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improving and accomplishing his system; for he made even the most shining transactions of his life, but subservient thereto. In a word, the introducing this new method of attaining wisdom was his ruling passion, and his great spring of action through life. It quickened him in the pursuit of employments; it consoled him when he met disappointments in that pursuit; it filled up (most agreeably) his few leisure moments when in the zenith of his grandeur; it softened his fall, by proposing a new road to fame and esteem, in which he was in no danger of being either imposed on by one set of men, or sacrificed to the interests of another. Thus, this was always, and in all conjunctures, his leading object, of which he never lost sight; and as we have already had a train of evidence sufficient to convince us, that he conceived something of this kind when he was but sixteen, and brought it into some form by that time he was twenty-six; so the remainder of this article will show how warmly he prosecuted this point till death overtook him on the road, when his mind was wholly occupied with these speculations. Biog. Brit.

K. Life, p. xi.

His observations on universities will be found in the beginning of the second part of the Advancement of Learning. The following analysis will exhibit an outline of this tract. After having observed upon libraries, and upon the teachers, he proceeds to the defects, which he thus enumerates :

FIRST DEFECT. Colleges are all dedicated to professions.

If men judge that learning should be referred to action, they judge well; but in this they fall into the error described in the ancient fable, in which the other parts of the body did suppose the stomach had been idle, because it neither performed the office of motion, as the limbs do, nor of sense, as the head doth; but yet, notwithstanding, it is the stomach that digesteth and distributeth to all the rest: so if any man think philosophy and universality to be idle studies, he doth not consider that all professions are from thence served and supplied. And this I take to be a great cause that hath hindered the progression of learning, because these fundamental knowledges have been studied but in passage. For if you will have a tree bear more fruit than it hath used to do, it is not any thing you can do to the boughs, but it is the stirring of the earth, and putting new mould about the roots, that must

work it.

It is injurious to government that there is not any collegiate education for

statesmen.

SECOND DEFECT. The salaries of lecturers are too small.

If you will have sciences flourish, you must observe David's military law, which was, "That those which stay with the carriage should have equal part with those which were in the action."

THIRD DEFECT. There are not sufficient funds for providing models, instruments, experiments, &c.

FOURTH DEFECT. There is a neglect in the governors of consultation, and in superiors of visitation, as to the propriety of continuing or amending the esta-. blished courses of study.

1. Scholars study too soon logic and rhetoric.

For minds empty and unfraught with matter, and which have not gathered that which Cicero calleth " Sylva" and "supellex," stuff and variety, to begin with those arts, (as if one should learn to weigh, or to measure, or to paint the wind), doth work but this effect, that the wisdom of those arts, which is great and universal, is almost made contemptible, and is degenerate into childish sophistry and ridiculous affectation. (See Milton's Treatise on Education.)

2. There is too great a divorce between invention and memory.

FIFTH DEFECT. There is a want of mutual intelligence between different universities.

SIXTH DEFECT. There is a want of proper rewards for enquiries in new and unlaboured parts of learning.

The opinion of plenty is amongst the causes of want, and the great quantity of books maketh a shew rather of superfluity than lack: which surcharge, nevertheless, is not to be remedied by making no more books but by making more good books, which, as the serpent of Moses, might devour the serpents of the enchanters.

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Of the importance of general knowledge and general education, Bacon is constant in his admonitions. In the entrance of philosophy he says, "Because the partition of sciences are not like several lines that meet in one angle; but rather like branches of trees that meet in one stem, which stem for some dimension and space is entire and continued, before it break, and part itself into arms and boughs; therefore the nature of the subject requires, before we pursue the parts of the former distribution, to erect and constitute one universal science, which may be the mother of the rest; and that in the progress of sciences, a portion, as it were, of the common highway may be kept, before we come where the ways part and divide themselves."

