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The Four proper TROPES..

A Metaphor, in place of proper words,
Refemblance puts; and drefs to speech affords.
A Metonymy does new names impofe,
And things by things by near relation fhows.
Synecdoche the whole for part doth take;:
Or, of a part for whole, exchange doth make.
An Irony, diffembling with an air,

Thinks otherwise than what the words declare.





T. A Tide (Excefs) of Pafsion. Breath on (favour) my Enterprizes. The golden (pure, untainted) Age. 2. The Inventer is taken for the Invented; as, Mars (War) rages.. The Author, for his Works; as, read Horace, í e. his Writings. The Inftrument, for the Caule; as, his Tongue (Eloquence) defends him. The Matter, for the Thing made; as, the Steel (Sword) conquers. The Effect, for the Caufe; as, cold Death, i. e. Death, which makes cold: The Subject containing, for the Thing contained; as, the Mace (Magiftrate) comes. 3. Ten Summers, i. e. Years, have I lived under this Roof, i. e. House. Now the Year, i. e. Spring, is the most beautiful. 4. Fairly done, i. e.. fcandaloufly done. Good Boy, i. e. Bad Boy.

TERMS Englished.

1. Translation. 2. Changing of Names. 3. Comprehenfion. 4. Difsimulation.

Affections of Tropes..

A Catachrefis words too far doth strain
Rather from fuch abuse of speech refrain.
Hyperbole foars high, or creeps too low;
Exceeds the truth, things wonderful to show.
By Metalepfis, in one word combin'd
More Tropes than one you eafily may find.
An Allegory Tropes continues still,
Which with new graces every fentence fill.

Tropes improperly accounted fo.

Antonomafia proper names imparts,
From kindred, country, epithets, or arts.
Litotes doth more fenfe than words include,
And often by two negatives hath stood.
Onomatopeia coins a word from found,
By which alone the meaning may be found.


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5. The Man, i. e. Chief, of the Flock. He threatens, i. e. promifes, a Favour. 6, He runs fwifter than the Wind, .e. very fwiftly. 7. Euphrates, (i. e. Mefopotamia, i. e. its Inhabitants) moves War. 8. Venus grows cold without Ceres and Bacchus, i. e. Love grows cold without Bread and Wine. 9. There goes Irus, i. e. a poor Man.

acides, i. e. Achilles, conquered. The Carthaginian, i. e. Hannibal, won the Field. Cytherea, i. e, Venus, worshipped in the ifland fo called. The Philofopher, i. c. Ariftotle, afferted fo. The Poet, i. e. Virgil, fings Eneas. 10. I neither praife your Gifts, nor defpife them; i. e. I difpraife your Gifts, yet I accept them. 11. Flies buzz, i. c. make a humming Noife. Tantaras, i, e. Noife of Trumpets, fill the Round.

TERMS Englished.

5. Abufe. 6. Excefs. 7. Participation. S. Speaking otherwife. 9. For a Name. 10. Leffening. 11. Feigning a Name.

Antiphrafis makes words to disagree
From fenfe; if rightly they derived be.
Charientifmus, when it (peaks, doth choofe
The fofter for the harsher words to use.
Afeifmus loves to jeft with ftrokes of wit,
And flily with the point of fatyr hit.
A Diafyrmus must ill-nature show,
And ne'er omit t' infult a living foe.
Sarcafmus with a bitter jeer doth kill,
And ev'ry word with strongest venom fill.
Paramia by a proverb tries to teach








A fhort, inftructing, and a nervous speech.
Enigma in dark words the fenfe conceals;
But that, once known, a riddling speech reveals.
Figures of words of the fame found.

Antanaclafis in one found contains


More meanings; which the various fenfe explains.

By Place we a proper name repeat;

Yet as a common noun the latter treat.



