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whole kingdom with a just horror against the cruelties of the Catholics.

The moderation and forbearance of the Reformers is truly surprising, in an age when religious passions had taken strong posses sion of the human mind, and agitated it with so much violence. From the death of Hamilton until the regency of Mary of Guise, whose intemperate policy kindled the flames of civil war, no violation of public order had been committed by the Reformers, though irritated by the most cruel ecclesiastical tyranny. Under every discouragement and oppression, the Reformation continued to advance: All the low country, the most populous and at that time the most warlike part of the kingdom, was deeply tinctured with the new opinions, or openly avowed them.

Another means which contributed to overturn the Catholie church, was the writings of the poets and satirists of the age; who used very great freedoms with the church, in compositions of wit and humour. Before the Catholic clergy discovered the injurious tendency of these attacks, the practice had become too common to be restrained. In these doggerel compositions, the ignorance, the negligence, and the immorality of the clergy, were stigmatized; and they were read with avidity, notwithstanding prohibitory sta tutes and prosecutions.

The conduct of the Catholics during these transactions is remarkable. Intoxicated with power, and lulled asleep by indolence and presumptuous security, they were awakened only by the crash of their decayed and falling system. In a convention of prelates, held at Edinburgh 1545, an ineffectual motion was made for correcting the abuses of the church, and for reforming the manners of the clergy. Another council was held four years after, when no fewer than fifty-seven canons were enacted, for reforming the corruption and profane lewdness of the clergy of almost every degree, and for introducing some species of learning into the ecclesiastical Had they been enacted some years sooner, and executed with rigorous impartiality, they might have retarded the progress of the Reformation: But they came too late. And it is remarkable, that, with a professed zeal for the reformation of manners, the Catholics mingled an inveterate hatred of heretics and a most implicit faith in the church.

estate.

The last provincial council was held at Edinburgh in 1558, and continued its sittings a whole year. To this assembly were pre

sented, by the chiefs of the Congregation, the preliminary articles of Reformation. The council separated, to meet no more.

To the Reformation we owe the diffusion of the principles of civil as well as religious liberty; for the arguments by which men claimed religious liberty were easily applied to civil rights. This result of free inquiry was soon perceived: Hence the Government in Scotland all along opposed the progress of the Reformation; it obstinately clung to the Catholic church, and cruelly persecuted all who favoured the new opinions. These, however, prevailed, in spite of the Government; but as the change was effected in opposition to power, its principles were more popular, and consequently more favourable to civil as well as ecclesiastical liberty.

CHAPTER II.

Mary. Arran Regent-is circumvented by Cardinal Beaton-opposed by the Earl of Lennox. The English interpose. War. Peace. Murder of Beaton-conspirators capitulate. The English invade Scotland. Battle of Pinkey.

A.D.

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MARY-The death of James the Fifth was an afflicting 1542. event, and seemed a prelude to new calamities. Mary, his infant daughter, succeeded to his kingdom and misfortunes. Many of the nobility had been taken prisoners at Solway Moss; and those who escaped that disaster were factious and mutinous. The Reformed religion was struggling for toleration; while the Catholics, with Cardinal Beaton at their head, were eager to retain and augment their power. An unnecessary and unsuccessful war with England, had dispirited the nation, and Henry the Eighth was stimulated with the glory of adding Scotland to his dominions.

No steps for the security of the kingdom had been taken by the late King before his death. Cardinal Beaton produced a forged testamentary deed, in which he was nominated Regent of the kingdom, tutor and guardian to the Queen dowager and the infant Princess. The nobility and the people, however, called in question the genuineness of the deed, and Beaton was degraded from his assumed dignity. The Parliament elevated to the Regency James Hamilton Earl of Arran, whom they judged to be entitled to that distinction, as being the nearest heir after Mary to the crown..

Had the Earl of Arran been endowed with abilities and vigour, the disgrace of the Cardinal might have proved the destruction

of his party; but nature had not qualified the Regent for a sta tion so high and difficult: His political views were circumscribed; he was too indolent to gain partisans, too irresolute to preserve them; besides, he was totally unfit for the bustle of business.

His enemies, applying themselves to the feverish timidity of his disposition, betrayed him into weaknesses; and the esteem that his gentleness had procured him in private life, was lost in the contempt excited by his public conduct, which was timid, fluctuat ing, and inconsistent. But his avowed attachment to the Re formers gained him the love of the common people; and a feeling of sympathy was mingled with his popularity, from the circumstance that his name was at the head of the roll of heretics which the Romish clergy had presented to the late King to be proscribed.

