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into the perch of a high four-wheeled carriage, from which were suspended the banners of St Peter of York, of St John of Beverley, and of St Wilfrid of Rippon. On the top of the standard was fixed a small casket, containing a consecrated host. From the virtues of this consecrated banner, the English believed themselves invincible. The Scots nearly succeeded in surprising the English; who, in order to gain time, deputed Robert Bruce, Lord of Anandale, to propose terms of accommodation. The negotiation was unsuccessful, and both sides prepared for battle.

The English formed one compact body, with the standard in the centre; the cavalry dismounted, and removing their horses to the rear, ranged themselves in front of the battle. The Scots were ranged in three divisions. The first was composed of the Gallowaymen, who were led by their chiefs; the second, comprising the cavalry, the archers, the men of Cumberland and Tiviotdale, was conducted by Prince Henry, under the guidance of the experienced Fitzjohn; the troops of the Lothians, the volunteers, and the islanders, composed the third division; the reserve was commanded by the King in person. The Scottish infantry were badly armed: They used spears of an enormous length; their swords were ill-tempered and brittle; and their only implement of defence was a target of leather.

The Bishop of Orkney exhorted the English to battle in the name of Archbishop Thurston. He promised them victory, and absolved from their sins all who should fall in the cause of their country. Amen, Amen!" resounded from every quarter. The aged and venerable Walter L'Espec ascended the earriage to which the standard was affixed, and harangued the surrounding multitude. He reminded them of the glory of their ancestors, and pathetically described the barbarities of the Scots. "Your cause is just: It is for your all that you combat. I swear," said he, grasping the hand of the Earl of Albemarle, " I swear that on this day I will overcome the Scots, or perish." "So swear we all!" vociferated the Barons assembled around him.

The front line of the Scots rushed on to the attack. The shock was fierce and bloody, and continued two hours. The English spearmen began to give way; but the archers supported them, and, with incessant showers of arrows, overwhelmed and dismayed the Gallowaymen. Their leaders fell: Symptoms of general disorder began to appear; when the Prince of Scotland, at


the head of the cavalry, pierced through the English phalanx, attacked and dispersed the troops that guarded the horses in the The fugitive Gallowaymen rallied, and prepared to renew At that critical moment, an English soldier cutting off the head of one of the slain, raised it aloft, and cried, "The head of the King of Scots !"

the combat.

Consternation spread through the Scottish army, notwithstanding the resolute courage of their King, who leaped from his horse and brought up the rear, to renew the battle. The Scottish nobles, seeing the day irrecoverably lost, compelled him to retreat; But he was effectually protected by a body of his troops; who, seeing the royal standard displayed, rallied round him and checked the pursuit of the enemy.

After their defeat, the Scots, indignant at the loss of honour, and inflamed with mutual animosities, turned their weapons a gainst each other. The King successfully interposed his authority, and restored order. To give them employment, he led them to the siege of Werk. A treaty of peace was negotiated between the hostile kings, by the Papal legate, who humanely persuaded the Scots to restore all the women, they had driven into captivity, and to bind themselves under the most solemn engagements neither to violate churches nor to murder any incapable from their age or sex of making resistance.



Persuaded of the folly of imposing a sovereign on the 1139. § English people, David ratified the peace concluded at Durham, to maintain perfect amity with Stephen. The Prince of Scotland was gratified with the earldom of Northumberland, on condition that he should do homage to Stephen as an English baron. The authority of Stephen was at this time fully established; but he imprudently alienated the affections of the clergy from his cause, and reinvolved the nation in war. Matilda being seated on the throne, invited her uncle the King of Scots to her court; but the fickle English soon deposed her, and obliged her to abscond, accompanied by her royal kinsman.

A.D. The latter escaped by a singular accident. There 1141. S chanced to be in the army of Stephen, a young man named David Oliphant, to whom the King had been godfather. Actuated by the most generous feelings, Oliphant concealed the King with such secrecy that he conducted him in safety to Scotland,

From that time, David relinquished all concern in the affairs of England, and turned his attention, during the remaining years of his reign, to the civilization and government of his own kingdom. One event only disturbed the public tranquillity. An Englishman named Wimund, of obscure birth, was, by a succession of fortunate events, promoted to the see of Man. The aspiring prelate coveted the sword as well as the crosier. Pretending to be the son of Angus Earl of Moray, who fell at Strickathro', he collected a number of desperate associates, and made piratical incursions in the Western Islands. He obtained for his wife a daughter of Somerled Thane of Argyll. Bolder enterprises were now projected by him: He invaded Scotland, pillaged the country, and slew the inhabitants. David judged it prudent to enter into a treaty with the daring marauder: But he escaped not with impunity;-his people conspired agaiust him, put out his eyes, and delivered him over to the government, by whom he 1151. was imprisoned for life in Roxburgh Castle.



