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climata; climates into days work of tillage; days work into poles or perches, paces, degrees, cubits, feet, handfuls, ounces, and inches; such was their great diligence. And because kings found by experience that Ubi nullus ordo, ibi sempiternus error, or, as some say, horror; to prevent that inconvenience in government, as the Black Book saith in the 32d chap. ut quilibet jure suo contentus, alienum non usurpet impune-Kings, I say, thought good to divide that great log or huge mass of a commonwealth into particular governments, giving authority to sundry persons in every government, to guide their charge, thereby following the advice of Jethro, Moses's father-in-law, given to Moses in the wilderness. The same manner used Fergus, king of Scots, who reigned there when Coilus reigned in Britain; of whom it is written, that he divided his land into provinces, and caused his nobles to cast lots for the same, and called every country by the name of his governor. And king Henry II. imitated the like in sending his justices itinerant through the land to execute justice in every shire.

So as to conclude, I think that king Alured was the first that caused shires to be called by their names, because he divided the land into hundreds ; and that which other nations call province, we call shire; and that is the right name in Latin; for sq

doth Witlesey, the monk of Peterborough, call it in the 37th leaf of his book, saying, In provincia Lincolniæ non sunt Hida terræ, sicut in aliis provinciis ; pro hidis sunt carucatæ terræ, et tantum continent, quantum Hide, &c.



WILLIAM CAMDEN, the eminent English antiquary and historian, was born at Litchfield, in Staffordshire, in 1551; but his father, who was a painter-stainer, removing to London, he spent the first years of his education at Christ's Hospital, and afterwards at St. Paul's School. In 1566, he entered as servitor in Magdalene College, Oxford; though he afterwards removed to Broad-gate-Hall, now Pembroke College, and then to Christchurch, being patronised and even supported by Dr. Thornton, canon of Christ-church.

He quitted Oxford in 1571, and repaired for the present to London; but soon after travelled over the greater part of England. To quote his own words" Relictâ academiâ, studio incitata satis magnam Angliæ partem fide ocu

lata obivi" On his return to college in 1573, he took the degree of Bachelor of Arts. Two years after, by the interest of dean Goodman, or as some say, of sir Philip Sidney, he was made second master of Westminster,school, which he held till the resignation of Dr. Grant, whom he succeeded as head-master in 1592-3. Prior to this, however, he obtained the prebend of Ilfracomb, bestowed upon him by Dr. John Piers, bishop of Salisbury. In 1597, at the instance of sir Falk Greville, he was created by queen Elizabeth, Clarenceaux,' king at arms; and the day before was made Richmond Herald; as the being a herald is rendered by the constitution an indispensible pre-requisite to the office of king at arms. He died in 1623, in the 74th year of his age.

1. The first and greatest work of Camden is his Britannia; of which the full title isBritannia, sive Florentissimorum, Regnorum Anglia, Scotia, Hiberniæ, et Insularum adjacentium ex intimâ antiquitate, chorographica Descriptio. London, 1586, 8vo. i. e. "Britain, or a Chronological Description of the flourish ing Kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland, with the adjacent Islands, from the most remote antiquity." The work was much en

larged and improved in subsequent editions; a complete list of which I extract from Mr. Beloe's Anecdotes, recently published; and which may be depended upon (he says) as ac


"1. 1586, printed by R. Newbery, 12mo.

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"This is the first edition of Camden which

was published with maps.

"6. 1607, printed by G. Bishop, folio.

7. 1610,


"All the above-mentioned editions of Cam den were in Latin. The first edition in English was in 1610, and in folio.

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"This was translated by the indefatigable Philemon Holland, who was supposed to have been assisted by Camden himself. Therefore,' observes Mr. Gough, great regard has been paid to his additions and explanations." But what is very extraordinary, and indeed unaccountable, in an author of Mr. Gough's accuracy, he is, in the passage referred to, (Life Camden, p. 20.) called Philip Hol land.

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