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Persons occupying houses

rooms of houses

9,351

boarding with occupants of

houses

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9,67-1

Occupying cellars

14,274

94,250 31,693 125,943
3,132 12,483
2,831
3,310 17,584

boarding with occupants of

cellars

686

25

Total: Persons resident in dwell-
ings examined

Families resident in dwellings examined
Average persons to a family
Average rent per week of houses, rooms,
and cellars, examined -
Gross amount of rent for a year of
houses, rooms, and cellars
Number of dwellings comfortable

28,186
4.55

9,538

711

37,724
4.48

4.29
-2s. 114d. 28. 10d. 2s. 11d.

273

ticed. But, on the whole, Manchester is less unhealthy than Glasgow, or than the old town of Edinburgh, which has no manufactures.

pire. An unexceptionable witness, the Rev. R. Parkinson, canon of the collegiate church, Manchester, in a speech at a public meeting in Feb. 1839, said, "I am aware that an able and wellknown poet has said (and the saying has almost passed into a proverb) —

The idle and absurd stories that were so in12,502 dustriously propagated with respect to the influence of factory labour on health and morals, are now pretty well exploded. Latterly, indeed, there would appear to be a considerable increase 128,232 40,991 169,223 of crime; but this increase is apparent only, and is mainly a consequence of the improved state of the police, and of trivial offences that formerly escaped notice being (whether wisely or not we shall not stop to inquire) now visited 215,318. 70,4511. 286,0731. 19,864 7,417 27,281 with fine or imprisonment. The truth is that, uncomfortable - 8,322 2,121 10,443 in respect of morality, the labouring population drainage and pavement, and for laying down of Manchester has but little to fear from a comrules as to the erection of houses. The autho-parison with that of any large town in the emrities in Manchester have done all in their power, under the existing laws, to improve the streets; but there is no general building act for the town, and except in certain districts where the commissioners of police are entitled to interfere, each proprietor builds as he pleases. Hence cottages may be seen springing up row behind row, without the streets or alleys between them being of sufficient width, or drained or paved; in some places, indeed, the streets are full of pits filled with stagnant water, the receptacles of all sorts of filth. (Report on Health of Towns, p. 10.) Such a state of things is discreditable alike to the local authorities and the government and we do not know that any measure is more imperatively necessary, seeing the vast and rapid increase of towns, than the enactment of such regulations as may be required to provide for the proper construction of the streets and houses, and consequently for the health and comfort of the population.

Cellars, however damp and unhealthy, are preferred by a large proportion of the lower classes both here and in Liverpool, not so much from their cheapness, as because they afford facilities for dealing in various sorts of articles, and because their inmates either are or believe themselves to be more independent than if they resided as lodgers in houses rented by other parties.

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'God made the country, but man made the town:"

meaning, of course, that the country was the most proper place for man to dwell in, and that the occupations of town-life were unnatural. I think, on the contrary, that instead of an agricultural pop., the people of this country were meant to be one of a very different character. I have no natural predilections for my present opinions. My birth and early education put me in a very different position from that which I now hold; but being at present an inhabitant of this town, having enjoyed ample opportunities of observing and judging, and being in a position which gives me no motive for a partial judgment, I maintain that, taking an average of all classes of our pop. and that of other districts, we shall find the morality of this district not below that of the most primitive agricultural pop. I have the best authority for saying, that the streets of Manchester, at ten o'clock at night, are as retired as those of most rural districts. When we look at the extent of this par., containing at least 300,000 souls, being more than the pop. of half our counties, can we be surprised that there is a great amount of immorality? But a great proportion of that immorality is committed by persons who have been already nursed in crime in districts supposed to be more innocent than our own, and who swell our police reports, not so much because we hold out greater facilities for rearing them, as that they are apprehended through the superior vigilance of our police." This is pretty conclusive; and we may add, that the regard paid by females to decency, both of language and deportment, is stated by intelligent witnesses before the Factory Commissioners of 1833-34 to be greater in Manchester than in most rural districts. It is a fact, too, that the proportion of illegitimate to legitimate children in the county is only 1 in 13, a very low ratio for so dense and varied a pop., and not greater than in the purely agricultural cos. of Hereford and Salop.