During the course of a wise administration, David established towns, erected public buildings, promoted agriculture, manufac tures, and commerce. He instituted the municipal laws, commonly known by the name of Leges Burgorum. Royalty itself is not exempted from the miseries of humanity: Prince Henry, a youth of the greatest promise, died. His sorrowful father, overcome with grief, expired, in the seventy-third year of his age: He was found dead, in a posture of devotion. David was a perfect example of a good king: He administered justice with impartiality; his ear was ever open to the complaints of the oppressed. His liberality to the ecclesiastical orders was unbounded. James the First, King of Scotland, said of him, that "he was a sore saint for the crown."*

* That there was some reason for this sarcasm, may appear from the following list of benefactions. David converted the ancient monastery of Culdees at Dunkeld into a cathedral church; he founded the bishopricks of Ross, Dunblane, and Brechin, and probably that of Caithness; he translated the see of Mortlach to Old Aberdeen, and liberally augmented its revenues; he erected an abbey at Kelso, whither he translated a colony of Benedictine monks; he founded an abbey for canons regular, at Holyroodhouse, near Edinburgh; he founded and richly endowed an abbey of the Cistertian order at Melrose; he founded an abbey of the same order at Newbottle, upon Southesk, in Lothian; he


Malcolm the Fourth. Insurrection of Somerled.

Transactions with England. Insurrections. Malcolm's character. William. War with England. He is made prisoner-regains his liberty and betrays his country. Ecclesiastical disputes. Disturbance in Galloway. Independence of Scotland restored. Character of William. Alexander the Second. War with England. Insurrections in Caithness and Galloway.



MALCOLM the FOURTH.-Malcolm, vulgarly styled the 1153. § Maiden, from his effeminate countenance, succeeded his grandfather. Upon the death of his father Prince Henry, Malcolm had been sent on a solemn progress through Scotland, and proclaimed heir to the crown. He was only twelve years of age when he ascended the throne. His accession was no sooner announced, than Somerled Thane of Argyll excited an insurrection. To avenge the wrongs of his son-in-law Wimund, was the ostensible cause, but his real motives were ambition and contempt of the young king. The various events of this war are unknown. Although the incursions of the turbulent chief shook not the stability of the throne, they distracted the kingdom, and spread consternation among its inhabitants. Somerled at length agreed to terms of accommodation with Malcolm, and kept the peace dur ing the succeeding seven years.

Upon the demise of Stephen, Henry the Second succeeded to the throne of England. Instead of performing his solemn engagements, that he would cede to David and his heirs the country lying between the Tyne and the Tweed, he demanded the restitution of those territories which the King of Scots held in England. The kings had an interview at Chester. Prudence induced Malcolm to relinquish what he could not defend against a monarch of such ambition as Henry. The King of Scots did homage in the same

founded the priory of Lesmahagow dependent on the abbey of Kelso; he founded an abbey of canons regular at Cambuskenneth, near Stirling -another at Kinloss in Moray-and another at Dryburgh, near the junction of the Tweed and Ledar; he founded an abbey of canons regular at Jedburgh, and converted the monastery of Dunfermline into an abbey, annexing to it the priory of Urquhart in Moray; he likewise founded a convent of Cistertian nuns at Berwick upon Tweed; and he is said to have introduced into Scotland the Knights Templars and the Knights of St John of Jerusalem.

form that his grandfather had done to Henry the First, ❝ reserving all his dignities," and Henry in return conferred on him the honour of Huntingdon.

Whether this unequal agreement is ascribed to the inexperience of Malcolm, or to the treachery of his ministers, whom Henry had corrupted, it was dishonourable to the Scots, and produced universal discontent in the nation.

Ambitious of receiving the honour of knighthood from Henry, Malcolm repaired to the English court at Carlisle. Henry refused the expected favour, and the young prince returned to his kingdom in disgust. It was one of the maxims of chivalry in those romantic times, that a king ought not to be crowned until he had been knighted. Intent upon his favourite pursuit of knighthood, Malcolm passed over to France, and fought under the banners of Henry, who rewarded him with the honour his valour had merited. But it had nearly cost him his kingdom; for, when his nobles saw him compromise his dignity for a paltry honour, they broke out into open insurrection; and their resentment was suppressed with difficulty, by the influence and address of the clergy.


An insurrection in Galloway at this critical period en1160. enabled Malcolm to employ his factious nobles, and to conciliate the affections of his people by the display of his personal valour. Twice he invaded Galloway, and was as often repulsed. The intrepid prince made a third and more successful effort, overcame his enemies in battle, and constrained them to implore peace.


A.D. The inhabitants of Moray had often rebelled against the 1161. S government. No treaties or oaths could bind them-no conciliatory measures could win them to their duty. With a bold and desperate policy, Malcolm dispossessed them of their habitations, scattered them over Scotland, and planted new colonies in their room. Yet this policy was not attended with the desired effects: Nine years after, the inhabitants of Moray again rebelled. Somerled again invaded Scotland, and landed with a 1064. powerful force at Renfrew. The inhabitants of the county repulsed his army with great slaughter; and the chief, with his eldest son, fell in battle.


Malcolm died at Jedburgh. A character very inconsistent with truth has been drawn for him by the early historians. An opinion

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