The evil which results from want of fixed principles in legislation may be seen in any discussion upon improvement of the law, when it cannot escape notice how few fixed principles pervade society upon important questions in legislation. There is, I may venture to say, scarcely any subject of law, upon the principles of which any two eminent lawyers entertain the same sentiments. Mention, for instance, in a company of lawyers, imprisonment for debt, or usury, or capital punishment, and you will instantly discover the want of fixed principles. One will talk of the injured creditor, another of the oppressed debtor; one of the necessity of this power in creditors for the sake of commerce; another that the counting-house has no alliance with the jail. So too there has been, for centuries, great conflict of opinion upon the efficacy of severe punishment, as there was, for centuries, upon imprisonment for debt. So too upon commercial laws; all proving the truth of Bacon's account of one of the signs of false philosophy, "We must not omit that other sign, namely, the great disagreement among the ancient philosophers and the differences of their schools, which sufficiently shows that their way, from the sense to the understanding, was not well guarded; whilst one and the same subject of philosophy, the nature of things, was rent and split into so many and such wild errors: and although at present the dissensions and disagreements of opinions, as to first principles and entire philosophies, are in a manner extinct, yet such innumerable questions and controversies still remain among us, as make it plainly appear that there is nothing fixed and stable, either in our present philosophy or the manner of our demonstrations."

M. Life, p. xiii.

Extract from Lord Bacon's will. And because I conceive there will be upon the moneys raised by sale of my lands, leases, goods and chattels, a good round surplusage, over and above that which may serve to satisfy my debts and legacies, and perform my will; I do devise and declare, that my executors shall employ the said surplusage in manner and form following; that is to say, that they purchase therewith so much land of inheritance, as may erect and endow two lectures in either the universities, one of which lectures shall be of natural philosophy; and the science in general thereunto belonging; hoping that the stipends or salaries of the lecturers may amount to two hundred pounds a year for either of them; and for the ordering of the said lectures, and the election of the lecturers from time to time, I leave it to the care of my executors, to be established by the advice of the lords bishops of Lincoln and

Coventry. Nevertheless thus much I do direct that none shall be lecturer (if he be English) except he be master of arts of seven years standing, and that he be not professed, in divinity, law, or physic, as long as he remains lecturer; and that it be without difference whether (he) be a stranger or English; and I wish my executors to consider of the precedent of Sir Henry Savil's lectures for their better instruction.

William Bagwell, in a preface to his Mystery of Astronomy, 1655, tells the reader that he had long wished for an opportunity to deposit his work in some university or college, and that he found none so acceptable as the erection of Sir Francis Bacon's college, intended to be established in Lambeth Marsh, near London, a worthy institution for the advancement of learning. See a catalogue of royal and noble authors, I think by Walpole, continued by T. Park, article Bacon. It is possible that this may have been an attempt by Bushel, his admirer, who, if I mistake not, died in Lambeth Marsh.

N.-New Atlantis. Life, p. xvi.

The first edition of the new Atlantis was published, in folio, in 1627, at the conclusion of the first edition of the Sylva Sylvarum, of which there were eleven editions between the years 1627 and 1676, and in each of these editions, the new Atlantis will be found. It will be found in vol. ii. of this edition, p. 323. The following is the preface:

TO THE READER.

"This fable my lord devised, to the end that hee might exhibite therein, a modell or description of a college, instituted for the interpreting of nature, and the producing of great and marvellous works for the benefit of men; under the name of Salomons House, or the College of the Six Dayes Works. And even so farre his lordship hath proceeded, as to finish that part. Certainly, the modell is more vast and high than can possibly be imitated in all things; notwithstanding most things therin are within mens power to effect. His lordship thought also in this present fable, to have composed a frame of lawes, or of the best state or mould of a commonwealth; but foreseeing it would be a long worke, his desire of collecting the naturall historie diverted him, which he preferred many degrees before it. This worke of the new Atlantis, (as much as concerneth the English edition) his lordship designed for this place; in regard it hath so neere affinitie (in one part of it) with the preceding naturall historie." W. RAWLEY.

