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suffered less emptiness, less idleness, in what he uttered. No member of his speech but consisted of its own graces. His hearers could not cough, or look aside from him without loss. He commanded where he spoke; and had his judges angry and pleased at his devotion. No man had their affections more in his power. The fear of every man that heard him was, lest he should make an


The devotion of Sir Nicholas to science may be seen in inscriptions in different parts of his seat at Gorhambury. Over a gate leading into the orchard, which had a garden on one side and a wilderness on the other, under the statue of Orpheus, stood these verses:

Horrida nuper eram aspectu latebrææque ferarum,
Ruricolis tantum numinibusque locus.
Edomitor faustò huc dum forte supervenit Orpheus
Ulterius qui me non sinit esse rudem ;
Convocat, avulsis virgulta virentia truncis
Et sedem quæ vel Diis placuisse potest.

Sicque mei cultor, sic est mihi cultus et Orpheus:
Floreat O noster cultus amorque diu.

This too was the favourite image of Francis. In Orpheus's Theatre all beasts and birds assembled, and forgetting their several appetites, some of prey, some of game, some of quarrel, stood all sociably together, listening to the airs and accords of the harp; the sound whereof no sooner ceased, or was drowned by some louder noise, but every beast returned to his own nature; wherein is aptly described the nature and condition of men who are full of savage and unreclaimed desires of profit, of lust, of revenge, which, as long as they give ear to precepts, to laws, to religion, sweetly touched with eloquence, and persuasion of books, of sermons, of harangues; so long is society and peace maintained; but if these instruments be silent, or sedition and tumult make them not audible, all things dissolve into anarchy and confusion.

In the orchard was a little banquetting-house, adorned with great curiosity, having the liberal arts beautifully depicted on its walls, over them the pictures of such learned men as had excelled in each, and under them, verses expressive of the benefits derived from the study of them.


Lex sum sermonis linguarum regula certa,
Qui me non didicit cætera nulla petat.
ARITHMETICK. Ingenium exacuo, numerorum arcana recludo,






Qui numeros didicit quid didicisse nequit.
Divido multiplices, res explanoque latentes
Vera exquiro, falsa arguo, cuncta probo.
Mitigo morores, et acerbas lenio cruras,

Gestiat ut placidis mens hilarata sonis.
Me duce splendescit, gratis prudentia verbis
Jamque ornata nitet quæ fuit ante rudis.
Corpora describo rerum et quo singula pacto
Apte sunt formis appropriata suis.

Astrorum lustrans cursus viresque potentes,
Elicio miris fata futura modis.

So, too, Francis had his banquetting-house and fish-ponds, as will be explained in a subsequent part of this work. They may now be seen at Gorhambury, in a field called the Ponyard-the Pondyard. His passion for building appeared in his mansion and gardens at Gorhambury, near St. Albans, and in his New Atlantis are the statues of eminent men.

Sir Nicholas's first wife was Jane Fernly, of West Creting, in Suffolk, by whom he had six children. His second wife was Anne, the daughter of Sir Anthony Cooke, of Giddy Hall, Essex, by whom he had two sons, Anthony and Francis, who was the celebrated Lord Verulam. His death is said to have been occasioned by accident, on the 20th of February, 1579; and, on the 9th of March, he was buried with great solemnity, under a sumptuous monument erected by himself in St. Paul's church, with the following inscription by Buchannan :

Hic Nicolaum nè Baconum conditum,
Existima illum, tam diu Britannici
Regni secundum columen, exitium malis,
Bonis Asylum; cæca quem non extulit
Ad hunc honorem sors, sed æquitas, fides,
Doctrina, Pietas, unica et Prudentia,
Neu morte raptum crede, quia unica brevi
Vita perennes emeruit duas: agit

Vitam secundam cælites inter animus,
Fama implet orbem, vita quæ illi tertia est.

Hac positum in ara est corpus olim animi domus,
Ara dicata sempiternæ Memoriæ.