It is unhappily true, as seen from the previous statements, that many of the dwellings of the lower classes, especially those of the Irish, exhibit a great want of furniture, of cleanliness, and of comfort. This, however, is not owing, as many have supposed, to the growth of the factory system, but partly to the poverty, and still more to the perverse habits of the occupiers. In a tract written in Manchester, and published by authority in 1755, long before the factory system had any existence, the houses of the poor are said to be "most wretched," " filthy and nasty" in the extreme, and " noisome and infectious." (See extract from tract in Manchester as it is, p. 36.) There is really, therefore, no room or ground for saying, that any portion of the poor are worse lodged now than formerly; while, on the other hand, of 37,724 dwellings of the labouring classes, examined by the agents of the Statistical Society, no fewer than 27,281 were decidedly "comfortable;" and as respects the clothing and other accommodations of the poor, they are infinitely superior at present to what they have ever previously been. Their pros-gow. Stagnations of trade, by occasioning a perity is evinced by the great average consumption of butcher's meat.

A good deal of fever necessarily prevails at most periods of the year, in the poorer districts of Manchester, especially in those where the streets are in the disgraceful state already noVOL. II.

We believe that the doctrines of chartism and ultra-radicalism have made less progress in Manchester than in most other great towns, the metropolis excepted, certainly less than in Glas

want of employment and reducing wages, necessarily, also, occasion discontent and dissatisfaction; and in such periods demagogues are not wanting to recommend political nostrums of all sorts as infallible remedies for the grievances under which they labour. But the great bulk

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of the pop. are, notwithstanding, attached to the principles of the constitution, orderly, and opposed to violence. And in this, no doubt, their opinions are in accordance with their own obvious interests; for, were they to become disorderly, or to cease to respect and uphold the rights of property, the prosperity of Manchester would be instantly terminated: capitalists would withdraw from and shun her as if she were infected with a pestilence, and the mass of the pop. would sink into a state of squalid and irremediable poverty.

state where the bond of connection between the different ranks and orders is such as now prevails at Manchester, and other great towns. Indifference, on the one hand, necessarily produces disrespect, insubordination, and plotting, on the other. However, it is easier to point out a condition of this sort, than to suggest any means by which it may be obviated. We doubt, indeed, whether it admit of any effectual remedy. The whole tendency of society, in modern times, is to make interest, taking the term in its most literal and sordid sense, the link by which all classes are held together: and should any circumstances occur to make any considerable portion of society conclude that their interest is separate from or opposed to that of the others, there would, we apprehend, be but few other considerations to which to appeal to hinder the dissolution of such society.

In 1838 there were in Manchester 1762 beershops, and 625 public-houses, many of the establishments for the sale of spirits vying in splendour with the gin-palaces of the metropolis. Intemperance, however, is not on the increase. Great numbers of coffee-shops have recently been opened; and the influence of the temperance societies has also been most beneficial.

It is needless to observe that the interests of the employers of labour and those of the labourers, though apparently conflicting, are, at bottom, the same; and that neither party can prosper without that prosperity redounding to the advantage of the other. But, notwithstanding this identity of interests, there is, it must be admitted, but little sympathy between the great capitalists and work-people in this or any other large manufacturing town. This is occasioned by the great scale on which labour is now carried on in factories; and by the consequent impossibility of the manufacturers becoming acquainted with the great bulk of the people in their employment. They do not, in fact, so much as know their names; they look only to their conduct when in the mill; and are wholly ignorant of their mode of life when out of it, of the condition of their families, &c. The affections have nothing to do in an intercourse of this kind; every thing is regulated on both sides by the narrowest and most selfish views and considerations; a man and a machine being treated with precisely the same sympathy and regard. It is not to be denied that this is a state of things fraught with considerable danger; and that no society can be in a really sound or healthy The following Synoptical View of the Temperature, &c. of Manchester, during the Year 1840, cannot fail to be interesting. It is extracted from the private Diary of Dr. Dalton:

Climate, Temperature, &c.—Manchester, as already occupation of its inhabs. into consideration, the mortality seen, is a healthy town; indeed, taking its size and the is less than in most towns of the north of England; and if means were adopted for improving and cleaning the poorer streets and buildings, and for consuming the smoke which at present issues in dense clouds from inthat its salubrity would be materially increased. The numerable factory chimneys, there can be little doubt mean annual quantity of rain falling in Manchester (at an average of 33 years) is 36 140 inches, whilst the mean annual quantity falling in Lancaster (at an average of riations in the temperature likewise contribute greatly to 20 years) is 39.714 inches; the comparatively slight vathe healthiness of the town.

