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But in the time of Carolus Magnus began both the reputation, honour, and name of Heralds, as Eneas Sylvius reporteth out of an old library book of St. Paul, the author whereof derived their name from Heros; but others, to whom most incline, from the German word Herald, which signifieth, Old and ancient master. Yet he which writeth notes upon Willeram, saith, that Herald signifieth, Faithful to the army; and I have found in some Saxon treatise, Heold interpreted Summus Præpositus. Nevertheless, this name is rare or not found in the history of Charles the Great, nor in the times ensuing, for a long space, either by our writers, or French writers. The first mention that I remember of them in England, was about the time of king Edward I. For in the statute of arms or weapons, [it was ordained,] that the Kings of Heralds should wear no armour but their swords, pointless; and that they should only have their Houses des Armes, and no more, which, as I conceive, are their coats of arms. The name and honour of them was never greater in this realm than in the time of king Edward III; in whose time there were Kings of Arms, Heralds, and Poursevants by patent, not only peculiar to the king, but to others of the principal nobility and Froissart writeth that king Edward III. made a Poursevant of arms, which brought him speedy tidings of happy success in the battle of Auroye in Britanny, immediately upon the
receipt of the news, an herald giving him the name of Windesone; and at that time were liveries of coats of arms first given unto heralds, with the king's arms embroidered thereon, as the king himself had his robe royal set with lions of gold. In France also, as the said Froissart writeth, the same time Philip de Valois increased greatly the state royal of France, with jousts, tourneys, and heralds. As for the privileges of heralds, I refer you to the treatise thereof purposely written by Paul, bishop of Burgos in Spain.
Camden was acquainted either personally, or by correspondence, with the greater part of the most celebrated characters of his time, both at home and abroad. Scarcely a foreigner came to England without visiting Camden. He was visited by six German noblemen at one time, at whose request he wrote his Lemma in each of their books, as a testimony that they had seen him. He corresponded regularly with the famous Gruter; and Peirescius, the great patron of learning, he ranked among the number of his friends. His epistolary acquaintance with Thuanus, the universal historian of the sixteenth century, did not commence till 1606. He cau
tioned that historian in his account of Scotch affairs, against touching them with too rude a hand; but Thuanus treated the conduct of Mary, queen of Scots, with such severity, as to give great umbrage to her son James I, who employed Camden to write animadversions on that part of the history, which he accordingly did, representing Mary in colours far more favourable than either Thuanus, or Buchanan had painted her. Camden was also intimately acquainted with Hottoman, secretary to Robert, earl of Leicester; with Franciscus Pithæus, and Petrus Puteanus; with Mr. Thomas Savil, and his brother, sir Henry Savil; with archbishop Usher, who assisted him in the affairs of Ireland, and Dr. Johnston of Aberdeen, who did him a similar service in respect of the antiquities of Scotland. Sir Robert Cotton, from whose library he derived great advantage, was his intimate friend, and his companion both in his studies and in his travels. He corresponded also with Dr. James, first keeper of the Bodleian Library; and sir Henry Spelman stiles him his ancient friend.
At sixty years of age, his constitution being much impaired, he retired to Chesilhurst,,
about ten miles from London.
Here he com
piled a great part of his "Annals Elizabeth," and here also he died. In 1622, two years before his founded, at Oxford, a history-lecture; and for the maintenance of a professor, transferred all his right in the manor of Bexley in Kent, to the chancellor, masters, and scholars of the university. His books of heraldry, he bequeathed to the Heraldry-office; the rest, both printed and manuscript, to the library of sir Robert Cotton; but by the contrivance of Dr. John Williams, lord keeper of England, bishop of Lincoln, and dean of Westminster, who took advantage of an equivocal expression in the will, the printed part was afterwards removed to the library newly established in the church of Westminster.
The taste of Camden for antiquities was conspicious from early youth. When a school boy, any thing antique inspired him with an ardent attention; and at the university, every moment of leisure was devoted to his favourite pursuit. The bent of his mind ever led him to the contemplation of stately camps, and ruinous castles, the venerable monuments of departed ages.
RICHARD HOOKER, an eminent divine, was born at Heavy-tree, near Exeter, in 1553-4. His parents being in low circumstances, had intended him for a trade; but this destination was happily over-ruled by the representations of his school-master at Exeter, who spoke so warmly of his natural endowments, and of his rapid progress, that they were induced to continue him some time longer at school.
Meanwhile, his uncle, who was chamberlain of the city, was disposed to notice him; and being known to Jewel, bishop of Salisbury, intreated that prelate to look favourably upon his poor nephew, whose parents were incapacitated by their situation in life, from bestowing upon him that liberab