There are various pictures of the lord keeper; there are two in Gorhambury House; a print in Musgrave's collection, lord keeper, æt. 68, 1579. Picture in Euston House, Suffolk. Picture by Zucchero in Lennerd House, Norfolk. Picture in Brome Hall, Suffolk--motto, Mediocria Firma. Picture at Bennet College, Cambridge. Picture in King's Weston House, Gloucestershire. Knowle House, Kent. By Zucchero, at Woburn. See Walpole's Painters. Pennant's Journey. In the Horologia, 8vo. a Vandenwooffe, 1559. Vertue sc. large 4to. Vertue, &c. a small oval engraving, with other heads, in the frontispiece to Burnet's Abridgment of the History of the Reformation. Portrait of Anne, wife of Sir Nicholas, lord keeper, at Gorhambury, enamelled by Bone. His bust and of his wife Anne, and of their son, Francis, when twelve years old, are at Gorhambury. I saw them in April, 1825. They are of terra cotta, and coloured after the life. The bust of Francis is, as to the shape of the head, barrel like. Biographia Adversaria, vol. i. British Museum : Sir N. Bacon, lord keeper of the great seal, autograph, 1562, 1565, 1566.

A great part of the furniture which belonged to the lord keeper is still carefully preserved. The purse which was delivered with the great seal to Sir Nicholas Bacon, by the queen, is now in the possession of the Rev. John Long, rector of Coddenham, Suffolk, to whom it was bequeathed by the will of the Rev. Nathaniel Bacon, his predecessor in the living, and last male descendant of Nicholas, eldest son of Edward Bacon, esq. of Shrubland, the third son of Sir Nicholas by his first wife. The following is the pedigree of the lord keeper.

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1st Wife. 2d Husb. to Anne. Mary Croke

Sir HarbottleAnne. Sir Thomas Elizabeth. Winifred.


1st Husb. to Anne.


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Nathaniel, the second son, was, to use the words of Sir Nicholas his father, of best hope in learning. This appears from the following letter from the lord keeper, written when Francis was only eight years old.

Harleian MS. 287, fo. 280.-46 I have receyved yor gentill and courteous lettre, and thank you hartely for it. And albeit my sonne hath begged this benefice of you, wch indeed was yo, by my promyse, yet I trust or it be long to provide some other of better value for you, in parte of satisfaction of this that is paste, ye shal be sure to have the first, and the best that I may gyve in eyther bothe shires. And in good faythe I am sory you have not this for yo, advertisement concerning Mr. Dopledick. I have great cause to thinke myself much beholden unto you, but herein (I thank you) I fynd by soundry weyes you do but as you are wonte, I should be much to blame if any tyme shall make me forgetfull of it, and remembring it I muste be unthankfull if I requyte it not, if it lye in my power. My desyer is that if you be acquaynted with Mr. Dopledick, that you will of yo'self lett hym understand that I have told you my intention is to have my second sonne married in Suff., and wth all that I have requyered you, if you should understand of any convenient mariage for him to advertise me of it, and so furthe as you shall think moste meet. In deed of all my children he is of best hope in learning, and thereupon to feele his disposycion howe he is inclyned that waye, whereof I gladly wold be advertised with some speed. And besyde I praye you signifie unto me th' age of the mayde, wth whome she hath ben brought up, and who maye be the meetest meanes to bring the same to passe, yf upon yor significacyon I shall have cause to lyke of it, and of the other syde if you for want of a quayntaince wth hym be not meete to begyne to breake this matter (whereof I wold be very sory) then I wold gladly be enformed from you who were meet to do it. I have written to my sonne that he shall see yor lettres conveyed wth speed, whensoever you are disposed to writt unto me, for in thies causes protracting of tyme may verye muche hinder, my meaning is not to have many acquainted wth this matter, till I knowe what will come of it. Thus wishing to you as to myself I bid you hartely farewell, from my house at Gorhambury the xxvijth of July, 1568.

To my verye frend Robert Asshfeild, esquyer, geve these.