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MANCHOORIA.

MANDURIA.

275

The nature of the Manchoo soil, and its mineral productions generally, are little known. The people in the N. being chiefly nomads, subsisting by the produce of the chace, pay little attention to tillage; but agriculture is common in the S. districts, and the cerealia, as well as hemp and cotton, are extensively cultivated. The staple productions, however, are ginseng and rhubarb, the former being an exclusive government monopoly. The province of Shing-king, on the gulph of Pechelee, produces corn, millet, and peas, large quantities of which, with ginseng, are sent by sea to the S. provinces of China. The forests, which clothe the sides of most of the mountains, comprise oaks, pines, firs, and birches; lime-trees, maples, oleanders, acacias, &c. being found on the plains towards the S. The domestic animals of Central Europe are common in the more cultivated districts; but the cattle are small, and the breed of sheep peculiar to this country, called argali, is small, and coarse-woolled. Near the Yablonoi range, rein-deer are kept, and camels are to be seen in many parts of the S. provinces. The wild animals comprise the ermine, sable, fox, and bear, hunted for their furs, which are a considerable article of trade with the Russians. Fish, especially salmon, and remarkably fine sturgeons, are abundant in the rivers, and held in high estimation by those living near the banks.

According to Whittaker, the historian of Manchester, | choo soldiers, who are required, annually, to deliver "the Roman invaders of this country fixed a military into the Imperial coffers, a fixed quantity of pearls. The station in a place since called Castlefield, to which they chief lakes are the Hinkai-nor, a large sheet of water gave the name Mancunium," whence Manchester has been near the source of the Ousouri, in the prov. of Kirin, derived. In the time of the Saxons the old town was de- and the Hoorun and Pir, which give their names to the serted, and about 627 another was built on its site. In 920, most W. district of the prov. Tsitsihar: there are a few according to Dr. Aikin, the Saxon king, Edward the Elder, others in different parts of the country, but only of small ordered Manchester to be fortified. In Domesday Book size. the town is called a manor, and is described as having two churches. In the 14th and 15th centuries it received great additions and improvements, so that, in Leland's time, it was reckoned "the fairest, best builded, quickest, and most populous town of Lancashire." Camden also mentions it as being famed in his time for the manufacture of woollen cloths, then called "Manchester cottons," that is, coatings. The first authentic mention of the cotton manufacture in England is made by Lewis Roberts, in his Treasure of Traffic, published in 1641, where it is stated, "The town of Manchester in Lancashire must be also herein remembered, and worthily, for their encouragement, commended, who buy the yarn of the Irish in great quantity, and, weaving it, return the same again into Ireland to sell. Neither doth their industry rest here; for they buy cotton wool in London that comes first from Cyprus and Smyrna, and at home work the same, and perfect it into fustians, vermillions, dimities, and other such stuffs; and then return it to London, where the same is vented and sold, and not seldom sent into forrain parts, who have means, at far easier terms, to provide themselves of the said first materials." (Orig. ed. p. 32.) In 1650, the inhabs. of Manchester were reckoned the most industrious in the N. of England. The town was stated to be a mile long, with open and clean streets, and good buildings; and, in 1720, it is described as "the largest, most rich, populous, and busy village in England, having about 24,000 individuals within the parish." Fustians were the earliest article of manufacture, and other fabrics were made soon afterwards; but the great increase of pop. and commercial prosperity did not take place till 1770, when machinery was first introduced into the town. From that year down to the present time Manchester has been a scene of rapidly increasing industry, and has been distinguished by the invention and enterprise of its citizens; its working pop. supplies every quarter of the world with clothing; and wealth, the reward of successful labour, flows in from all sides in a large, rapid, and uninterrupted current. (Baines's Hist. of Lancaster (4th ed.), ii. 149-392; Wheeler's Manchester; Manchester as it is; Parl. Rep.; but principally Priv. Inform.)

