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with undeviating exactness and unshaken resolution. In distributing justice, she was impartial, or rather severe; in private life, was social, amiable, and magnificent.


Nothing could now save the garrison of Leith but the immediate conclusion of a treaty or the arrival of a powerful army from France. The situation of that kingdom reluctantly constrained the Princes of Lorrain to turn their thoughts to pacific measures. The Protestants in France had become formidable by their numbers, and still more by the genius and enterprising courage of their leaders. Animated with zeal, and inflamed by resentment against the Guises, who had persuaded Francis the Second to revive the penal statutes against heretics, the French Protestants boldly prepared for defence, and even for retaliating upon the Catholics, who had threatened to extirpate their religion. In a condition so distracted and alarming, the French court abandoned their schemes of distant conquest: It became necessary to withdraw the few veteran troops in Scotland, instead of sending new reinforcements to that country.

But it appeared to Francis and Mary, that they could not, consistently with their dignity and honour, treat directly with the Congregation, whom they affected to consider as rebels. A negotiation was therefore opened, through the mediation of Elizabeth. Two separate treaties were concluded by the plenipotentiaries of the belligerant powers assembled at Edinburgh. In these treaties, it was stipulated that the French troops should immediately eva- . cuate Scotland; that Francis and Mary should thenceforth abstain from bearing the arms of England; that an amnesty should be published for all past offences; that none but native Scotsmen should be eligible to fill any office of state, or hold either civil or military authority; that the Parliament should nominate twentyfour persons, of whom the Queen might select seven, and the Estates five, for conducting the government during their Sovereign's absence; and that Mary should make neither peace nor war without the consent of Parliament. In order to hasten the execution of these treaties, Elizabeth provided ships for transporting the French troops to their own country.

Being now absolute masters of the kingdom, the leaders of the Congregation speedily completed the work of reformation. A Parliament was convened, to settle the internal tranquillity of the .country. That assembly. consisted of the nobles, the dignified

clergy, the inferior barons, and the burgesses. On this occasion, the inferior barons and the burgesses stood forth to vindicate their civil and religious liberties; hence the Protestant members greatly outnumbered their adversaries.

After ratifying the late treaties, the Parliament approved of a Confession of Faith, or a book of doctrine and ecclesiastical discipline, which had been hastily composed by Knox and other Protestant leaders. Severe acts were passed against the Catholics; the exercise of their religious worship was prohibited, under the penalty of forfeiture of goods for the first offence, banishment for the second, and death for the third. The Presbyterian form of church government was thus established, nearly as it exists at present.* It is rather remarkable, that the Reformers, who had just escaped the rigour of ecclesiastical tyranny, should have proceeded with such haste to imitate those examples of severity of which they had so justly complained..

Sir James Sandilands, Prior of St John, was sent over to France; to obtain the Queen's ratification. of these acts. But he was very ill received by Mary; who refused to ratify those proceedings, which, by the treaty of Edinburgh, should have been presented for ratification in the form of deliberations, not of acts. The Reformers gave themselves little uneasiness about their Queen's refusal, but immediately put their statutes in execution. They abolished the mass, settled their ministers; and they have been accused of committing furious devastations on the magnificent Catholic edifices, which they considered as dangerous relicks of idolatry: Abbeys, churches, and even mausoleums, perished in one common ruin...

The Protestant nobility, well acquainted with the imperious character of the Princes of Lorrain and the vindictive spirit of the Catholics, despatched ambassadors to Elizabeth, to express their gratitude for her past favours, and to solicit a continuance of her support. That princess had equal reason to desire a union with the Scottish Protestants; for though the Princes of Lorrain had withdrawn the French troops from Scotland, they determin ed not to relinquish their authority in that kingdom, nor to re

*The first General Assembly of the Reformed Church of Scotland was held at Edinburgh, 20th December 1560. It consisted of forty members, six of whom were ministers. The first Moderator was John Wil Lock.

nounce their designs on Elizabeth's throne. Francis and Mary continued to assume the title and arms of England, and refused to ratify the treaty of Edinburgh.

The death of Francis the Second, a prince of a feeble constitu→ tion and mean understanding, produced a great change in the councils of France, and considerably influenced the destiny of Scotland. Elizabeth was delivered from the perils attending the union of Scotland with France, and the Scottish Protestants were freed from the terror of the French power.

Slighted by the Queen mother, neglected by the French courtiers, and overwhelmed with sorrow, Mary retired to Rheims; where, in solitude, she indulged her grief or concealed her resentment. Notwithstanding her forlorn condition, she still declined to ratify the treaty of Edinburgh, and to make a solemn renunciation of her pretensions to the English crown.