Yor verey frynd,



Whatever may have been the promise of him when a youth, all which we now know of him is, that he was an artist of some merit. Grimstone, in his History of St. Albans, says, "He had a great talent for painting, and travelled into Italy to improve himself in that art." Lord Orford, in his History of Painting, ranks him very high in reputation, amongst the British artists. Culford he left some few pieces of fruit and fish, but they are lost or destroyed, and the only remaining specimens of his works are preserved at Gorhambury, these are a full length portrait of himself, a cook supposed to have been a representation of Lady Bacon, with a great variety of dead game in the foreground, part of which appears unfinished, but the remainder has been greatly admired. There is also a small portrait of his mother.

He is thus mentioned in Pennant's Journey from Chester. Near him is his accomplished kinsman, his half-brother, Sir Nathaniel Bacon, knight of the Bath, leaning back in his chair, in a green jacket laced, yellow stockings, a dog by him, and sword and pallet hung up. "In the art of painting, none," says Peacham, deserveth more respect and admiration than Master Nathaniel Bacon, of Brome, in Suffolk; not inferior, in my judgment, to our skillfullest masters." He improved his talent by travelling into Italy; and left in this house, as a proof of the excellency of his performances, this portrait, and a most excellent one of a cook, a perfect Venus, with an old game-keeper; behind is a variety of dead game, in particular a swan, whose plumage is expressed with inimitable softness and gloss.

Sir Nath. Bacon se ipse p. Chambers se 4to. in the anecdotes of painting. Sir Nathaniel Bacon, second son of Sir Nicholas Bacon, painted his own portrait and a cook maid, with large and small fowls, in a masterly manner. Both these pictures are at Gorhambury. He was ancestor to the present Lord Townshend. Mr. Nathaniel Bacon, younger son of Sir Nicholas Bacon, knight and

eldest baronet, deserveth great respect and admiration for his skill and practice in painting, and not inferior to our most skilful masters. Peachum Gent, 106. See, for a further account of Nathaniel, Walpole's Anecdotes of Painting, 316. Sir Nathaniel Bacon, knight of the Bath, younger son of Sir Nicholas Bacon, Wheeler. Picture, Gorhambury, by himself. Walp. Paint. i. 177. Sir Nathaniel Bacon, knight, brother of Viscount St. Albans. Print in Musgrave's Collection, ii.

Grimstone's History of Gorhambury, page 69. Sir Nathaniel, the second son of Sir Nicholas Bacon, married the daughter of Sir Thomas Gresham, and by her had three daughters, Anne, Elizabeth, and Winifred. Sir Nathaniel died in the lifetime of Lord St. Albans, at his seat at Culford, in the county of Suffolk, and was buried in the chancel of the church at Culford, where a monument was erected to his memory; and another at Stiffkey, in Norfolk, where he had also an estate and mansion. Anne, his eldest daughter, married first Sir Thomas Meautys, who died without issue, and now lies by his friend in St. Michael's church, at St. Albans. I, in 1830, traced his epitaph. It is partly covered by one of the pews. The inscription is as follows:

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Upon removing the pew, which now is upon part of the stone, there would no doubt appear on the first line

and in the second line,


THOMAS so that the inscription will be plain: "Here lieth the body of Sir Thomas Meawtys K'."

Grimstone's History of Gorhambury, page 62. Lord St. Albans had in his lifetime conveyed his estate and manor of Gorhambury to Sir John Constable and Sir Thomas Crewe, as trustees, by whom it was after his death conveyed to Sir Frances Leigh and others, in trust for the sole use of Sir Thomas Meautys, his relation and friend, who had married Anne, the only surviving daughter of Sir Nathaniel Bacon. Sir H. Grimstone bought Gorhambury of Sir Thomas Meautys. After the death of Sir Thomas Meautys, Anne married Sir Harbottle Grimstone, he having, as it seems, previously bought Gorhambury of Sir Thomas Meautys.

Account of Sir Harbottle Grimstone and his wives his second wife having been Anne, the daughter of Nathaniel, the second son of the lord keeper, and widow of Sir Thomas Meautys.

