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ably to the articles of the treaty, the union commenced on the 1st of May 1707. The principal articles were to the following purport.

That the two kingdoms of England and Scotland should be united into one, by the name of GREAT BRITAIN; that the succession to the United Kingdom should remain to the Princess Sophia, Dutchess Dowager of Hanover, and the heirs of her body, being Protestants; and that all Papists, and persons marrying Papists, should be excluded from and be for ever incapable of inheriting the crown of Great Britain, or any part of the dominions thereto belonging; that the whole people of Great Britain should be represented by one Parliament, in which sixteen peers and forty-five commoners, chosen for Scotland, should sit and vote; that the subjects of the United Kingdom should enjoy an entire freedom and intercourse of trade and navigation, and reciprocal communication of all other rights, privileges, and advantages, belonging to the subjects of either kingdom; that the laws in regard to public right, policy, and civil government, should be the same throughout the United Kingdom; and that no alteration should be made in the laws respecting private rights, unless for the evident utility of the subjects residing in Scotland; that the rights and privileges of the royal boroughs in Scotland should not be affected by the union; and that the Court of Session, with all the other courts of judicature, should remain as constituted by the laws of that kingdom, and with the same authority and privileges as before the union,—subject, notwithstanding, to such regulations as might be made by the Parliament of Great Britain..

But the union was still incomplete, so long, as the authority or existence of the Privy Council was preserved. That institution was at once a council of state and a court of justice; and while the Scottish constitution remained entire, its oppression was restrained: But when the Parliament was abolished, it was reasonably apprehended, that, without any restraint but the British Parliament, to which complaints could be with difficulty transmitted, the Privy Council must soon degenerate into the tyranny from which the kingdom had been emancipated at the Revolution.

A bill was therefore introduced into Parliament, to abolish the obnoxious Council. Its jurisdiction was transferred to the Court of Justiciary; which was appointed to make a regular circuit twice.

a year; and to the sheriffs, to whom returns of elections were to be made. The more local and unimportant affairs were devolved on the justices of the peace; which were now permanently established. A measure of a less popular character received likewise the sanction of the legislature two years after the union,the extending of the English laws against high treason and misprision of treason to Scotland, notwithstanding the unanimous op position and the remonstrances of the Scottish representatives. They, however, obtained a precise rule for the determining of treason; and the torture, which had already fallen into disuse, was legally abolished.

Thus was finally accomplished the union of England and Scotland, above more than a century after the union of the crowns, This great event completed what the Revolution had begun, the almost total annihilation of the power of the nobles. As the aristocracy were depressed and circumscribed, the people acquired liberty. Neglected formerly by their kings, and oppressed by the nobles, they have emerged into dignity; and, adopted into a constitution more liberal than their own, they have extended their commerce, refined their manners, improved in the elegancies of life, and successfully cultivated the arts and sciences,

As a people, they have since the union enjoyed more happiness, and as individuals, they have risen to more wealth and consequence, than they could have attained in their disunited state. A new series of events commenced at the union; and, with the removal of its legislature and seat of government to the British capital, the history of Scotland, as a separate kingdom, expires,



THE union of the kingdoms was a very unacceptable measure to the Scottish nation in general. In their common hatred of an event of which they possessed not the foresight to appreciate the advantages, the religious and political factions forgot for a time their animosities towards each other. The Presbyterian clergy, who had zealously exerted their influence in favour of the union, as it secured a permanent establishment to their religion, were charged with treachery to their country-with sacrificing its liberty and independence to the aggrandizement of their own or der. The Cameronians had nearly formed a league with the Jacobites. The most violent Antijacobites were almost disposed to view the union as a greater evil than the recall of the exiled King.

There were two political parties in Scotland,-the Whigs, which consisted chiefly of the great body of the Presbyterians; and the Jacobites, comprehending for the most part the Episcopalians and Catholics. The Whigs were most numerous in the Low-country, where the English or a kindred language is spoken; the Jacobites predominated in the more Northern and mountainous regions, where the vernacular tongue is Gaelic or Earse, being a branch of the Celtic.

