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written and answered, and he hoped to receive instructions not to break with Spain for a month, more or less.1

October. Assurance given to Bristol.

On October 3, Bristol, accompanied by Aston, was received by Olivares at the Escurial, with the most profuse expressions of good-will. As soon as he had explained his master's annoyance at the addition of new and unheard of demands to the original marriage articles, the Spanish minister assured him that the Pope should be brought to reason. Then passing to the larger question, he declared that the Emperor's proceedings were entirely disapproved of at Madrid, and that, if it were necessary, Philip would come to James's aid, and 'would infallibly assist his Majesty with his forces.' Being then introduced to the presence of the King, Bristol repeated his complaints. The same language was used by Philip which had previously been employed by his minister. According to Bristol's report of the interview, 'he expressed an earnest desire that the match should be concluded, and that therein no time should be lost. He utterly disliked the Emperor's proceedings, and said he would procure his Majesty's satisfaction, and when he could not obtain it otherwise, he was resolved to procure it by his arms.'

News of the

capture of Heidelberg.

The very next day the ambassador was officially informed that the Pope's resolutions upon the marriage articles would at once be taken into consideration. But before anything could be done, news of the fall of Heidelberg reached Madrid, and Bristol, who saw in the intelligence an excellent opportunity for putting the Spanish professions to the test, at once wrote to Olivares requesting that the King's garrisons in the Palatinate might be ordered to co-operate with Vere in maintaining Mannheim and Frankenthal against the Emperor.2 To an assurance that a letter had been written to the Infanta Isabella, he replied that he had had enough of vague declarations of orders given, and that he should not be content unless the despatch were placed in his hands, to be sent by a courier of his own. He must be allowed to read it, in order that he might see whether it really contained instructions to the 1 Bristol to Calvert, Sept. 28, 29, S. P. Spain.

2 Bristol Memorial, Oct. 3, Bristol to Calvert, Oct. 8, S. P. Spain.


ORDERS TO THE INFANTA ISABELLA. 381 Infanta to intervene by force if Tilly refused obedience. His resolute bearing was not without its effect. His demand was taken into consideration by the Council of State, and it was there unanimously resolved, 'that, in case the Emperor should not condescend unto reason, this King should then assist his Majesty with his arms for the restitution of the Prince Palatine.' Even this, however, was not sufficient for Bristol. He found that the Spaniards wished to interpret this resolution as referring to assistance to be given at some future time, and that they were proposing, so far as immediate action was concerned, to content themselves with what they called 'earnest and pressing mediation.' He told them plainly that he would not accept an answer in such terms. His demand was at once acceded to.1 Letters were despatched immediately to the Emperor and the Duke of Bavaria, urging them to the concessions required, whilst another letter, intended for the Infanta at Brussels, was entrusted to Bristol's courier, so that the English ambassador might be able to assure himself that she was really directed, in case of Tilly's refusal to raise the sieges of Mannheim and Frankenthal, to employ Spanish troops in support of the beleaguered garrisons.2

Nor was it only in Bristol's presence that the Spanish Government drew back from the position which had been assumed by Zuñiga. Khevenhüller was distinctly Language used to the told that whatever message had been carried by Emperor. the friar Hyacintho must be understood at Vienna as it was interpreted by Oñate and the Infanta Isabella;

1 Bristol to Calvert, Oct. 21, S. P. Spain.

2" Caso que los que governaren las dichas armas pongan alguna difficultad en el cumplimiento dello, V.A. les hará decir que, sino lo executaren, no permitirá otra cosa; y, si fuere necessario, mandará V. A. de la gente de guerra que por mi horden se entretiene en el Palatinado, que no solo tenga muy buena correspondencia con la que alli ay del Rey de la Gran Bretaña, pero que si conveniere se entreponga y procure que no recivia daño de otro; porque es justo se vea que de nuestra parte se hace esto, y todo lo que se puede." Philip IV. to the Infanta Isabella, Oct. 29' S. P. Spain. The original is in the Archives at Brussels. It might be suspected that the instructions here given were countermanded by a secret despatch; but this is put out of the question by the Infanta's reply of Nov. Brussels MSS.




or, in other words, that the King of Spain would give no support, open or secret, to the transference of the Electorate. Philip, it was added, hoped that whatever was done would be done in agreement with the Princes assembled at Ratisbon. If his advice were not followed, no further assistance was to be expected from Spain.1

A year afterwards, the declaration made by Philip, that he would assist the King of England, if necessary even with his arms, was made the subject of grave complaint in England. The King of Spain, it was said, had engaged to compel the Emperor to restore the Palatinate to Frederick, and in refusing to fulfil his obligations he had violated his most solemn promises. It is, indeed, impossible to acquit Philip and Olivares of concealing their wishes and intentions. But it cannot be said that, in this matter at least, they were guilty of wilfully deceiving James. It was not the question of the ultimate disposal of the Palatinate which was now before them. It was the question of enforcing a suspension of arms in order to make room for subsequent negotiation. And that, for the moment at least, they were ready to fulfil their promises is evident from the language which they used in their despatches.


