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fact that a good man may suffer intensely and for a long time, and yet, if he preserves his integrity, in the end he will be delivered, and his integrity rewarded. The object, then, is good, the theme is sublime.

The structure of the book is dramatic, all the characters introduced are noble, and even the Deity is represented as speaking. The style is, therefore, appropriately elevated and dignified.

Observe the simplicity of the introduction, the conciseness and rapidity of the narrative awakening intense interest. When other characters come to be introduced, observe how each preserves his own personal style, and that at the last, previous to the closing up of the narrative, the thoughts and expressions attributed to God are the sublimest ever uttered, and in the most appropriate phrase.

This criticism is indeed entirely eulogistic, and but faintly expresses the opinion of every competent judge of the Book of Job, simply as a rhetorical production.

91. Exaggeration a common Fault.-A common fault in earnest writers is an over-statement of a thought, which should especially be avoided in deliberative, sober productions. We think that Dr. Whately is open to this charge in the second paragraph of Part IV. of his Rhetoric, on Elocution. He says:

"Probably not a single instance could be found of any one who has attained, by the study of any system of instruction that has hitherto appeared, a really good delivery; but there are many-probably nearly as many as have fully tried the experiment-who have by this means been totally spoiled; who have fallen irrecoverably into an affected style of spouting, worse, in all respects, than their original mode of delivery."



Dr. Whately was really too strong a writer to resort to such extravagant and illogical statements as this.

Criticism is often unappreciative and superficial, even when it assumes to be profound and magisterial. A mere mathematician can not properly criticise a poem, nor a mere book-worm an oration. Some speakers will attract large audiences in spite of the violation of many rules of elocution, and some writings will press themselves into extreme popularity in spite of condemnation and ridicule by the critical profession. A truly wise critic will discern the true elements of power in such cases, and make his exposure of the unnecessary defects and blemishes so much the more instructive and efficient.



92. The Four Objects of Writers and Speakers.-ALL the objects of authors may be reduced to these four: to instruct, convince, persuade, and amuse. Some productions may be designed to accomplish several of these objects, some only one; but nearly all have a leading purpose, belonging to one of these four classes.

93. Didactic Productions.-Writings, the prime object of which is to instruct, may be called didactic, such as text-books describing any science or art, lawbooks, scientific treatises, cyclopædias, many books of travels, guide-books, reports of investigating committees, deeds, and many other legal papers. In didactic writings perspicuity is particularly essential, and ornament is generally superfluous. Lord Brougham says on this subject:

"I have been somewhat mortified of late years at perceiving a tendency to fine writing and declamation among our men of science, and I ascribe it, in some degree, to the more general diffusion of scientific knowledge, which naturally introduces the more popular style of composition. *** In truth, however, that vile florid style darkens instead of illustrating; and while we can never write too clearly to the people, we never can write too simply, if our design be to write plainly and intelligibly. *** I have seen a mathematical discussion, by a very able and learned man, in two consecutive pages of which I reckoned



up above twenty metaphors-all tending to darken the subject, to say nothing of poetical quotations without mercy.'

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Disraeli well remarks that such writings admit of but little ornament, but the attention may be relieved by introducing other thoughts, suggested by association. As a good example of this, he refers to a work of Dr. Arbuthnot on "Coins, Weights, and Measures," which he has managed to make interesting as well as instructive, by such remarks as that "the polite Augustus, the emperor of the world, had neither any glass in his windows, nor a shirt to his back."

Lord Stanley, President of the Statistical Section of the British Scientific Association, remarked: “You can all say what you have to say in a few words if you will think it over beforehand. In addressing an educated audience, a good deal may be taken for granted."

94. Logical Productions.-When the object of the writer is to convince, the rules of logic must be observed, and the graces of style must be subordinate to strength and correctness of thought.

Reports of committees, pleas, controversial articles, defenses against charges, and other purely argumentative productions, belong to this class.

95. Persuasion.-Persuasion, which is designed to add to conviction an impulse toward action, may make use of all the graces and arts of composition, according to the ability and judgment of the author. Ad

* Dialogues on Instinct; with an Analytical View on the Researches on Fossil Osteology, by Henry, Lord Brougham, F.R.S., etc. (Philadelphia), pp. 90, 91.

dresses, sermons, orations, essays, illustrations of all kinds, and almost every species of composition, may be devoted to this purpose.

96. Writings designed simply to Amuse.-But besides the above-mentioned objects, many productions are designed simply to amuse. This object, in its place, is as laudable as any other. Not only many humorous and witty productions belong to this class, but also many essays, descriptions, discussions, and even addresses seek to interest and entertain, not by presenting new information, not by showing the rightfulness of any opinion or course of action, but simply by expressing thoughts in such a way as to occupy the mind and please the reader or hearer.

97. A mixed Object.-It should also be noticed that few productions are purely didactic, or logical, or hortatory, or amusing. In some all these purposes are blended, and few are destitute of more than one of them. It is superfluous to enumerate all the various kinds of productions, but a few of the leading classes will be noticed.

98. Morality of Rhetoric. -One principle ought, however, to be understood by every writer. It is not a worthy object simply to produce a good specimen of composition of any kind. Rhetoric is not an end, but a means. We do not write that we may make books, nor speak that we may pronounce orations, but to produce thought and feeling in others. We can never properly appreciate Rhetoric unless we understand its true aim. While, however, it is a means of exerting influence on other minds, it also tends, re

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