MANCHOORIA (Chin. Kirin-oola), an extensive region of N.E. Asia, belonging to China, and the original seat of the present ruling dynasty (Ta-thsing) of the Chinese empíre, lying between lat. 41° and 570 N., and between long. 117° and 140 E., bounded N. by the Russian gov. of Yakoutsk, E. by the Gulph of Tartary and Sea of Japan, S. by China Proper, and W. by the Russian gov. of Irkutsk and Mongolia, from which latter it is separated by a wooden palisade, connected with the great wall of China, and by a line running down the Songari and other rivers to the Daourian range, on the S. of Siberia. Estimated area, 700,000 sq. m. Pop. unknown. The S. provinces are the only parts of the country that have been visited by Europeans; our knowledge of the remainder being derived only from the doubtful statements of a Chinese geographer. It is, therefore, more than probable, that, should any events lead to the admission of competent travellers into the country, it will be found necessary to make considerable alterations in our maps and descriptions of what is now little better than a terra incognita. Manchooria lies chiefly in the great valley formed by the Amur and Songari, with their numerous tributaries, and is bounded by three principal mountain chains, 1. one on the E., running from the peninsula of Corea along the whole line of coast to the N. boundary, and having a probable elevation of 5,000 ft.; 2. the Daourian mountains (called, by the Chinese, the outer Hing-an-ling), which form the entire N. boundary of Manchooria, but also send out minor offsets into the centre of the country; 3. the inner Hing-an-ling, or Sialkoi chain, which appears to be a continuation of the Shan-see mountains, and to extend, with little interruption, over a great part of Mongolia. Besides the above principal ranges, there are, to the N. of Corea, some chains of inferior importance, bearing several different names; but this part of the country, near the coast, though nominally a part of Manchooria, is inhabited, almost exclusively, by Ainos, a people similar to those inhabiting Jesso and Tarakai, in the empire of Japan. The chief river of Manchooria is the Amur, Sagalien or Kwentung (for it is thus variously called), which, measured along its windings, is about 2,200 m. in length, and, with its tributaries, drains a territory of about 900,000 sq. m. Several of these streams afford pearls; but the principal pearl-fishery is on the E. coast, in the channel of Tartary. is a government monopoly, and is carried on by Man

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The Manchoo territory is divided into three provinces, 1. Shing-king, (comprising the anc. Leau-tung), near the borders of China; 2. Kirin, occupying the country E. of the Songari; and, 3. Tsitsihar, comprising the whole country W. and N. W. that river. The government of the first of these provinces is conducted by civil officers, on the same plan as in China; but the other provs. are under a government more strictly military than any other portion of the Chinese empire. The governors and magistrates are all military men; and the law makes all males, above 16 years of age, liable to serve under the standards to which they belong by birth, of which there are 8, each being distinguished by its peculiar flag. Kirinoolo is the metropolis of the country, and the residence of the supreme governor. Ningoota, on the Hooka, a tributary of the Songari, is also held in high esteem, in consequence of its having been the residence in former times of the reigning family of China. With respect to trade, however, both are inferior to Fung-hwang-ching, on the borders of Corea. The sea-ports frequented by the Chinese junks are Kin-tchou, at the N. end of the gulph of Leautung, and Kaitchou, on the same gulph, E. of that last mentioned. The other cities of Manchooria, except Moukden, the old cap., and still denominated the affluent metropolis," have no claim to rank higher than villages, though most of them are surrounded by walls, and garrisoned by small bodies of soldiery.

The general history of the Manchoos, or Eastern Tartars, with an account of their physical conformation, has already been given at some length in the article ASIA, in this work (I. 192-194), to which the reader is referred for further particulars. (See, also, MONGOLIA. Ritter's Asien, i. 85-153., il. 210-320.; Klaproth's Magasin Asiatique, and Asia Polyglotta, Appendix; Chinese Repository, vol. i. p. 113-118.; and also vols. v. and vi.)

