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To preserve their estates from forfeiture, or being devoured by the rapacity of the ministers, the Parliament passed an act legalizing the perpetual entail of landed inheritances. In a few instances, deeds of entail had been already executed; but the principle of entail was regarded as repugnant to the genius of the laws. By the statute of perpetual entail, the nobility and gentry, under the pretext of securing their estates from alienation by debts, hoped to preserve them for their families in the event of an attainder, with the exception of the liferent interest or escheat of an heir.

Meanwhile, the exiled Presbyterians, inflamed with an ardent love of their country's liberty, and stimulated to revenge their private injuries, meditated the plan of a descent upon Britain. It was concerted that Monmouth should land in the West of England; where, from his popularity, it was expected that the whole courtry would flock to his standard; while Argyll should land in Scotland, and rouse his countrymen to arms. A supply of ten thousand pounds Sterling was advanced to Argyll by a rich English widow, then in Holland; with which he provided three ships, some arms, and ammunition, But, before his arrival in Argyllshire, the government was apprized of his design, and the kingdom was placed in a posture of defence..

Upon his landing, he erected the fiery cross; which was sent through his estates, to summon his clans to arms. A body of two thousand five hundred instantly attended their chief, whose talents were soon proved to be inadequate to the enterprise. His officers became refractory and mutinous; the vessels containing his ammunition and stores were captured by an English squadron; his diminutive and disorganized army was soon surrounded by a superior hostile force; and, to consummate his destruction, he was decoyed into a morass, in attempting to reach Glasgow.

The disorder which ensued was the signal for a general desertion: In a few hours, only five hundred men remained with their leader. In crossing the Cart at Inchannen, Argyll, disguised as a peasant, was attacked and wounded by a party of militia. "Alas! unfortunate Argyll !" exclaimed he as he fell, He was instantly

made a prisoner.

Though his misfortunes were universally commiserated, it could not retard his unhappy fate. As the King demanded his execution within three days, he was condemned to suffer upon his for

mer attainder. The Duke of Monmouth was equally unfortunate and ill-fated: His measures being precipitate and ill-conducted, he soon finished his inglorious career upon the scaffold.

These abortive attempts to overthrow the King, contributed to inspire him with confce in pursuing his unhappy designs. He avowed his intion of maintaining a formidable military force to execute his will. But his favourite object was the reëstablishment of Popery as the national religion. A royal proclamation was made, granting liberty of conscience, and superseding all the penal statutes against the Papists. For this extension of the prerogative, well known by the name of the dispensing power, the King alleged the most plausible motives-the iniquity and hardship of subjecting any person to punishment, or disqualifying him for public trust on account of his religious principles...

A.D. Conformably to these measures, the administration of 1686. Scotland was soon committed to Papists only. The Chancellor Queensberry was discarded because he hesitated to embrace the Catholic faith; but his colleagues Perth and Melfort, like true courtiers, preferred changing their religion to offending their King. Swarms of priests were allured to Scotland; to whose care were committed the direction of the press and the superintendence of a college at Holyroodhouse for the gratuitous instruction of youth: Yet few were converted to the faith of their Prince, except such as thirsted for honour and preferment.

Many circumstances contributed to excite apprehension and alarm in the Southern as well as in the Northern part of the island, and concurred to overthrow the reigning dynasty. Fifty thousand-French Protestants, expatriated by the revocation of the edict of Nantz, sought refuge in England; where their sufferings were deeply commiserated, and whose miseries offered an invin cible argument against the cruel and persecuting spirit of the church of Rome.

That the disabilities of the Catholics might be removed by the apparent sanction of the Legislature, James addressed a letter to the Scottish Parliament, advising the expediency and enforcing the justice of such a measure: But though every allurement was offered, the Presbyterians and the Episcopalians were neither to be flattered nor intimidated into an acquiescence. The approbation which was resolutely denied by the Parliament, was readily

granted by the Privy Council; and the Monarch affected to be guided by its moderate and equitable judgment.

A.D.

A series of proclamations were issued, granting religious 1687. S toleration to Catholics and Presbyterians; of which the latter availed themselves, though they disapproved the repealing of the penal laws against the Catholics. But the Episcopalians, as if awakened from a lethargy, became frantic with rage, when they perceived the absolute power they had laboured to create employed for their destruction.

While the royal authority was thus tottering in Scotland, the unfortunate Monarch lost, in the hour of danger, his last support, the attachment of the church of England, by his invasion of the rights and privileges of the universities of Oxford and Cambridge, and by his arbitrary imprisonment and trial of the seven bishops. Their acquittal was regarded as a national triumph over the Sovereign; and James at length arrived at that dangerous crisis to which he had been conducted by his despotism and bigotry.