Burnet, in his History of his Own Times, says, "And I applied myself to my studies, and my function being then settled preacher at the Rolls, and soon after lecturer of St. Clements. I lived many years under the protection of Sir Harbottle Grimstone, Master of the Rolls, who continued steady in his favour to me, though the King sent Secretary Williamson to desire him to dismiss me. He said he was an old man, fitting himself for another world, and he found my ministry useful to him, so he prayed he might be excused in that. This broke me quite with the court, and in that respect proved a great blessing to me: it brought me out of many temptations; the greatest of all being the kindness that was growing toward me from the Duke, which might have involved me in great difficulties, as it did expose me to much censure; all which went off upon this. He was a long and very kind patron to me. I continued ten years in that post, free from all necessities: and I thank God that was all I desired : but, since I was so long happy in so quiet a retreat, it seems but a just piece of gratitude, that I should give some account of that venerable old man. He was descended from a long-lived family; for his great grandfather lived till he was ninety-eight, his grandfather to eighty-six, and his father to seventy-eight, and himself to eighty-two. He had to the last a great soundness of health, of memory, and of judgment. He was bred to the study of the law, being a younger brother. Upon the elder brother's death he threw it up; but falling in love with Judge Croke's daughter, the father would not bestow her on him

unless he would return to his studies, which he did with great success. That judge was one of those who delivered his judgment in the chequer-chamber against the ship-money, which he did with a long and learned argument; and Sir Harbottle's father, who served in parliament for Essex, lay long in prison, because he would not pay the loan-money. Thus both his family and his wife's were zealous for the interest of their country. In the beginning of the long parliament he was a great assertor of the laws, and inveighed severely against all that had been concerned in the former illegal oppression. His principle was, that allegiance and protection were mutual obligations; and that the one went for the other. He thought the law was the measure of both; and that when a legal protection was denied to one that paid a legal allegiance, the subject had a right to defend himself. He was much troubled, when preachers asserted a divine right of legal government. He thought it had no other effect but to give an ill impression of them as aspiring men: nobody was convinced by it. It inclined their hearers rather to suspect all they said; besides it looked like the sacrificing their country to their own preferment; and an encouraging of princes to turn tyrants: yet when the Long Parliament engaged in the league with Scotland, he would not swear to the covenant; and he discontinued sitting in the house till it was laid aside then he came back, and joined with Hollis, and the other presbyterians, in a high opposition to the independents, and to Cromwell in particular, as was told in the first book; and he was one of the secluded members that were forced out of the house. He followed afterwards the practice of the law; but was always looked upon as one who wished well to the ancient government of England: so he was chosen speaker of that house, that called home the King; and had so great a merit in that whole affair, that he was soon after, without any application of his own, made Master of the Rolls in which post he continued to his death with a high reputation, as he well deserved; for he was a just judge; very slow, and ready to hear every thing that was offered, without passion or partiality. I thought his only fault was that he was too rich and yet he gave yearly great sums in charity, discharging many prisoners by paying their debts. He was a very pious and devout man, and spent every day, at least an hour in the morning, and as much at night, in prayer and meditation; and even in winter, when he was obliged to be very early on the bench, he took care to rise so soon, that he had always the command of that time which he gave to those exercises. He was much sharpened against popery: but had always a tenderness to the Dissenters, though he himself continued still in the communion of the church."


Burnet, in his History, thus speaks of Anne, "His second wife, whom I knew, was niece to the great Sir Francis Bacon; and was the last heir of that family. She had all the high notions for the church and for the crown in which she had been bred; but was the humblest, the devoutest, and best tempered person I ever knew of that sort. It was really a pleasure to hear her talk of religion, she did it with so much elevation and force. She was always very plain in her clothes, and went off to gaols to consider the wants of the prisoners, and relieve or discharge them; and, by the meanness of her dress, she passed but for a servant trusted with the charities of others. When she was travelling in the country, as she drew near a village she often ordered her coach to stay behind till she had walked about it, giving orders for the instruction of the children, and leaving liberally for that end."

There is a portrait of Anne at Gorhambury, and of both her husbands.

D. Life, p. i.

There are some observations upon the life of Anne, Lady Bacon, in the Biographia Britannica, in Note A to the life of Anthony Bacon, which says: "She made a florid and exact translation of Bishop Jewell's Apology for the Church of England, from Latin into English, which was esteemed so useful in its nature, as well as so correct in its manner, that in the year 1564 it was published for common use by the special order of Archbishop Parker, with

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