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such a discovery of her sentiments would intimidate the poor captive, and constrain her to confirm her resignation of the crown. But that high-spirited Princess replied, “Rather than give away spontaneously the crown which has descended to me from my ancestors, I will part with life. The last words that I shall utter

shall be those of Queen of Scotland."

After the attention of both nations had been anxiously turned towards this conference for some months, and the most important results had been anticipated, Elizabeth declared her resolution of leaving the affairs of Scotland as she found them at the beginning of the inquiry. Notwithstanding such a conclusion appears trifling and ridiculous, it was quite consistent with Elizabeth's policy; for she resolved to detain Mary a prisoner in England, and she hoped the proofs of her guilt would apologize for the severity of her treatment.

As Mary had put an end to the conference, the Regent evinced great impatience to return home. His enemies, taking advantage of his absence, were endeavouring to raise commotions. But, before his departure, he had an audience of Elizabeth; who assured him of her favour and support, and gave him five thousand pounds to bear the charges of his journey. She, however, declined acknowledging the young King of Scots, or treating with Murray as Regent of Scotland. Mary complained of Elizabeth's partiality; and recriminated upon the Regent, by accusing him of having devised and excited the murder of the late King.

Enraged at the repeated instances of Elizabeth's artifices and deceit, Mary endeavoured to raise her adherents in Scotland to arms. She caused a report to be circulated, that Murray had agreed to convey the young Prince into England, to surrender the fortresses in Scotland to Elizabeth, and to acknowledge the su periority of England. To counteract the mischievous tendency of these wild and chimerical reports, Elizabeth published a counter proclamation.

With the view of strengthening the Queen's party, the court of France sent over the Duke of Chatelherault into Scotland, with a sum of money, to be distributed in gaining friends to her cause or for neutralizing the exertions of her enemies. Mary invested the Duke with the authority of her lieutenant-general in Scotland, together with the fantastic title of her adopted father. But the Duke's natural imbecility and irresolution, the blow which his ad

herents had received at Langside, the vigour and celerity of the Regent's motions, dispirited and disunited his efforts.

An accommodation was effected between the hostile factions, > upon terms mutually advantageous for both parties. Argyll and Huntly refused to be included in the treaty, as they expected succours from France. The Regent instantly commanded his guards to seize the Duke of Chatelherault and Lord Herries, and imprisoned them in the castle of Edinburgh. A blow so unexpected and decisive, produced immediate tranquillity.

The Duke of Norfolk, who was popular with all parties in England, now openly avowed his design of marrying the Queen of Scots. He had obtained the concurrence of many of the English nobles, and even the approbation of the Regent, in his ambitious design: But that scheme, like every other formed for the relief of the captive, Queen had an unfortunate issue. Norfolk was committed to the Tower, and Mary was removed to Coventry; where her imprisonment was rendered more painful by an excess of intolerance and rigour. These transactions were succeeded by an attempt to restore the Queen of Scots by force of arms. The Earls of Northumberland and Westmoreland had warmly espoused her interest. They aimed at bringing about a change in the religion, and a revolution in the government of the kingdom; and they were encouraged to hope for success, by a promise of money and troops from the King of Spain. Elizabeth, minutely informed of these schemes, concerted her measures with so much prudence and vigour, that the chiefs of the conspiracy fled to Scotland, and the common people dispersed themselves without striking a blow, Sensible of the danger attending the captive Queen's continuance in England, Elizabeth opened a negotiation with the Regent, for delivering Mary into his hands; whose security, no less than Elizabeth's, depended on preventing Mary from ascending the throne. Against this proposal, the French and Spanish ambassadors and the Bishop of Ross remonstrated, representing the Queen's surrender into the hands of her rebellious subjects as equivalent to condemnation and death. A delay was thus occasioned; and the project was finally abandoned, by the sudden A.D. death of the Regent; who was assassinated at Linlithgow, 1570. by Hamilton of Bothwellhaugh, in revenge of a private injury. That excuse was alleged by his party to diminish the odium of his crime; but there is ample proof that he was insti

gated to the foul deed by the political faction with which he was connected.

The character of the Regent has been variously drawn. His early adoption of the Reformed opinions, the steadiness with which he adhered to them, the uniform correctness of his morals, his integrity, sagacity, and enterprising but cool courage, soon placed him in the first rank among those who struggled for the reformation of religion and the defence of civil liberty. In him were united those qualities which are rarely combined in the same person: He excelled equally in the arts of war and peace; he reduced the country to obedience by his valour and skill, and he preserved it in a state of tranquillity and order by his impartial administration of justice. He never tarnished the laurels of victory by cruelty to the vanquished; and the awards of justice were blended with mercy. He was hospitable and liberal; but he enriched not himself nor his family by the plunder of the public. He was long affectionately remembered by the common people as the Good Regent.*

By others, he has been accused of conduct inconsistent with honour or loyalty, and of sacrificing his principles to his ambitious policy.

