations, land is commonly let in shares from year to year. If the owner of the soil furnish seed and labouring animals, he gets two thirds of the produce; if the tenant supply animals and seed, the landowner gets one third. But terms may vary according to situation, soil, and crop." (Shirreff's N. America, passim.)

severe to be voluntarily undertaken. It has, we are aware, been alleged, over and over again, that slavery has retarded the progress of Virginia, the Carolinas, and other S. states. But there is really no foundation whatever for this allegation. New York and the middle and northern states, that have so rapidly advanced without the aid of slaves, are placed under totally different circumstances. They are to Louisiana, Alabama, Mississippi, &c., what England is to Jamaica. Branches of industry suited to the one are not suited to the other; and that field labour which may, without difficulty, be carried on in the New England states, New York, and Pennsylvania, would be oppressive and all but intolerable in the states lying along the Gulph of Mexico. But, as stated above, we do not mention this in vindication of slavery, or as an apology for the cruelties of slave-masters. This probable consequence of the abolition of slavery should, however, be kept in view by those who would fairly estimate its real influence. The dangers of rebellion, anarchy, and bloodshed, are not the only contingencies American statesmen have to guard against in dealing with the blacks; they must, also, keep in view the probable influence of their acts on the productive energies and trade of the country; and should endeavour, in as far as pos-places, having latterly become dear. Except on the banks sible, to combine with the maintenance of the latter a proper respect for the rights and interests of humanity.

The rapid increase of population, and particularly the continual extension of the white settlers further W. will, ere long, go far to extinguish the native races. The Sioux Indians, estimated at 27,000 or 28,000, still hold their ground W. of the Mississippi; and nearly all the region from that river to the Rocky Mountains, and from the Arkansas to the head waters of the Missouri, are inhabited by nations more or less connected with them; but of the tribes formerly inhabiting the country E. of the Mississippi, few remnants exist. Of the Iroquois and Algonquins, there are now estimated to be only about 8,000 individuals in all, chiefly in New York, and the New England States. Further S. a few Cherokees, Chicksaws, &c. still occupy their original seats; but a war of extermination has been latterly carried on against the Indians of Florida, provoked in a great measure by their hostility to the whites; and it is stated, that," from the Tennessee to the Lakes, and from the Desmoines to the Gulph of Mexico, scarcely a drop of Indian blood remains within the limits of the States." (Encyc. of Geog.) The Indians who remain within the limits of the States are allowed to retain their own government, laws, &c., but inducements have been held out to them either to become citizens of the states in which they reside, or to emigrate to the Platte country, W. of Arkansas and Missouri, where lands have been provided for the purpose; and where they are supplied with agricultural implements, and other necessaries of civilized life. In 1836, about 31,300 Indians had migrated thither; and the number remaining within the States at the same period was estimated at rather more than 150,000.

Land and Agriculture. — In the N. states, extensive landholders are not common; and where they exist, a great part of their possessions is unproductive. The soil is chiefly cultivated by its owners, who in many respects resemble the tenants of Scotland, and often perform a great portion of the manual labour of the farm. But in many parts of the country, which have been long settled, the farmers are opulent, and hire a good deal of labour; and in the more recently settled tracts they do not labour hard after the first 3 or 4 years from their settlement. (Shirreff's Tour in N. America, p. 340.) In the S., estates are larger; and in the rice plantations of Louisiana, a single field sometimes comprises 300 or 400 acres ! (Flint.) The price of land is very variable: near Philadelphia land of fine quality and in high condition may be had at from 100 to 120 dollars an acre; but there produce of all kinds fetches a high price; and the straw of a wheat crop has been sold at 30 dollars per acre. In some parts of New York, as near Canandaigua, 25 doll. an acre is asked for fine cleared land; but in other parts of the same state land is sometimes sold by auction at 1 doll.; and Mr. Shirreff attended a sale in New York at which 25,000 acres in the co. St. Lawrence were knocked down in one lot at 1s. 1d. sterling per acre ! (Shirreff, p. 316.) Almost every farmer in the E. states who As a family, or is in straitened circumstances, is willing ll his land, and move to the W. states, where he can

