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like the work of the hand. For as when a carver makes an image, he shapes only that part whereupon he worketh, (as if he be upon the face, that part which shall be the body is but a rude stone still, till such time as he comes to it ;) but, contrariwise, when nature makes a flower or living creature, she formeth rudiments of all the parts at one time: so in obtaining virtue by habit, while a man practiseth temperance, he doth not profit much to fortitude, nor the like; but when he dedicateth and applieth himself to good ends, look, what virtue soever the pursuit and passage towards those ends doth commend unto him, he is invested of a precedent disposition to conform himself thereunto. Which state of mind Aristotle doth excellently express himself, that it ought not to be called virtuous, but divine: his words are these: "Immanitati autem consentaneum est opponere eam, quæ supra humanitatem est, heroicam sive divinam virtutem" (it is a wild fancy to aim at that heroic or divine virtue which is above the reach of humanity) and a little after, " Nam ut feræ neque vitium neque virtus est, sic neque Dei: sed hic quidem status altius quiddam virtute est, ille aliud quiddam a vitio" (for as a brute beast has neither vice nor virtue, so neither has the Deity; but the state of the latter is something higher than virtue; of the former,
it is something different from vice). And therefore we may see what celsitude of honour Plinius Secundus attributeth to Trajan in his funeral oration ; where he said, " that men needed to make no other prayers to the gods, but that they would continue as good lords to them as Trajan had been;" as if he had not been only an imitation of divine nature, but a pattern of it. But these be heathen and profane passages, having but a shadow of that divine state of mind, which religion and the holy faith doth conduct men unto, by imprinting upon their souls charity, which is excellently called the bond of perfection, because it comprehendeth and fasteneth all virtues together. And as it is elegantly said by Menander of vain love, which is but a false imitation of divine love," Amor melior sophista lævo ad humanam vitam" (Love is better than a left-handed sophist for the direction of human life), that love teacheth a man to carry himself better than the sophist or preceptor; which he calleth left-handed, because, with all his rules and precepts, he cannot form a man so dexterously, nor with that facility to prize himself and govern himself, as love can do so certainly, if a man's mind be truly inflamed with charity, it doth work him suddenly into greater perfection than all the doctrine of morality can do, which is but a sophist in comparison of the
other. Nay farther, as Xenophon observed truly, that all other affections, though they raise the mind, yet they do it by distorting and uncomeliness of ecstasies or excesses; but only love doth exalt the mind, and nevertheless at the same instant doth settle and compose it: so in all other excellencies, though they advance nature, yet they are subject to excess; only charity admitteth no excess. For so we see, by aspiring to be like God in power, the angels transgressed and fell; "Ascendam, et ero similis Altissimo" (I will ascend, and be like the Most High): by aspiring to be like God in knowledge, man transgressed and fell; "Eritis sicut Dii, scientes bonum et malum" (ye shall be as Gods, knowing good and evil): but by aspiring to a similitude of God in goodness or love, neither man nor angel ever transgressed, or shall transgress. For unto that imitation we are called: " Diligite inimicos vestros, benefacite eis qui oderunt vos, et orate pro persequentibus et calumniantibus vos; ut sitis filii Patris vestri qui in cœlis est, qui solem suum oriri facit super bonos et malos, et pluit super justos et injustos" (Love your enemies, do good to them that hate you, and pray for them which despitefully use you and persecute you; that ye may be the children of your Father which is in heaven: for he maketh his sun to rise on the evil and on the
good, and sendeth rain on the just and on the unjust). So in the first platform of the divine nature itself, the heathen religion speaketh thus, Optimus Maximus" (the Best and Greatest): and the sacred Scriptures thus, "Misericordia ejus super omnia opera ejus" (His mercy is over all his works).
✓ Wherefore I do conclude this part of moral knowledge, concerning the culture and regimen of the mind; wherein if any man, considering the parts thereof which I have enumerated, do judge that my labour is but to collect into an art or science that which hath been pretermitted by others, as matter of common sense and experience, he judgeth well. But as Philocrates sported with Demosthenes, "You may not marvel, Athenians, that Demosthenes and I do differ; for he drinketh water, and I drink wine" and like as we read of an ancient parable of the two gates of sleep,
"Sunt geminæ somni portæ : quarum altera fertur Cornea, qua veris facilis datur exitus umbris: Altera candenti perfecta nitens elephanto, Sed falsa ad cœlum mittunt insomnia manes:" (Two gates the silent courts of sleep adorn, That of pale ivory, this of lucid horn:
Through this, true visions take their airy way; Through that, false phantoms mount the realms
so if we put on sobriety and attention, we shall find it a sure maxim in knowledge, that the more pleasant liquor of wine is the more vaporous, and the braver gate of ivory sendeth forth the falser dreams.
But we have now concluded that general part of human philosophy, which contemplateth man segregate, and as he consisteth of body and spirit. Wherein we may farther note, that there seemeth to be a relation or conformity between the good of the mind and the good of the body, For as we divided the good of the body into health, beauty, strength, and pleasure; so the good of the mind, inquired in rational and moral knowledges, tendeth to this, to make the mind sound, and without perturbation; beautiful, and graced with decency; and strong and agile for all duties of life. These three, as in the body, so in the mind, seldom meet, and commonly sever. For it is easy to observe, that many have strength of wit and courage; but have neither health from perturbations, nor any beauty or decency in their doings: some again have an elegancy and fineness of carriage; which have neither soundness of honesty, nor substance of sufficiency: and some again have honest and reformed minds; that can neither become themselves, nor manage business. And sometimes two of them meet, and rarely all three. As for pleasure, we