Of many things the Spanish ministers were grossly ignorant; but they saw clearly that the settlement of Germany was only possible if it proceeded from Germany itself. Chichester. James could have understood this, it would have mattered little that the concessions made to Bristol had been

Recall of

wrung from the fears of Olivares against his secret wishes. Had he been able to send a minister to Ratisbon to announce that he had secured his son-in-law's resolution to abide by the terms which had been offered in the preceding winter, he might perhaps have won over to the side of peace most of those who were present. Unless he could do this-if Frederick still cherished designs of continuing the war, or if he refused to make that submission which was considered by a great majority of the princes of Germany to be nothing more than the Emperor's due-James had better wash his hands of the whole affair.

1 Khevenhüller, ix. 1784.




As usual, he preferred leaving the future to chance. On the first news of the fall of Heidleberg he had recalled Chichester to England. When the Assembly met, it would meet without the presence of a single representative either of Frederick or of James. If Oñate was there to counsel moderation on the part of Spain, it was not from him that a guarantee for the future good behaviour, or even for the present intentions, of the exiled Elector, could proceed. It would be left to Frederick's enemies to proclaim his misdeeds, and judgment would go by default.


on the marriage articles.

In the meanwhile the junta appointed to consider the marriage articles had been proceeding seriously with its work. Gondomar who, since Zuñiga's death, was, without dispute, the ablest man among the commissioners, had been of opinion from the beginning that, in order to effect the conversion of England, it was unnecessary to resort to those startling demands which were regarded at Rome as indispensable. Under his influence, therefore, the junta lent itself without difficulty to Bristol's suggestions, and the ambassador, finding that his objections to the requirements of the Cardinals were regarded with a favourable ear, was enabled to augur well of the result of the negotiation.1

Such was the position of affairs when, on the first day of November, Porter made his appearance at Madrid. The letter

November. Porter at

which he brought for Gondomar from Buckingham was well received, and the bearer was assured that Madrid. the Prince would be welcome in Spain. To the demand for instant action in the Palatinate, it was less easy to obtain an answer. The King was away, hunting in the mountains, and for some days nothing could be done. Forgetting that he was a messenger, and not an ambassador, and fancying that Bristol was lukewarm in the business, Porter went straight to Olivares, and asked for an engagement that the Spanish forces in the Palatinate would give their support to Vere.

Such a demand, coming from such a man, roused all the

1 Bristol to Calvert, Oct. 21, S. P. Spain.

His conver

indignation which, in his conversations with Bristol, Olivares had so carefully suppressed. It was preposterous, he sation with said, to ask the King of Spain to take arms against his uncle,' the Catholic League, and the House of "As for the marriage," he ended by saying, "I know not what it means.'




It was not long before the Spaniard repented the passionate outburst in which his secret feelings had been so openly laid bare. To Bristol's inquiries, he answered coolly that Porter was not a public minister, and that it was unfit to entrust state secrets to such a man. A day or two afterwards, as if to repair his minister's error, the King expressly reiterated to Aston his assurance that, if necessary, the aid of his armies should not be wanting in the Palatinate.3

Nov. 18.

mands about

the Palatinate.

It was now Bristol's turn to test the intentions of the Spanish Court. On November 18, he presented a formal demand for the restitution of the towns in the Palatinate, Bristol's de- within seventy days. The summons, he soon found, was received with an universal outcry of disapprobaThe King of Spain, he was told, was as firmly resolved as ever to abide by the resolutions which he had taken. But to ask him to engage that Heidelberg and Mannheim should be restored within seventy days was a mere insult. "When these instructions were given you in England," said one of the Spanish ministers to Bristol, "they must have been very angry." In reporting what he heard to Calvert, the English ambassador expressed his opinion that the Spaniards still wished to give satisfaction to his master, but that they were 'in great confusion how to answer to the particulars.' 4

Bristol, in truth, was unwilling to acknowledge to himself

The mother of Philip IV. was the Emperor's sister.

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2 Bristol afterwards asserted that the phrase about the match had not been reported to him, as far as he remembereth' (Hardwicke State Papers, ii. 501); but it seems likely enough to have been said. Porter's own story (S. P. Spain) was adopted by Buckingham in the narrative which he drew up for the Parliament of 1624.

3 Hardwicke State Papers, i. 504.

4 Bristol to Calvert, Nov. 26, S. P. Spain.

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