The affairs of the church, amidst so many surprising events, continued to prosper; and its General Assemblies were regularly held. As the number of the Protestant clergy daily increased, the deficiency of funds for their subsistence became greater, and was more sensibly felt. Many efforts were made towards recovering the ancient patrimony of the church; which many of the Popish clergy had contrived to retain. Though the Regent received the addresses and complaints of the church very graciously, no effectual relief was afforded, and liberal promises were all that could be obtained.


Lennox Regent. Capture of Dunbarton castle. Hostile factions-their proceedings. Lennox killed. Marr succeeds him-his death. Morton Regent-is executed. The Raid of Ruthven. James regains his liberty. Gowrie executed. Exiled lords capture Stirling castle, with James Catholic conspiracy against Elizabeth.

On the death of the Earl of Murray, Scotland relapsed into a state of barbarity. The Queen's party for a while seemed to tri

* M'Crie's Life of Knox, Vol. ii. p. 169-171.

umph. At length, by the recommendation of Elizabeth, which was seconded by an armed force, the Earl of Lennox was chosen Regent. After being tantalized for ten months with the hopes of liberty, Mary found herself under stricter custody than ever. Conceiving herself abandoned by the court of France, she corresponded with Philip of Spain; who supplied herself and her friends in Scotland with money.

A scheme for rescuing Mary and overturning the English go-. vernment, was concerted by the Bishop of Ross, the Spanish ambassador, and Ridolphi, an agent of the Pope. It was proposed, that the Duke of Alva should land ten thousand men in England; that the Duke of Norfolk, who had renewed his engagements with Mary, should join his friends, together with the English Catholics; and that the combined forces should march to London, and oblige Elizabeth to submit to whatever conditions they might impose. The English nation was delivered from the threatened danger by the discovery of the plot to Lord Burleigh. Norfolk was seized, condemned, and executed; the Bishop of Ross was committed to the Tower; the Spanish ambassador was commanded to leave the kingdom; and Ridolphi, being abroad, escaped the arm of vengeance.

The unfortunate Queen of Scots, who had been the immediate or remote cause of these commotions, was treated with greater severity and less respect. The number of her domestics was diminished, and no person was permitted to see her but in the presence of her keepers. The English Commons were so enraged, that they voted an address to Elizabeth, praying that Mary might be tried and capitally punished.

The state of her affairs in Scotland was very unpromising. Dunbarton castle, the only fortress in the kingdom that owned her authority, was surprised and taken by Captain Crawford of Jordanhill. Its situation, on the top of a high rock rising in the middle of a plain, rendered it, in the opinion of that age, impregnable; and, as it commanded the river Clyde, it was deemed the most eligible landing-place in the kingdom for any foreign troops sent to Mary's aid.

A.D. 1571.


A deserter from the garrison suggested to the Regent that the capture of this fortress by stratagem was a practicable enterprise; and he offered to be the guide of the asssilants. The attempt was successful. By the help of scaling-ladders, Craw

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ford and his companions had ascended the rock and reached the parapet when the morning began to dawn. The astonished garrison, though then alarmed, were incapable of making resistance; while the assailants seized the cannon and turned them against their enemies. Of the garrison, only Lord Fleming escaped in a boat to Argyllshire.

Crawford, whose valour was rewarded with the command of the castle, seized in it the Archbishop of St Andrew's. That prelate had been long odious to the King's party, by his zeal, abilities, and profession. The Regent Lennox hated him as the supporter of the house of Hamilton, his hereditary enemy. The Archbishop was carried to Stirling; and as he had been formerly attainted by act of Parliament, he was, without any formal trial, executed on the fourth day after he was taken. He was the first bishop of Scotland who died by the hands of the executioner.

The loss of Dunbarton castle, and the execution of the Archbishop, enraged the Queen's party to the highest degree. Kirkaldy, the governor of Edinburgh castle, seized the metropolis, mounted a battery on the steeple of St Giles, repaired and fortified the walls and gates, and issued a proclamation denouncing the authority of the Regent as usurped and unlawful. Huntly, Home, and Herries, assembled with their followers at Edinburgh, which they garrisoned.

Meantime, the Regent was not inactive. His troops, under the command of the Earl of Morton, seized and fortified Leith. There was, however, no decisive operation on either side. Morton was unprovided with cannon for besieging the city or the castle, and his enemies were not sufficiently numerous to meet him in the field.

The factions which divided the kingdom were in appearance. only two; and both were influenced by religious considerations. The Prince's adherents defended his authority as the best support of the Protestant religion: The Queen's partisans hoped, by her restoration, to reestablish Popery. Between these parties, the opposition was violent and irreconcileable. The sympathies of na ture and the ties of consanguinity were alike destroyed by political hatred.

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That the proceedings of both factions might wear the appearance of legal authority, the nobles and chiefs who respectively adhered to them, assembled in different Parliaments. Only three

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