Tennison, speaking of the new Atlantis, says, "Neither do we, here, unfitly place the Fable of the New Atlantis: for it is the model of a college to be instituted by some king who philosophizeth, for the interpreting of nature and the improving of arts. His lordship did (it seems) think of finishing this fable, by adding to it a frame of laws, or a kind of Utopian commonwealth; but he was diverted by his desire of collecting the natural history which was first in his esteem."

There is a copy of the New Atlantis in Bushel's Abridgment, the following is the title page: New Atlantis, a Work unfinished. Written by the Right Honourable Francis, Lord Verulam, Viscount St. Alban. London, printed by Thomas Newcomb, 1659.

Of the New Atlantis there have been various translations. It was translated into French in 1631. It is in 8vo. There is a copy in the British Museum; the title is as follows: L'Atlas Nouveau, De Messire Francois Bacon, Baron de Verulam, Vicomte de S. Alban, et Chancelier d'Angleterre.

Histoire Naturelle de Mre. Francois Bacon, Baron de Verulam, Vicomte de Sainct Alban, et Chancelier d'Angleterre. A Paris, chez Antoine de Sommaville et Andre Sovbron, associez, au Palais dans la petite Salie. M.DC.XXXI. Avec Privilege du Roy.

There is another French edition in 1702: La Nouvelle Atlantide de Francois Bacon, etc. Par M. R. A Paris, chez Jean Musier, etc. M.DCC.II.

It was translated into Latin in 1633: Novus Atlas, opus imperfectum Latine

conscriptum ab Illustri viro Francisco Bacone, de Verulamio, etc. Cum Præfatione W. Rawley. Of this edition Tennison says, "This fable of the New Atlantis in the Latin edition of it, and in the Frankfort collection, goeth under the false and absurd title of Novus Atlas: as if his lordship had alluded to a person, or a mountain, and not to a great island, which according to Plato perished in the ocean."

It was translated into Latin by Rawley, and published by him in folio, in the year 1638, in his volume containing many other tracts. The following is the title: Nova Atlantis Fragmentorum alterum. Per Franciscum Baconum, Baronem de Verulamio, Vice-Comitem S. Albani. Londini, Typis Ioh. Haviland. Prostant ad Insignia Regia in Cameterio D. Pauli, apud Iocosam Norton et Richardum Whitakerum, 1638.

There are some works connected with the New Atlantis which ought to be noticed. In the year 1660 a work was published, of which the following is the title: New Atlantis begun by the Lord Verulam, Viscount St. Albans: and continued by R. H. Esquire. Wherein is set forth a Platform of Monarchial Government, with a pleasant intermixture of divers rare Inventions, and wholsom Customs, fit to be introduced into all Kingdoms, States, and Common-Wealths. Nunquam Libertas gratior extat quam sub Rege pio. London, printed for John Crooke, at the Signe of the Ship in St. Paul's Church Yard, 1660. Of this work Tennison says, "This Supplement has been lately made by another hand: a great and hardy adventure, to finish a piece after the Lord

Verulam's pencil."

In the year 1676 a work was published, of which the following is the titlepage: Essays on several important Subjects in Philosophy and Religion. By Joseph Glanvill, Chaplain in Ordinary to His Majesty, and Fellow of the R. Š. Imprimatur, Martii 27, 1675, Thomas Tomkins. London, printed by J. D. for John Baker, at the Three Pidgeons, and Henry Mortlock, at the Phænix, in St. Paul's Church Yard, 1676.

The last essay in this volume is thus entitled: Anti-fanatical Religion and Free Philosophy, in a continuation of the New Atlantis, Essay VII. And the title opens thus, Essay VII. The Summe of my Lord Bacon's New Atlantis.

0.

After he had passed the circle of the liberal arts, his father thought fit to frame and mould him for the arts of state; and for that end sent him over into France, with Sir Amyas Paulet, then employed Ambassadour Lieger into France; by whom he was, after a while, held fit to be entrusted with some message or advertisement to the Queen; which having performed with great approbation, he returned back into France again, with intention to continue for some years there. Rawley.