12. Lucus, from Lux Light, fignifies a dark thady Grove. 13. Be not fo angry; Heaven fend better News. 14. Who hates not Bavius' Verfes, let him love Mævius's; and he that loves either, let him milk He-goats. 15. You gaggle like a Goofe among the tuneful Swans. 16. Now, Cyrus, glut yourself with Blood. 17. You wath the Black-moor white, i, e. you labour in vain. 18. Niletis's Quill brought forth the Daughters of Cadmus; i. e. a Pen, made of a Reed growing by the Side of the River Nile, wrote the Latin and Greek Letters invented by Cadmus. 19. Care for thofe Things, which may discharge you of Care. 20. In that Victory Cæfar was Cæfar, i. e. a moft ferene Conqueror TERMS Englithed.

12. Contrary Word. 13. Softening. 14. Civility. 15. Detraction. 16. Bitter Taunt. 17. A Proverb. 18. A Riddle. 19. A Reciprocation. 20. Continuation.

Anaphora gives more sentences one head;

As readily appears to those that read.

Epiftrophe more fentences doth clofe






With the fame words, whether in verse or profe.
Symploce joins thefe figures both together,
And from both join'd makes up itself another.
Epanalepfis words doth recommend,

The fame at the beginning and the end.
Anadiplofis ends the former line,

With what the next does for its first defign.
By Epanados a fentence fhifts its place;
Takes firft, and laft, and alfo middle fpace.
An Epizeuxis twice a word repeats,
Whate'er the fubject be, whereon it treats.
A Climax by gradation still ascends,
Until the fenfe with finish'd period ends.
A Polyptoton ftill the fame word places,
If fenfe require it, in two diff'rent cafes.

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21. Peace crowns our Life; Peace does our Plenty breed. 22. We are born in Sorrow, pafs our time in Sorrow, end our Days in Sorrow. 23. Juftice came down from Heaven to view the Earth; Juftice climbed back to Heaven, and left the Earth. 24. Sins ftain thy beautions Soul; forfake thy Sins. 25. Prize Wisdom; Wisdom is a precious Jewel. 26. Whether the worst? the Child accurft, or elfe the cruel Mother? The Mother worft, the Child accurft; as bad the one as the other. 27. Ah! poor, poor Swain! 28. Folly breeds Laughter; Laughter, Difdain; Difdain makes Shame her Daughter. 29. Foot to Foot; Hand to Hand; Face to Face.

TERMS Englished.

21. Rehearsal. 22. A turning to. 23. A complication. 24. Repetition. 25. Reduplication. 26. A Regression. 27. Ajoin ing together. 28. A Ladder, Stair, 29. Variation of Cafe.

Figures of words of like found.

Paregmenon deriv'd from one recites

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More words, and in one fentence them unites.

Paronomafia to the fenfe alludes,


When words but little vary'd it includes.

Homoioteleuton makes the measure chime,


With like founds, in the end of fetter'd thyme.

A Parachefis fyllables fets twice;


But this, except to poets, is a vice.






Hypotypofis to the eye contracts

Things, places, perfons, times, affections, acts.
Paradiastole explains aright

Things in an opposite and diff'rent light.
Antimetabole puts chang'd words again
By contraries; fome beauty to explain.
Enantiofis poifeth diff'rent things,

And words and fenfe as into balance brings.
Synaceiofis to one subject ties

Two contraries, and fuller fense supplies.


30. I write friendly of friendship to a Friend. 31. Friends are turned Friends. 32. Chime and Rhime; as above. 33. Liberty begets Mifchief chiefly. 34. The Head is fick; the Heart is faint; from the Sole of the Foot, even unto the Head, there is no Soundnefs; but Wounds, Bruifes, and putrifying Sores. 35. Virtue may be overshadowed, but not overwhelmed. 36. A Poem is a fpeaking Picture; a Picture is a mute Poem.. 37. Truth brings Foes, Flattery brings Friends. 38. He is dead, even while he liveth. TERMS Englifhed.

30. Derived from the fame. 31. Likenefs of Words. 32. A like Ending. 33. Allufion. 34, A Representation. 35. Diferimination. 35. Changing by Contraries. 37. A Contrariety. 38. A Reconciling.


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