MANDAVEE, a town and sea-port of Hindostan, being the most populous town, and principal emporium of Cutch, on the S. coast of which it stands, 35 m. S. S. W. Bhooj; lat. 22° 50′ N., long. 69° 34′ E. Pop, probably 50,000; of whom, upwards of 15,000 are Bhattias, 10,000 Banyans, 5,000 Brahmins, and the rest Lohannas, Mohaminedans, and Hindoos of low caste. "The town is within gun-shot of the beach, and is surrounded with fortifications in the Asiatic style. Its environs are laid out in gardens well stocked with cocoa-nut and other trees. The bed of a river, nearly dry, except in the rains, covers the E. face, and joins the sea, forming the only harbour which Mandavee has. Small boats, laden, can cross the bar at high tides; larger vessels unlade in the roadstead. A brisk trade is kept up with Arabia, Bombay, and the Malabar coast, in which upwards of 800 boats, of from 40 to 500 candies tonnage, are employed. The exports are chiefly cotton, musroo of silk and cotton thread, piece goods of a coarse kind, alum, and glue. The imports are, bullion from Mocha; ivory, rhinoceros' horns, and hides, from Powahil; dates, cocoa-nuts, grain, and timber, from Malabar and Damaun. There is a considerable inland trade, by means of charons and other carriers with Marwar and Malwah." (Bombay Transac., ii. 217.; Geog. Journal; Hamilton's E. I. Gaz.)

MANDURIA, a town of the Neapolitan dom., prov.

Otrantó, cap. cant., in an arid plain, 22 m. E.S.E. spring tides; but there is good anchorage in the road. Taranto. Pop. about 5,000. It is a straggling but stead, in from 5 to 7 fathoms. The exports are chiefly well built town, with wide unpaved streets, many hand-rice, to Muscat, Goa, Bombay, and Malabar; betel nut. some churches, several convents, an orphan asylum, black pepper, sandal wood, cassia, and turmeric. Raw and a large palace, formerly belonging to the Fran- silk and sugar are imported from China and Bengal, and cavilla family. The town during the middle ages, and oil and ghee from Surat. Mangalore was at an early until 1790, was called Casalnuovo; but at the latter period much resorted to by Arabian traders; and most epoch it re-assumed, by royal privilege, the name of of its present inhab. are of Árabian descent. The vessels the ancient city, on the site of a part of which it is employed in its trade belong chiefly to other ports. Salt built. When Swinburne visited it, it was noted for is made at Mangalore, but it is of bad quality. (Hamil nothing except the taste of its inhabitants for dog flesh, ton's E. 1. Gaz.; Parl. Report.) the skins of the slaughtered dogs being, at the same time, tanned into an imitation of Turkey leather for the supply of the neighbourhood. It had no other trade or manufacture. The remains of Manduria, destroyed by Fabius Maximus in the second Punic war, consist of its walls, standing several feet above ground, and double, except on the S. side, where the fortifications appear to have been left incomplete. The outer wall, and its ditch, measure 8 yards in breadth; behind this bulwark is a broad space, and then an inner wall, which together measure 14 yards. According to Craven, the walls are no where more than 6 ft. in height, having probably been lowered to furnish materials for the construction of the modern town. In the vicinity is a well, mentioned by Pliny, as constantly preserving the same level, whatever quantity of water be added to or taken from it; lacus ad margines plenus, neque exhaustis aquis minuitur, neque infusis augetur. (Hist. Nat. lib. ii.) This singular well still exists, and was visited by Swinburne and Craven. (Craven's Tour, &c., pp. 165 -169.; and Swinburne's Trav. i. 223, 224.)