and territories was, in 1835, estimated at 220 millions of The quantity of land unoccupied within the U. States acres; besides that in the subject Indian territory to the W., which, in fact, is as much at the disposal of the government of the U. States as the unoccupied lands to the E., of the Mississippi, and which is supposed to com 56,842,806 acres of land within the limits of the States prise above 750 millions of acres. From 1833 to 1843, were sold by the central government at prices which realized to the treasury 72,269,750 dolls. (See post.) But the extent of cleared land is still quite inconsiderable, as compared with the whole surface. It is principally in the country E. of the Alleghanies, where all the land worth occupying belongs to private indi viduals. But even of this, a great part is covered with forest; and in all situations near a village, or where there luable than that which has been cleared, fuel, in many is ready access to water-carriage, forest land is more vs

of the rivers, the soil E. of the mountains is generally so inferior, that much of the land covered with wood is nat worth cultivating; and should the trees be cut down, it is likely to remain in pasturage, or be preserved as a forest for the production of new trees. The price of farms, however, varies from 51. to 301. an acre, according to the quality of soil, buildings, and situation. This part of the States has a comparatively abundant supply of labour, and a ready market for all kinds of produce. Market-gardening and dairy husbandry are here the most profitable branches of industry.

The soil W. of the Alleghanies is generally much superior to that on their E. side; and large tracts produce, for a while at least, Indian corn and wheat without manure. Almost all the land in the E. part of this region belongs to private individuals, though à large proportion be still covered with forest trees. On the W. side of the Mississippi the greater part of the country is public property; but in either case great quantities of land are always in the market. Labour can generally be had, except in the extreme W. Farm produce is in constant demand, and prices are regulated by the markets of New Orleans, to which it is sent down by the Mississippi; these being in part governed by the prices on the E. coast, and in part by those in the Havannah and other great W. Indian ports. Manures are seldom used except near the larger towns. The price of farms of an equal quality of soil vary according to their distance from the means of transport, from a dollar to 12/. the acre. The money wages of labour may be stated to be nearly the same from the E. to the extreme W., any difference being towards a rise in the W. But land is there so cheap, that every prudent labourer is able to purchase a farm for himself in a year or two, and it is only the imprudent who continue labourers. (Shirreff, 395—398.)

Speaking generally, agriculture is little known as a science in any part of America, and but imperfectly understood as an art; and it could not rationally be expected that it should be otherwise. In all those countries in which, as in the greater part of America, portions of fertile and unoccupied land may be obtained for little more than a nominal price, the invariable practice is, after clearing and breaking up a piece of land, to subject it to a course of continuous cropping; and when it is exhausted, to resort to some other tract of new ground, leaving that which has been abandoned to recover itself by the aid of the vis medicatriz nature! But in those parts of the Eastern or Atlantic states that have been long settled, and are fully occupied, this scourging system can no longer be advantageously followed; and there, consequently, a better system of agriculture has been introduced; and the rotation of the crops, and the manuring of the land are generally practised, sometimes with more and sometimes with less care and success. Still, however, it is certain that even in the best farmed districts agriculture here is very backward; and in the W., and other newly settled districts, it is conducted on the scourging ambulatory principle previously noticed. In the neighbourhood of New York, clover-fields, when the grass is worn out, are ploughed and sown with Indian corn, not manured: they grow potatoes with manure in the second year; followed, if early, by buck-wheat: in the

UNITED STATES (THE).

third year barley; and in the 4th oats, accompanied
with grass-seeds. Potatoes are grown in drills, as in
Britain. According to the official returns, there were
raised in the Union, in 1840, 108,298,060 bushels pota-
toes. Near Philadelphia, and in many other parts of
the Union, Mr. Stuart says that, in appearance at least,
the farms and buildings are like those seen in England
and Scotland, except that thorn hedges and other fences
are often wanting. According to the official returns the
total produce of wheat in the Union, in 1840, amounted
to only 84,832,272 bush., or 10,604,034 quarters.