That he was sent to France when he was sixteen appears from the following fact. Sir Amias Paulet was sent ambassador to France in September, 1576. He was succeeded by Sir Edward Stafford, in December, 1578.

Extract from a letter, dated June 22, 1577. One year is already spent since my departure from you, and yet one year more, and then I will begin to hearken for a successor." To Mr. Nicholas Wadham.

In a letter to the lord keeper, dated September, 1577: "This quiet time doth give me no occasion to trouble your lordship with long letters; only I must tell you, that I rejoice much to see that your son, my companion, hath, by the grace of God, passed the brunt and peril of this journey whereof I am the more glad, because, in the beginning of these last troubles, it pleased your lordship to refer his continuance with me to my consideration. I thank God these dangers are past, and your son is safe, sound, and in good health, and worthy of your fatherly favour. And thus, &c. (a)

*See R. H. conten. of N. Atlantis, Octo. Lon. 1660.
(a) See Blackburn, vol. i.

Q. Life, p. xvii.

STATE OF EUROPE.

This tract is supposed by Mallet to have been the first work written by Lord Bacon, and to have been written about the year 1580, when he was between nineteen and twenty years of age --because it states, "that Henry III. of France was then thirty years old: now that king began his reign in 1576, at the age of twenty-four years, so that Bacon was then nineteen." How far this evidence is satisfactory, may be collected from other parts of the same tract. It says, "Gregory XIII. of the age of seventy years"-but Gregory XIII. was seventy years old in the year 1572, when he was elected Pope, so that, according to this reasoning, it might be inferred that it was written when Bacon was twelve years of age. In another part of the tract it states, "The King of Spain, Philip, son to Charles the Fifth, about sixty years of age: but he was born on the 21st of May, 1527, so that he was sixty years old in 1587, when Bacon was between sixteen and seventeen years old. The author of Bacon's Life, in the Biographia Britannica, from these different dates, concludes that the tract was written at different periods of time, beginning, as he must suppose, when Bacon was quite a boy; but, as it was not necessary for the purposes of this tract that the ages of the different monarchs should be ascertained with great precision, it is, perhaps, not probable that they were accurately examined, and the only fair inference is, that it was written at a very early period of his life.*

The same author says, "But what is extremely remarkable in this small treatise, is the care and accuracy with which he has set down most of the little princes in Germany, with the state of their dominions." This minute observation, however, extends to all his works: and of all the extraordinary properties of Bacon's wonderful mind, his constant observation of what we, in common parlance, call trifles, appears to be one of the most extraordinary. He says that whoever will not attend to matters because they are too minute or trifling, shall never obtain command or rule over nature. The nature of every thing is best seen in its smallest portions. The philosopher, while he gazed upwards to the stars, fell into the water, but if he had looked down he might have seen the stars in the water. The property of the loadstone was discovered in needles of iron, and not in bars of iron. He who cannot dilate the sight of his mind, should consider whether it is not better for a man in a fair room to set up one great light or branching candlestick of lights, than to go about with a small watchcandle into every corner.

R. Life, p. xxii.

His tract upon Universal Justice was published in 1623, in the treatise De Augmentis Scientiarum, and will afterwards be explained. See Note C C postea.

His different works upon practical parts of the law are: 1st. Elements of the Common Law, including Maxims of the Law, and the Use of the Law; 2ndly. A Treatise on the Statute of Uses; 3rdly. A Treatise on the Office of Constables; and 4thly. An Account of the Office for Alienations; the particulars of which will be mentioned in the order of time in which they were written.

He wrote several tractates upon that subject, wherein though some great masters of the law did outgo him in bulk and particularities of cases, yet in the science of the grounds and mysteries of the law he was exceeded by none.Rawley.

The tract says, "D. Antonio, elect King of Portugal, is now in France, where he hath levied soldiers, whereof part are embarked, hoping to be restored again."

VOL. XV.

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