MANFREDONIA, a sea-port town of the kingdom of Naples, prov. Capitanata, on a bay of the Adriatic, about 19 m. S. W. the promontory (Testa di) of Gargano, and 20 m. N.E. Foggia; lat. 41° 37′ 53′′, long. 15° 55′ 40′′. Pop. 6,000.?" In point of symmetry, it may vie with any town in Europe, having been constructed on a regular plan, which never underwent any alteration; and which, notwithstanding the unfinished state of some of the editices, and the dilapidated aspect of others, gives it an air of grandeur and uniformity very remarkable. It is walled towards both land and sea: from the last a narrow ledge of rocks, almost always under water, divides its bulwarks. One long and wide street runs throughout the city, from one gate to the other; for there are but two gates on the land-side, though two others open to the port, which is protected from the effects of the N. wind by a small mole, and commanded by a strong castle, defended by a ditch and drawbridge. The walls are fortified with large round bastions. The harbour is reckoned safe; but its want of depth renders it fit for small vessels only." (Craven's Tour, 68, 69.) Four streets run parallel with the principal thoroughfare, and are intersected at right angles by smaller ones. Though narrow, the streets are well kept; and the inhab. are both cleanly and industrious, in a degree not at all usual in S. Italy.

Vegetables and fish are good, plentiful, and cheap at Manfredonia, but water and wine are indifferent, as are oranges, which form an important article of commerce throughout Apulia. It exports considerable quantities of salt, obtained from the salt lagoons which border the coast of the bay to the S. of the town. It has also a considerable trade in corn, quantities of which are shipped from its port.

MANILLA (Sp. Mañila), a fortified sea-port city of the Philippine Islands, and the cap. of the Spanish settlements in the East, on the E. side of the Bay of Manilla, island of Luzon, and on the river Passig, about 4 m. from its mouth; lat. 14° 36′ 8′′ N., long. 120° 53′ 30′′ E. The pop. of the city and its suburbs was said to amount, in 1818, to from 70,000 to 80,000; and is at present variously estimated at from 100,000 to 150,000, including, besides Tagalas, or natives, from 4,000 to 5,000 Spaniards and other Europeans, with Chinese, Negroes, the descendants of the foregoing races, and foreigners from all parts of the world. The bay and city of Manilla have a very picturesque and imposing aspect from the sea. The former is surrounded by mountains covered with verdure, which, on the E., decline gradually towards the shore. At their feet, on this side, is a small plain, on which the city stands; its buildings consisting almost entirely of the volcanic tufa, of which the plain and its vicinity are geologically constituted. Manilla comprises the city-proper and ten suburbs. The former is on the left or S. bank of the Passig, across which it communicates, by a handsome stone bridge of 10 arches, with its important suburb of Bidondo, and those of Tondo, Santa Cruz, &c. This bridge, which is about 149 Castilian varas (or yards) in length, by 8 in breadth, was founded in 1630; but it has been rebuilt since 1814, when it was for the most part destroyed by an earthquake. The city-proper, little more than 2 m. in circ., is surrounded with strong walls, and a broad ditch, and has not more than 10,000 or 12,000 inhab. At the mouth of the river is a small battery, and the town is further protected by the citadel of Santiago, near its N.W. extremity; but Manilla could not make any effectual resistance to a European force. The city, which is entered by six gates, is regularly laid out; and, according to Meyen, by whom it was visited, in 1831, it is superior in point of appearance to either Lima or Santiago. (Reise um die Erde, ii. 207.) The streets have carriage-ways, composed of a mixture of loam and quartz, and are provided with footpaths, and lighted at night. The houses in the city are solidly constructed, though, on account of earthquakes, they are seldom more than one story above the ground-floor. The houses in the suburbs, however, are not so substantial. In Bidondo, for example, they are almost wholly composed of bamboo, and are raised from the ground, to the height of 8 or 10 ft., on thick poles, as is customary among ultraGangetic nations. Most of the houses are furnished with balconies and verandahs; the place of glass in the windows is supplied by thin semi-transparent pieces of shell, which, though more opaque, repel heat better. Bidondo is the most interesting portion of Manilla, and that in which its trade mostly centres. It is principally inhabited by Chinese and Tagalas, and looks very like a Chinese town.