On learning the reverses and afflictions of their Queen, the Scots sent a deputation to France, inviting her to return to her native country and assume the reins of government. Accustom ed to the elegance, gallantry, and gayety of a splendid court, and to the conversation of a polished people, Mary lingered in the scene of all these enjoyments, and contemplated with horror the barbarous state of her native country. By the advice of her uncles, she determined to set out for Scotland. As the course of her voyage lay along the English coast, she demanded a safe-conduct of Elizabeth; but it was refused. Mary was filled with in dignation at this ungenerous conduct; but it did not retard her departure from France, which was attended with circumstances very affecting.

The cause of her grief seems to have been from a fatal presentiment of that scene of misfortune on which she was about to enter. After the vessel had put to sea, she kept her eyes fixed upon the French coast till darkness fell. She commanded a couch to be spread for her upon the deck, where she waited, with fond impatience, the return of day. In the morning, the French coast being still visible, she frequently repeated, with a sigh, "Farewell, France; farewell; I shall never see thee more!"

Her uncles, and the other courtiers who attended her, endeavoured to console and encourage her. No sooner did the French gallies appear off Leith, than people of all ranks hastened towards the shore, to behold and welcome their young Sovereign. She had

attained her nineteenth year: The bloom of youth, the gracefulness of her person, the affability of her address, the politeness of her manners, and the elegance of her genius, excited the greatest admiration and respect. She was skilled in various languages, ancient and modern; she had studied music, poetry, and rhetoric, with great success. Accustomed from her infancy to magnificence and splendour, she was deeply affected with the change in her situation; for the poverty of the Scots could not be concealed; and she was conducted to Holyroodhouse with little pomp.

During these transactions; the Protestant preachers had been assiduous and successful in disseminating knowledge through all parts of the kingdom; and they had received a considerable accession of numbers from the ranks of their opponents. The striking concatenation of events has been already noticed, which contributed to the rise and progress of the Reformed doctrines; to which the following may be added. When the late Queen Regent, who from policy had connived at the propagation of the new doctrines, was preparing to crush the Reformation, Queen Elizabeth ascended the throne of England, and supported the Scottish Reformers. And when the French court seemed bent to extirpate that sect, they were compelled, by intestine dissentions, to accede to the treaty of Edinburgh, which proved fatal to the French influence and the Roman Catholic religion in Scotland.


Mary's administration. Religious discord, Convention of the Estates-petitioned by the General Assembly. Earl of Huntly defeated. Queen marries Lord Darnley-joins the Popish league. Murder of Rizzio. James the Sixth born. Lord Darnley murdered. Queen marries Bothwell-his fate. Mary confined in Lochleven castle. Earl of Murray Regent. James the Sixth crowned.

THE first measures of Mary's government confirmed the affections and confidence of her subjects, and tended to reconcile them to her authority. She bestowed her favours entirely through the Protestant leaders; who alone were able, she perceived, to support her administration. She invested her brother Lord James, Prior of St Andrew's, with the authority of her lieutenant. She appointed Maitland of Lethington as his deputy, a statesman of great sagacity, but of a facile disposition. By the vigour of their

measures, she endeavoured to establish order and justice among a fierce and untractable people, disaffected to law and unaccustomed to subordination.

While all parties were contending who should manifest the most dutiful attachment to the Queen, an incident occurred which displayed the zealous and turbulent spirit of the age. On the Sabbath-day after her arrival, the Queen commanded that mass should be celebrated in the chapel of her palace. The first rumour of this order occasioned secret murmuring; complaints and threatenings soon succeeded; the Queen's Catholic servants were insulted and abused; and, had not the Prior of St Andrew's seasonably interposed, the rioters might have proceeded to the greatest


"Shall we suffer that idol to be again erected within the realm ?" was the common cry. Her conversion from Popery was publicly prayed for; as well as that the hearts and hands of the faithful might be strengthened to oppose all tyrants, if she evinced a disposition to persecution; and Lord Lindsay and the Protestant gentlemen of Fife even exclaimed, "The idolator shall die the death."* The Prior of St Andrew's and the other leaders of the Protestants restrained their enthusiastic zeal; and obtained for the Queen and her domestics the indulgence of the free exercise of their religion. Mary was not deficient in gratitude: She issued two successive proclamations, declaring, that "any attempt to alter or subvert the Protestant religion, without the sanction of the Legislature, should be considered a capital crime.”

But the Queen's situation became every day more irksome : She was surrounded by a turbulent nobility, and her religion was a popular theme of declamation from the pulpits. John Knox was honoured with a royal audience; but the Queen's endeavours to awe or sooth the Reformer were unavailing. Having perceived that Elizabeth had acquired great authority over all ranks in Scotland, the Queen despatched Maitland of Lethington to London, to signify her willingness to renounce all present right to the English crown, provided she should be declared, by act of Parliament, next heir to the succession, in case of Elizabeth's decease without issue.

Maitland was likewise instructed to express his mistress's ear

* Dr M'Crie has made an ingenious apology for the Reformers, in his Life of Knox, ii. 25.

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