Maize is the great staple of American husbandry, and
it grows on soil, not particularly rich, as respects other
products for a succession of years without manure, in all
the vigour and luxuriance of an indigenous plant. It
has been justly called the "meal, meadow, and manure"
of the farm, as it is used for both human food and the

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supply of the farm stock in winter; and furnishes more
nourishment for man and beast on a given space, and with
less labour, than any other bread-corn. But it is not
successfully cultivated beyond lat. 43° N., where it begins
to be superseded by the grains of Europe. The total
produce of maize in the Union, in 1840, was estimated
by the marshals, under the census, at 377,531,875 bush.
Tenessee is the principal maize-growing state; and next
to it are Virginia, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, &c.

The surface of the New England States is often hilly,
and the soil rocky, or of the most inferior kind of sand.
The principal crops here are oats for horses, &c., and
rye for distillation; and perhaps the corn produce of
these states barely supports their inhabs. Boston, the
largest corn and flour importing port in the Union, re-
ceives nearly all her supplies of these articles from the
S. states. We subjoin

An Official Account of the Produce of the principal Corn Crops raised in the greater number of the States,
in 1840, as ascertained by the Marshals appointed to take the Sixth Census.

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The returns from North Carolina, Kentucky, Michigan, Florida, and Wisconsin, not included.

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Average Price of Flour per
Barrel each year in Philadelphia.

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82,065 750,660

5,572
706,601
389,530

Exports of Flour from Canada.

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d. Barrels.
9:37 2 0 7
9.95 2

Barrels.
92,136 12,519
38,183 10,340
28,129 37,625

1814

1816

1817

193,274
1815 17,634 862,739
62,321 729,053
96,407 1,479,198

8.92 1 18 7
8.60 1 17 3
8.71 1 17 8
9-78 2 2 4
11-69 2 11 5

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1,135
38,047

1818

196,808 1,157,697

1819

1820

22,137 1,177,036

9-96 2 3 1
7-11 1 10 9
4.72 1 0 5

51,817

30,543
12,085

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1821

25,821 1,056,119

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Tobacco is grown from lat. 39° or 40° throughout all
the S., and in a part of the W. states; it is the staple
product of Maryland and Virginia, where more is raised
than in any other part of the Union. The tobacco of the
U. States is of very superior quality; but it is a crop
which scourges the land, and the labour attending its
cultivation is very severe. (See VIRGINIA.)

Cotton and rice are the great staples of the S. part of
the Union: the former has even supplanted the culture
of tobacco in some of the cos. of Virginia.

A little cotton had been raised for domestic use, in the
Southern states, previously to the revolutionary war,
but its produce was quite inconsiderable. In 1791 it
began, for the first time, to be exported; the trifling
quantity of 189,316 lbs. having been shipped in the course
of that year, and 138,328 lbs. in 1792. Such was the late
and feeble beginning of the American cotton trade!
And we are warranted in saving that there is nothing in
the history of industry to compare with its subsequent
progress and extension, unless it be the growth of the
manufacture in this country.

American cotton, the produce of the Gossypium her-
baceum, is of two kinds, generally known by the names
of sea island and upland. The former grows along the
low sandy islands off the shores of Carolina, Georgia, &c.
It is long in the staple, has an even silky texture, a yel
lowish tinge, is easily separated from the seed, and is
decidedly superior to every other description of cotton
hitherto brought to market. Unluckily, however, it can
be raised only in certain situations; so that its quantity
is limited, and has not, in fact, been at all increased
since 1805. At present 97 or 98 per cent. of the cotton
produced in the United States consists of what is deno-
minated upland, from its being grown on the compa
ratively high ground at a distance from the coast.
Though of varying qualities, it is all short-stapled; and
its separation from the seed and pod, if attempted by the
hand, is so very difficult, that the cotton is hardly worth

The entire produce of the corn crops in the Union, in the trouble and expense. This, however, was the only
1840, was-

VOL. II.

way in which it could be made available for home use,
3 I

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