He had three children,-Mary, the wife of the Stadtholder William Prince of Orange; Anne, married to Prince George of Denmark; and James, an infant. The character and relation of the Prince of Orange induced the nation to look to him for relief, and numerous solicitations were transmitted to him from England and Scotland, to emancipate the kingdom and reëstablish their religion and liberty.

Notwithstanding James was apprized of these ominous intrigues, he continued in a supine indifference, till William landed his army in England, on the 15th November 1688,-a period ever memo rable in the annals of Britain. William was speedily joined by the principal nobility; while James was at once deserted by his subjects, his ministers, his own children, and by a part of that army which he had provided to oppress the nation.

His subsequent conduct was vacillating, foolish, and pusillanimous. Distracted by his fears, he sent the Queen and his infant son privately to France, and prepared to follow them; though he was urged to remain, by a few faithful friends who still adhered to him. As an apology for his conduct, he repeated a saying of his father's, that "short is the distance between the prison and the grave of princes."

Having given orders for disbanding the army, repealed the writs for a new Parliament, and thrown the great seal into the Thames,

James left London in disguise; but he was detected by the popu lace, and obliged to return. The Prince of Orange wisely favoured his escape. In a few days after, he found a vessel, in which he was conveyed to France.

CHAPTER XI.

THE REVOLUTION, 1688.

William the Third—his magnanimity in the affairs of Scotland. Proceedings of Parliament. Insurrection. Battle of Killicrankie. Massacre in Glenco.

WILLIAM the THIRD.-The throne having become vacant by the voluntary abdication of James, the English Parliament passed a resolution to confer the crown on the Prince and Princess of Orange, and the Prince to be invested with the sole administration of the kingdom. The royal prerogative and the people's rights were carefully defined in the bill of rights; which declares, that "the king is incompetent to suspend the laws or their execution; that he cannot levy money nor maintain a standing army in time of peace, but with the consent of Parliament; that subjects have a right to petition the king and the parliament; that the parliament must be frequently convened; and that elections and parliamentary debates must be free." Such was the first settlement of the English government at the æra of the Revolution.

While freedom and peace were thus established in England, the revolution was effected in Scotland with equal facility. No sooner were the King's flight and the desertion of his troops reported in that kingdom, than all Catholics were dismissed from the Privy Council. A simultaneous attack was made by the poA.D. pulace of Edinburgh on the palace of Holyroodhouse: 1689. The guards were overpowered, and some of them murdered; the royal chapel and the schools of the Jesuits were burned or demolished; and the abbey church was plundered of its images and ornaments, which were consigned to the flames.

To unite the Protestants against the Papists, a political alarm was generally diffused in England, and thence communicated to Scotland. A rumour prevailed in the latter kingdom, that the Irish had landed in the West, and were advancing to Hamilton.

Six-thousand Presbyterians immediately appeared in arms, to repel the imaginary foe; but finding no foreign enemy to encounter, they dispersed in small parties to disarm and rout their domestic oppressors.

The Episcopal clergy in particular, were treated without ceremony: They were dragged from their altars and churches, and conducted through the country in mock procession. Two hundred clergymen of that persuasion were forcibly ejected: But it reflects the greatest honour on the Cameronians, that though stigmatized and cruelly persecuted as assassins by the ecclesiastical and civil power, they tarnished not their ascendancy by the massacre of their enemies.

Few parallels to the magnanimous behaviour of William, in organizing the government of Scotland, are to be found in history. He availed himself of no insidious expedient to obtain the sove reignty of that kingdom; but he was directed by the spontaneous choice and consent of the people. A conflux of nobility and gentry having been attracted to London, William assembled them, and requested their advice on the most eligible means to establish permanently their religion and laws.

A corresponding feeling of confidence and regard was instantly elicited: An address, signed by thirty noblemen and eighty gentlemen, was presented to the Prince, requesting him to assume the government and summon a convention of estates. With this request he instantly complied. A convention assembled at Edinburgh. Its proceedings were bold and decisive: A resolution was passed, declaring that King James, by maleadministration, had forfeited his right to the crown, and that the throne was become vacant. This memorable transaction, which terminated the hereditary reign of the Stuarts, happened eighty-six years after the union of the crowns.

The convention likewise resolved that the crown should be tendered to the Prince and Princess of Orange; and that it should descend, in failure of their heirs, to the Princess Anne and her issue. Due attention was given to the civil and religious rights of the nation. An enumeration of almost every grievance in the two preceding reigns was made in a declaration and claim of right; for the Scots were desirous that nothing should be left unadjusted between them and their new sovereign.

The Revolution, indeed, introduced maxims into the govern

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