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severely wounded. Murdac was made prisoner, and liberated soon afterwards.

The remainder of this reign is marked by few important events. During the rebellion in England, raised by Hotspur, the Regent Albany collected a numerous army, with the intention of making an irruption into Northumberland. Upon the news of Hotspur's defeat and death, he abandoned the design, and dismissed his troops.

It is probable that a disclosure of Albany's dark and cruel con duct induced the sickly and secluded Monarch to provide for the safety of his only son James Earl of Carrick. By the advice of Wardlaw Bishop of St Andrew's, the Prince was put on board a vessel, to be conveyed to France, and intrusted to the protection of that friendly power. He had proceeded on his voyage as far as Flamborough Head, when he was captured by an English ship, and conveyed to London. He was then only eleven years of age. His A.D. father, overwhelmed with grief, sunk under his misfortunes, 1406. in the seventeenth year of his reign,


Regency of Albany. Heretics burned. Battle of Harlaw. Papal bull University of St Andrew's founded. Murdac Regent-state of the country. Negotiations for James's release—his arrival in Scotland. General view of the manners and domestic policy of the Scots.

ROBERT Duke of ALBANY, REGENT.After the late King's demise, a Parliament assembled at Perth; the title of the captive Prince to the sovereignty was recognized, and Albany's authority as Regent was confirmed. The first acts of his government were a renewal of the treaty with France, and an insincere negotiation for the release of the Prince; but the release of Douglas was procured for a ransom of one thousand merks. It was likewise deemed consonant to good policy to pardon the Earl of March; who recovered his Scottish domains, except the lordship of Annandale and its castle of Lochmaben.


It was about this time that the flames were first kindled 1408. in Scotland for burning heretics. James Resby, an English priest of the school of Wickliffe, was condemned for heresy, at Perth, by a clerical council, who delivered him over to the se cular power.


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A variety of circumstances contributed to prevent any serious difference with England. Edward was more intent upon extending his influence on the Continent, than subjugating the Scots, of a spirit so independent and untameable. Donald Lord of the Isles, the ally of England, received a signal defeat at Harlaw. A.D. That chieftain, conceiving that he had a legal claim to the 1411. Searldom of Ross, took possession of the estate, and advanced with ten thousand men into Angus, to show his contempt of the Regent, and the value of his alliance to England. He was attacked by Ogilvy Sheriff of Angus, and defeated, after an obstinate and sanguinary conflict. The islander was compelled to make submissions, and deliver hostages for his future observance of peace.

A Papal bull, which had been drawn up against England by Urban the Fifth, during the reign of Edward the Third of Eng land and David the Second of Scotland, was now promulgated. It threatened with infamy and spiritual punishment, all persons, of whatever rank, who durst invade Scotland. Although the revival of this mandate was accidental, the English Monarch was indisposed to hazard the security of his throne by a contest with the Pontiff.


Scotland owes the institution of its first university, at St 1412. S Andrew's, to the exertions of Henry Wardlaw, Bishop-of that diocese. He applied to the Pope for a bull öf confirmation; which, upon its arrival, excited the greatest joy. After a night of festivity and rejoicing, a grand procession was exhibited, in which were four hundred ecclesiastics. The studies. of the time were scholastic theology, and the canon law; but they afforded mental exertion, though otherwise of little utility; and paved the way for the higher pursuits of useful knowledge and science.

A series of Border hostilities, while they disturbed not the general tranquillity, marked the weakness of the Government and the turbulent character of the people. The Scots were a nation of soldiers, and, if left unemployed by the Government, readily found employment for themselves.

Negotiations were again opened for the release of Prince James, without effect; Albany's aim being to avail himself of every circumstance favourable for the gratification of his own ambitious views. Having governed the kingdom for thirteen years, or, in

A.D. Įcluding his direction in the councils of his father and bro1419. Sther, thirty-four years, he died at the advanced age of eighty. He was succeeded in the regency by his son Murdac, who was in every respect unfit for his high office. Impatient of an inactive life, a detachment of seven thousand Scots, under the Earl of Buchan, sailed for France, to assist the Dauphin against Henry the Fifth. In several actions, the Scots were successful, and their leaders were honourably distinguished and rewarded; but they were ultimately defeated, and nearly annihilated..

During Murdac's government of four years, Scotland was nearly in a state of pure anarchy. His imbecility rendered him unfit for maintaining parental authority, far less for commanding respect for the laws. A contagious fever and dysentery prevailed in the kingdom, which proved fatal to multitudes of all ranks, and increased the misery and discontent of the nation.