No sooner was Henry apprized of his nephew's death, than he projected the scheme of uniting the sister kingdoms, by the marriage of his son Edward to the Princess Mary. He communicated his design to the Scottish nobles then prisoners in London, and gained their approbation by civilities and pensions; but he meanly extorted an oath from them to use all their influence for procuring him the charge and custody of the young Queen, the government of the kingdom, and the possession of its fortresses. Having consented to give hostages that they would return to London, should they fail in accomplishing the engagement they had made, the captive nobles left that city for Scotland, accompanied by Douglas Earl of Angus and his brother. That nobleman had been fifteen years an exile from his country; and now returned with letters from Henry to the Regent, commending him to his favour and protection.

The Regent lent a willing ear to the propositions and suggestions of those noblemen, from their rank and influence, and the personal interest they had in opposing the measures of the opposite party. A negotiation was immediately begun. Cardinal Bea ton, the leader of the opposite faction, had been cast into prison, for being concerned with the Duke of Guise in treasonable designs against his country. A convention of the Estates was called, and seemed favourably inclined to the proposed marriage; but they rejected the conditions with scorn.

Sir Ralph Sadler, the English envoy, used all the arts of a skilful statesman to accomplish his master's purpose; but finding his arguments unavailing, he made an unsuccessful attempt to engage

the liberated nobles to convey into England, by stratagem, the infant Princess, the Queen dowager, and Cardinal Beaton. Perceiving the necessity of modifying his demands, Henry instructed Sadler to treat with the Scots on terms as favourable as could be obtained. Articles of agreement were drawn up; the Regent solemnly swore to observe them, and commanded the great seal of Scotland to be affixed to the treaty.

Cardinal Beaton having regained his liberty, was able, by his intrigues, to confound the measures of the Regent, and prevent their execution. He assembled the most considerable ecclesiastics; represented to them the danger to which their immunities and privileges were exposed, in making an alliance with the enemy of the Catholic church; and he obtained from them a large sum of money, to be intrusted to his management, for overturning the schemes of their enemies. The friars were instructed to preach against the treaty, and to excite the rage of fanatical men to insult the English envoy. A rash and unhappy measure of the English. Monarch contributed to disaffect the Scots to an alliance with England. Relying on the treaty of marriage and amity, they had fitted-out a small fleet of merchantmen for France, with which their trade had been interrupted for some time. The fleet was dispersed by a storm, and obliged to take refuge in different ports of England. Henry ordered the vessels to be seized, and condemned as lawful prizes, pretending that they carried provisions for his

enemies.

The Scots, astonished and enraged, expressed all the resentment natural to a high-spirited people; and the Cardinal was applauded by the French party, as the defender of the honour and liberties of his country. The authority of the Regent rapidly declined; the Earls of Argyll, Huntly, Bothwell, and Murray, openly assisted the Cardinal to collect troops, by whose means he seized the Queen dowager and the infant Princess. The Earl of Lennox, the hereditary enemy of Arran, returned at the same time from France, and attached himself to the Cardinal's faction. Beaton amused him with the hope of marrying the Queen dowager, and affected to treat him with such respect that the Regent became jealous of his growing influence.

That suspicion was artfully heightened by the Abbot of Paisley, who acted in concert with the Cardinal. The Abbot was the Regent's natural brother, oyer whom he had great influence; but he

was a warm partisan of France, and devoted to Beaton and the Catholic church. He speedily effected a change in the Regent's intentions towards England: In the short space of ten days after he had sworn to observe the treaty, he had a private interview with the Cardinal, renounced the friendship of England, and declared for the interest of France.

He displayed the same levity in his religious principles. He publicly renounced the doctrine of the Reformers, at Stirling, and received absolution from the hands of the Cardinal; who thus rendered him an object of universal contempt. Having gained an entire ascendancy over the Regent, Beaton assumed the supreme power over the kingdom, and exercised all the authority of the Regent without the envy of the name.

A new line of policy was adopted towards England. When the day for the delivery of hostages arrived, agreeably to the late treaty, the English envoy was informed that the Regent was incapable of fulfilling the conditions agreed upon, as the wishes of the nation were changed. The nobles who had returned from London were then summoned by Sadler to return thither; but none of them complied, except Gilbert Kennedy, Earl of Cassillis; whom Henry rewarded with entire liberty, for his honourable conduct.

The Earl of Lennox was the only person whose power the Car, dinal had reason to fear. That nobleman's influence had been successfully employed to awaken the Regent's jealousy and fear; but, when his influence was no longer necessary, the Cardinal treated him with coldness and neglect. Disappointed ambition and resentment urged Lennox to thirst for revenge: He therefore withdrew from the court, and declared for the English faction.

The contending parties had now exchanged their leaders. The Regent was at the head of the French party and the Catholics; Lennox was the leader of the Reformers, and the partisan of England; and it was resolved to appeal to the sword to decide the controversy. Fortune seemed to favour Lennox in preparing for the contest. Five ships from France, laden with warlike stores, and having on board thirty thousand crowns, were seized by him. The judicious application of this wealth afforded a more cogent argument than the justice of his cause; and he was speedily at the head of a formidable army. By a sudden march to Edinburgh, he surprised the leaders of the opposite party, and might

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