About a mile S.W. of the town stood the ancient Sipontum, once a considerable city of Magna Græcia, and tra The public edifices are mostly within the walled city. ditionally said to have been founded or colonised by The new aduana, or custom-house, is a large fine buildDiomed. Its site is now principally occupied by a low ing, constructed at a great expense; but, like the marsh, abounding with wild fowl, and productive of the Dublin custom-house, its size is out of all proportion malaria which infects Manfredonia. The only remains to the business to be transacted in it. The residence of the ancient city are its cathedral, and two columns of of the Captain-General, and the principal government cipolino marble, both in a dilapidated condition. The offices, are also in a large edifice, occupying one of the former is a small Gothic edifice, with a handsome portico, sides of the Plaça Mayor, or principal square. This but little adorned within. It is still the seat of an archie- square measures about 100 yds. either way, and has, piscopal see, founded in 1094. Sipontum, which was co- in its centre, a bronze statue of Charles IV., on a lonised by the Romans A. U. c. 558, had fallen into such marble pedestal, presented to the city by Ferdinand VII. irreparable decay in the 13th century, that Manfred, king in 1824. There are, in Manilla, a vast number of of the Two Sicilies, having founded, in 1266, the town churches and ecclesiastical establishments; and the which bears his name, but which he called Novum Si-number of clergymen is said to exceed that of the gar pontum, removed thither the few inhab. of Sipontum, bestowing on them many valuable privileges and exemptions. But, though it has always enjoyed some commerce, Manfredonia never attained to the prosperity or celebrity of its ancient predecessor, and has long been stationary. (Swinburne's Travels in the Two Sicilies, i. 149-151.; Craven's Tour in the S. Provs. of Naples, 67. 70. Cramer's Ancient Italy.)

MANGALORE, or COKEAL BUNDER, a sea-port town of Hindostan, prov. Canara, of which it is the cap., on a sandy promontory between a salt lake and the Indian Ocean, 440 m. S.S.E. Bombay; lat. 12° 53′ N., long. 74° 57′ E. Early in the present century it had 30,000 inhab. The town is well built, and has a fort, now dismantled, which opposed a gallant and successful resistance to Tippoo, in 1783. The port does not admit vessels drawing more than 10 ft. water, except at

rison, which is estimated at about 7,000 men! We need not, therefore, be surprised to learn that religious observances are here scrupulously complied with, while real piety and sound morality are at the lowest ebb. The city was erected into an archbishopric in 1598; and the cathedral and archbishop's palace are among its most conspicuous structures. The Augustine, Franciscan, Dominican, and Jesuit convents, the arsenal and cannon foundery in the citadel, the university (founded in 1645), the missionary college, the various schools for natives and Europeans, the hospitals, orphan asylums, and other charities, and the royal cigar manufactory, in which 350 males and 2.000 females are said to be employed, include the other principal public buildings

*Meyen, Reise, &c., ii. 210. The Dict. Géog, says that the bridge was restaure en 1814, mais en grande partie renversé par le tremblement

de terre de 1821,

MANILLA.

and establishments. The promenades round the city are frequented in the evening by the more opulent classes, on horseback, or in their carriages. The neighbourhood is interspersed with orange, areca, tamarind, and mango groves; gardens; coffee, cocoa, and cotton plantations; rice grounds, &c.

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therefore, small vessels load and unload in the river, and large vessels at Cavité, an anchorage sheltered by a neck of land to the S. W., and about 6 or 7 m. by water from the mouth of the river; their cargoes being conveyed, to and from Manilla, in secure decked boats, of from 50 to 70 tons burden.

Manilla is the only port in the Spanish Philippines with which Spanish vessels to or from Europe, or foreign vessels from any quarter, are allowed to trade. Spanish vessels trading to China, Singapore, &c. are, however, allowed to proceed to various outports, and there take on board their outward cargo. The principal articles of export are sugar, which is by far the most important; hemp, and stuffs made of hemp; rice, of which large quantities are sent to China, indigo, sapan and other woods, tobacco, cigars, coffee, cotton, tortoise-shell, hides, ebony, &c. The tobacco of the Philippine Islands is excellent, and might be produced in any quantity; but its growth is comparatively limited by its being made a government monopoly. (See PHILIPPINE ISLANDS.)