The death of Henry in France; and the appointment of the Duke of Bedford as Protector of England, presented at length a sure expectation to the Scots that their captive Prince should be speedily set at liberty. With the hearty concurrence of the councils of both kingdoms, a treaty was agreed upon. Forty thousand pounds, in lieu of maintenance and for education, were promised by the Scots, in annual instalments of two thousand. For the due performance of the terms, hostages were demanded and promised; and the English offered to conclude a perpetual peace, or, if re jected, a long truce. The boroughs of Edinburgh, Perth, Dundee, and. Aberdeen, granted severally a security for the payment of the Prince's ransom...

James espoused the Duke of Somerset's daughter, a lady who had been long the object of his affections, and received as her portion a remission of ten thousand pounds of his ransom. After a captivity of nineteen years, James arrived in Scotland, and was received with universal acclamations by his people.

Before the splendid reign of that prince be entered upon, it may be instructive to make a short digression, for the purpose of inspecting more closely the character and manners of the Scots. In detailing the political evolutions and the military operations of a nation, the mass of the people remains in obscurity; only a few actors can be distinctly viewed. Yet, to trace the progress of national habits and sentiments, even in the unregarded mass, is one of the chief uses of history.

- Prior to the reign of the first James, the Scots had made but slow advances from barbarism to civilization: The feudal law exerted a powerful influence; every man was the soldier or the menial attendant of his chief. War was the sole employment of the great; hunting and noisy revelry were their chief amusements. The connexion between despotism, in its various gradations, and its legitimate issue, servility, indolence, and misery, was then strongly delineated. Though the Scottish peasantry have ever been preeminently distinguished for courage in action and attachment to their country, they were infected by the ferocious spirit which then prevailed among their superiors. Dependants on the bounty of their liege lords, they were strangers to industry; theft, robbery, and murder, were prevalent; even their tumultuary armies indiscriminately plundered their countrymen as their ene mies; nor can it be doubted that their manners were debased by the rapacity and haughtiness of their religious instructers.

The ties which united the feudal chiefs to their sovereign were slender: Their subjection was precarious, and their opposition formidable and dangerous. A variety of causes concurred to elevate the aristocracy and depress the sovereign,-disputed successions, minorities, foreign influence, family feuds and compacts, and financial poverty. Subordination to the laws, from which flow security, independence, and personal respect, seems to have had little influence in a country subdivided among a high-spirited and irascible nobility, who held judicial offices by hereditary right. Even in the boroughs, the local authorities were more frequently devoted to some neighbouring chief, on whom they depended, than to the King.

The commonalty were poor and uneducated. The meanest ar ticles of manufacture-horse-shoes, harness, saddles, bridles-were all imported from Flanders. Three days were sufficient to rear a cottage, which consisted of a few posts to support the roof and walls; the former of boughs, the latter of turfs; a cow's hide sup plied the place of a door.

Though in the boroughs a greater degree of civilization must have prevailed, yet their inhabitants were few, and their example had little influence. Edinburgh, then the capital, consisted of four thousand houses, which were small wooden hovels covered with straw. Flesh and fish were the food of the common people; bread was eaten occasionally as a dainty.

The dress of the females consisted of a hood or a kerchief for the head, a tippet for the neck, a kirtle or close gown, without shoes or stockings. A doublet and cloak, with a kind of short trowsers, was the dress of the men: The legs and feet were bare; the head was covered with a woollen bonnet. Among the great, the use of shirts was almost unknown.

In war, the chief weapon of the Scots was the spear. The buckler consisted of wicker-work covered with leather. Other offensive weapons were the axe, the sword, and the dagger. Knights, squires, and chiefs, wore a kind of armour, suitably to their several ranks. The martial music was the harsh sound of horns. Except chosen servants, none wore livery or uniform. Discipline was hardly known ;-every man was supposed to be intent upon revenge and defence.. During a march, the infantry rode on small horses; and every man provided himself with a supply of oatmeal for forty days.

In battle, the army was arranged by clans: They advanced in squares, and sometimes in circles. Only the knights or cavalry fought on horseback. The exact order of battle, if indeed a uniform arrangement was adhered to, is involved in obscurity. There were commonly four grand divisions, the right and left wings, the centre, and reserve;, which were commanded by the most emi nent or skilful peers; under whom, the inferior barons and knights, in feudal gradation, and often by hereditary right, conducted their vassals. But their armies were disunited: They were not adapted for the patient fatigues of a campaign; and the want of subordination was severely felt from the opinionative and violent temper of the petty chiefs.

In agriculture, commerce, and manufactures, the Scots had for a long period been almost stationary. The incessant Border wars produced less injurious effects on the English than on the Scots: In England, only the Northern provinces were exposed to the ravages of war: In Scotland, the most cultivated and civilized provinces were the theatre of conflict; hence, agricultural pursuits were followed merely to supply the necessaries of life,-in the Northern and mountainous parts of the country, they were unknown or despised. Oats and barley were raised in scanty crops. Wheat, pease, and beans, were extremely rare, The following statute of James the First evinces the miserable state of tillage and the spiritless character of the farmer. It was enacted, that

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