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coopeman, a merchant's prentice, or an ambassador's hostler, having little learning, less discretion, small devotion, and scant a curtesy of wisdom, to make true report in such matters. And yet are there of them which make themselves full busy, and are as ready to tell that they know not, as that that they know, according as they feel their affections disposed whom they covet to please; by which means they attain high commendations, made much of, and are called pretty wise men and proper persons, with many God's blessings upon their hearts.

Speaking of the equalitarian principles of the first reformers, their plunder of the rich, &c. he says;

It is the very property of common people, namely of these Almaynes, that whatsoever they be persuaded unto, agreeable to their affections, they shall be ready, in a sudden gyere1 to accomplish; regarding neither danger, nor commodity; though soon after they repent them. And like as the people of Israel brought the jewels of their wives and children to the making of the golden calf; so did they bring their jewels, beads, rings, outchyes with money, both gold and silver, to the common

1 passion, paroxysm.

hutches so abundantly for this provision, that men doubted, in some place, whether they had poor folk sufficient to consume so exceeding heaps of riches. But this doubt was soon made a plain case: for within a while after, the ardent heat of their liberal devotion waxed cold; and because they continued not still in bringing in their oblations, the hutches and coffers were empty before men wist it. Then whiles it was compassed what way might be best taken for the preservation of their ordinance, least it should decay, to their confusion that began it; some gave counsel that it should be necessary to -deprive the clergy of their goods, and to distribute their possessions, lands, and rents among lay people, and to throw down all monasteries, and churches, making coin of crosses, chalices, and other sacred jewels, for the sustentation of the poor, as they alledged.

1 hutch-originally a sort of large box or coffer for containing thrashed corn.


THE reign in which sir John Cheke might be said to have florished, is that of Henry VIII. But as his only composition in English was written in the third year of the present reign, he could not have been assigned with propriety to the preceding,

He was born at Cambridge, in 1514; and admitted at the age of seventeen into St. John's college, where he early distinguished himself for his proficiency in the learned languages, particularly Greek. After taking his degrees in arts, he was chosen Greek lecturer in his own college, To this office, no salary was annexed; but in the year 1540, Henry VIII. founded a Greek professorship at Cambridge, of which Cheke was elected the first professor, when only twenty-six years of age. He had also the honour of being chosen university


In 1544, he was appointed preceptor to prince Edward, jointly with Sir Anthony Cook; and at the same time was made canon of the newly-founded college of Christ-church, Oxford. Edward on his accession rewarded his tutor, for the assiduous care he had shewn him in his education, with a pension of a hundred marks, as likewise with a grant of several lands and manors; and moreover, caused him to be elected provost of King's College, Cambridge. In 1550, he was appointed chief gentleman of the king's privy chamber; and the year following, his majesty conferred on him the honour of knighthood, with a grant of considerable value. He was soon after made chamberlain of the exchequer for life; in 1553, constituted clerk of the council; and not long after, one of the secretaries of state, and a privy-counsellor.

Sir John was a zealous protestant; in consequence of which, he was severely persecuted by the bigotted Mary, twice imprisoned in the Tower, stript of his whole substance, and ultimately reduced to the terrifying dilemma - Either turn or burn." His religious zeal was not proof against this fiery ordeal, and he recanted. His property was now restored;

but his recantation was followed by such bitterness of remorse, that he survived it but a short time, dying in 1557, at the early age of forty-three.

The period in which Cheke florished is highly interesting to letters. He, in conjunction with his friend and cotemporary Smith, was the great instrument of the diffusion of classical and philological learning. Ancient literature had already begun to dawn; it had not yet advanced into the clear and steady light of day. The efforts of these men contributed greatly to accelerate its progress; and were effectual in deciding the taste of the age. Cheke and Smith were first incited to the pursuit of Grecian literature by the reputation and example of Dr. John Redman, of St. John's College (afterwards dean of Westminster), who was elected lady Margaret's professor of divinity about the year 1538. Redman had studied at the university of Paris, and returned to his own country accomplished in the two learned languages; and the high consideration he obtained, on this account, conspiring with their curiosity and ardour in study, produced that emulation which eventually rendered them his masters in learning. They hence

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