The Passig is navigable for vessels of 600 tons in ballast, or for laden vessels of from 250 to 300 tons, as far as the bridge; and for large shallow boats, drawing from 2 to 3 ft. water, as far as the lake in which it rises, about 9 m. inland. There are 13 ft. water, at low ebb, in the channel through the bar at the entrance of the river; for the further deepening of which a steam dredging-boat has been employed since 1837. The rise and fall of the tide in the river is from 2 to 3 ft. A lighthouse, at the end of the pier, marks the entrance of the Passig on the left-hand side. Ships of all sizes anchor in Manilla roads, at from 1 to 2 m. off shore, except during July, Aug., and Sept., when the S. W. monsoon throws in a heavy sea, which extends quite to the entrance of the river. At this season, The following is an ACCOUNT of the Quantities and Values of the Principal Articles exported from Manilla

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Of the above, goods to the value of 1,145,000 dollars were imported, in Spanish vessels, from China, Singapore, and elsewhere. About 130 ships entered the port of Manilla in 1838; of which, 46 were Spanish, 36 British, 28 American, and 11 Chinese.

The port charges on foreign vessels consist of a tonnage-duty of 2 reals, or a quarter-dollar, per register ton; and fees, varying from 15 to 20 dollars, according to the size of the vessel, for port-captain's and health officers' visits, passport, &c. The tariff is bottomed on a custom-house valuation, fixed every 5 years. Most foreign commodities, imported in foreign vessels, pay an import duty of 14 per cent. ad valorem, except wines and spirits, which mostly pay a duty of from 30 to 60 per cent., unless the produce of Spain. Cotton-twist of certain colours, cutlery, ready-made clothes, European fruits, confectionery, and vinegar, pay 40 per cent. if imported in Spanish vessels, and 50 per cent. if in any other. British and other foreign cotton and silk manu

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tures made in imitation of native cloth, Madras and Senegal cottons, &c., pay 15 per cent. if imported in Spanish, and 25 per cent. If in other ships. Machinery of all sorts for the promotion of industry, cotton-twist of certain colours, gold and silver, plants and seeds, are imported duty free; but tropical products, the same as those of the Philippines, gunpowder, swords, and other warlike stores, &c., are prohibited, unless landed in bond for re-exportation. Exports of nearly all descriptions, by Spanish vessels, pay only from 13 to 2 per cent. ad valorem, and by foreign vessels double this duty; but manufactured tobacco, rope from Manilla, hemp, and gold and silver, coined or uncoined, if exported to Spain, go duty free. The principal currency of Manilla consists of Spanish dollars, of 8 reals and 96 grains; but S. American dollars are also current. The weights in use are the Spanish lb., which is nearly 2 per cent, heavier than the English; the arroba = 254 Eng. lbs. nearly; the quintal 102 lbs.; and the picul of 5 arrobas, or 14 cwt. Eng. The coyan is a measure for rice, &c., varying from 96 to 135 lbs. According to a recent list, there are in Manilla 47 Spanish merchants and 11 foreign firms. The Spanish merchants have a chamber of commerce and a joint-stock insurance society. The U. States, France, and Belgium have consuls, and each of the Canton marine insurance companies has an agent here. There are, however, neither fire nor life offices nor agencies; nor is any newspaper, price-current, or other periodical publication issued in Manilla.

Manilla existed as a native town prior to the Spanish invasion; it was taken by the Spaniards, and made the cap. of their E. dominions, in 1571. It has frequently suffered very much from earthquakes, especially in 1645 and 1762, and 1824. In 1762, it was taken by the English; but ransomed by Spain for 1,000,000l. sterling. Meyen, Reise um die Erde, ii, 203-213.; Hamilton's E. I. Gazetteer; and valuable Private Information.) MANNHEIM, or MANHEIM, a town of W. Germany, grand duchy of Baden, lower circ. of the Rhine (Unterrheinkreis), of which it is the cap., on the Rhine, where it is joined by the Neckar, 32 m. N. Carlsruhe, and 37 m. S.S.E. Mayence; lat. 49° 29′ 15′′ N., long. 8° 28' 7" E. Pop., in 1838, 20,600. It was once strongly

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