Though, in point of extent, the Highlands are nearly equal to one half of the kingdom, they do not contain above one eighth of the population. They are intersected by glens or valleys, each of which was appropriated as the residence of a separate clan or tribe. There a mixture of the patriarchal and feudal governments existed in full vigour. By their predatory habits, the clans lived in perpetual hostility with the Low-country and with each other. Unconditional obedience was yielded by the vassals to

their chiefs. Being always ready for war, they only wanted a general and a cause; and they cared not whether the service was lawful or unlawful.

Since the union of the crowns, the Highlanders had gradually acquired a superiority in the use of arms over the Lowlanders. The latter, after the termination of the civil war, living under the protection of the laws, or sunk into despondency by the tyranny of the Stuarts, lost much of their martial spirit and habits; whereas the Highlanders were bred to arms and active exercises from their infancy. A military spirit and a contempt of labour distinguished even the very lowest of the commoners.

In England, the people might be divided into Whigs, Tories, and Jacobites; though the two last were closely allied to each other. Notwithstanding that the Whigs had, during the civil war, obtained the ascendancy in the House of Commons, the greater part of the nobility consisted of Churchmen and Tories. It has been ascertained, from the archives of the Stuart family, now in the King's library, that a very great number of the aristocracy were Jacobites at the commencement of the last rebellion.

From the Revolution, the Highland chiefs kept a constant correspondence with James the Second as long as he lived; entreating him to procure from the King of France a body of troops to invade Britain, and engaging to support the invasion by an insurrection. After James's death, they continued their correspondence with his son at St Germains; assuring him of their unalterable attachment to his family and their readiness to appear in arms in his cause. In the latter part of Queen Anne's reign, the Tories got into power; and they projected the restoration of the Stuarts.

By a singular fatality, every attempt made in their favour proved abortive. To learn the number, ability, and the spirit of his partisans in Scotland, James sent over Colonel Hooke: But that emissary, by his misconduct, rather divided than reconciled the Scottish Jacobites. Being a minion of the Duke of Perth, he attached himself wholly to the Duke of Atholl and those other zealous adherents who were disposed to submit to the exiled prince without conditions: The Duke of Hamilton, the Earl Marischal, with other moderate Jacobites, were consequently neglected.

Hooke, upon his return to France, made so favourable a report

of the disposition and power of the Scottish Jacobites, that the attention of the French court was roused to make an effort in favour of the exiled prince; though it is probable that Louis desired or expected little more than to perplex the English Government and to distract the operation of the English army in Flanders.

A. naval expedition was hastily prepared at Dunkirk, and placed under the command of the Chevalier de Fourbin, having five thousand troops on board, with the Pretender.. This armament sailed directly for the Frith of Forth.. The juncture was considered most favourable; as not above two thousand five hundred troops remained in the country, and the national fortresses were intrusted to persons of doubtful fidelity. But the scheme was frustrated by the vigilance and activity of Sir George Byng, the English admiral; who arrived in the Frith of Forth almost as soon as the enemy. Fourbin deemed it prudent to make his escape; and having been tossed a month in the British seas by a violent storm, he returned to Dunkirk..



The first rebellion was accelerated by the violent and 1715. S impolitic measures of the Whigs; who, having been proscribed from office in the last years of Queen Anne's reign, retaliated upon the Tories, who were in their turn discarded after the accession of the family of Hanover. Not satisfied with the removal of their political opponents from the administration, the -Whigs demanded their impeachment; and the nation was convulsed with discontent and tumult..

The Earl of Mar, the Secretary of State for Scotland, was sincerely disposed to promote the interests of the house of Hanover. He had procured a loyal address from the Highland clans, to be presented to the new Sovereign, on his arrival in England; but it was rejected with contumely. Perceiving that his ruin was determined, and being reduced to despair by the impeachment of Oxford and Stafford, and by the attainder and exile of Ormond and Bolingbroke, the indignant Earl retired to the Highlands, and unfurled the standard of rebellion, assuming the title of Lieutenant-General of the Pretender's forces.

Two French vessels in the mean time arrived at Arbroath with arms, ammunition, and a number of officers; who announced the speedy arrival of the Pretender in person. In England his partisans were numerous and active; and concerted measures for coöperating with the Scottish malecontents. Mar, at the head of ten thou

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