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refusal to acknowledge the consequences of defeat, and above all, the employment of Mansfeld and his freebooters, had left Frederick without a reputable friend in the Empire.


From such a spectacle it is well to turn for a moment to the calm devotion of the English commander. No man knew better than Vere how hopeless his military position. position was. Yet it was not of the overwhelming forces of the enemy that he complained the most. During the days which Frederick had spent at Mannheim, that unhappy prince had continued to see with Mansfeld's eyes and to hear with Mansfeld's ears. To Vere, who was ready to sacrifice everything in his cause, he refused even the courtesy of a seat in the council of war.1 Of his plans and desires he left him in as complete ignorance as the meanest soldier in the camp. And now when, with the help of the money which Chichester had brought, Vere was able to fill up the ranks of his garrisons, the same evil influence met him at every turn. Mansfeld's men had consumed the provisions on which he had depended to carry him through the siege. "If we be attempted," he wrote despairingly to Carleton, "I shall doubt very much of the event. Besides, Count Mansfeld hath taken a great part of our serviceable men from us, and put the most poor in their places that ever I saw." It could not well be otherwise. Licence to rove unheeded in quest of fresh stores of plunder, was the bait by which Mansfeld attracted round him his demoralised soldiery. Hard blows for the sake of a prince who himself refused to share the dangers to which his followers were exposed, were all that Vere could offer.

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The crisis seemed to be rapidly approaching. On June 20, seven days after Frederick turned his back upon Mannheim, Siege of Tilly appeared before Heidelberg, and shots were Heidelberg exchanged with the garrison. To Chichester's debegun and interrupted. mand that he should refrain from attacking a town held by the troops of the King of Great Britain, he returned a curt answer, that he should not change his plans without an express order from the Emperor. This time, however, the 1 Vere to Carleton, June 11, S. P. Holland. 2 Vere to Carleton, June 24, S. P. Germany.




danger passed away. The Imperialist commanders came to the conclusion that as long as Mansfeld was at large, it would be dangerous to undertake the siege. It was always possible that the adventurer might recross the Rhine, and make a dash at the unplundered homesteads of the great Bavarian plain. Tilly, therefore, marched southwards to bar the way, leaving Cordova to make the return of the enemy into the Palatinate impossible. The Spaniard did his work with pitiless ravages. severity. From behind the walls of Mannheim, Chichester, fretting under the enforced inaction, was able to trace his progress by the rolling flames which sprung aloft from the villages which had once been the happy homes of a contented peasantry. If Mansfeld should attempt to return he would find nothing but a blackened wilderness, unable to supply food to his army for a single day.1



at Brussels about the powers;

To the peasant, who saw the result of his lifelong toil drifting away amidst smoke and flame, it mattered little whether his ruin was to be ascribed to Cordova or to Mansfeld. To all who were looking anxiously into the future, it made a great difference whether these atrocities were committed with a definite military object or not. When that object had been attained, Cordova's ravages would cease, whilst the evil deeds of Mansfeld's bands would never come to an end as long as his army remained in existence. When, on June 15, the conferences were re-opened at Brussels, Weston soon discovered that his position was changed for the worse. The letter of credence which he now produced from Frederick was at once rejected, and formal powers, as binding as those which had by this time been received from the Emperor, were demanded by the Infanta's commissioners. It was in vain that Weston stood up for the sufficiency of his master's guarantee. His arguments, he found, had little weight with men who knew that Frederick, in his conversation at Darmstadt, had flung his promises to the winds, and had positively declared that he had no intention of submitting to the Emperor at all. A fresh

1 Chichester to Carleton, June 26, July 10, 22. Tilly to Chichester, June 25, S. P. Germany.

July 5'



difficulty, which arose from the probability that if Frederick consented to sign the powers required, he would insist upon styling himself King of Bohemia, was got over by an agreement that James should issue a fresh commission, and that it should be sent to his son-in-law, to be confirmed by the simple signature-Frederick. At the same time it was agreed that Mansfeld and Christian should be asked to send special powers, binding themselves to submit to the arrangements made at Brussels.1 As there would be some delay in obtaining the fresh commission from England, Weston took advantage of the courier who carried these demands, to ask Frederick to send full powers at once, which, even if they were rejected on account of the title used by him, would at least serve to show that he was in earnest in submitting to the negotiation in progress.

and about the disband

The next few days only served to bring out more clearly the real difficulties of the case. Christian of Brunswick had held back from taking any part in the conferences whatever. Mansfeld had sent a Captain Weiss to ing of Mansfeld's troops. consult with Weston, with instructions to ask not only for a pardon for himself and his followers, and for permission to retain the places which he held in the Empire till the conclusion of the final treaty of peace, but also for a considerable sum of money, to enable him to disband his troops. This last request was justly considered as exorbitant by Pecquius. "They who have employed the Count," he said to Weston, "ought to satisfy his demand for money." Nor was it only from the difficulty of treating with such a commander Despair of as Mansfeld that the Infanta began to despair of the success of her efforts at mediation. Every letter which reached her from Vienna conveyed a fresh assurance of Ferdinand's resolution to deprive Frederick of the Electorate, whatever he might do about the territory; and an objection made, at the request of the Imperial ambassador, to the use of the word "Elector" in James's commission, had been met by

the Infanta.

1 Weston to Calvert, June 22, S. P. Germany.

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Narrative of the




an announcement from Weston, that his master required the restitution of the honours as well as of the patrimony of his son-in-law.1

To no one did the pretensions advanced on both sides give greater disquietude than to the Infanta. On the one hand, she insisted on rejecting Mansfeld's demand for money; on the other hand, she wrote to Oñate, begging him to urge the Emperor to desist from his design, and to tell him plainly that if he refused to do so, he must give up all hope of peace.

It was in the midst of this entanglement that news arrived from Alsace, which, for a time, seemed likely to extricate the Frederick in English negotiator from his difficulty. A few weeks' Alsace. experience in Mansfeld's camp was beginning to tell even upon Frederick. It was evidently not by aimless wandering in pursuit of booty that the Palatinate would be recovered. When Weston's demand for powers reached him on June 28, he was in no mood to raise any further obstacle. The next day he forwarded to Brussels two copies of the plaints of the document required, one with, and the other without the only seal which he possessed-the seal of the Kingdom of Bohemia. In a letter to Chichester, which was written on the same day, he bitterly complained of his position. "I hope," he wrote, "that the excesses committed here will not be imputed to me. I am very sorry to see them, and I wish for nothing better than to be away from them." The day before he had expressed himself in stronger terms.

His com


"As for


this army," he said, "it has committed great disorders. think there are men in it who are possessed of the devil, and who take a pleasure in setting fire to everything. I should be very glad to leave them. There ought to be some difference made between friend and enemy; but these people ruin both alike."2

1 Weston to Calvert, June 30, S. P. Germany. The Infanta Isabella

to Philip IV., July 4
June 24 Brussels MSS.

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2 Frederick to Chichester, June 28, S. P. Germany. The following extract from a letter from Frederick to his wife will be found misplaced amongst the Holland State Papers of December, 1622. It is evidently the decypher of part of a paragraph in cypher from a letter written about this time, the first clause being imperfect :-" Le disordre parmy la soldatesque

it from his

Yet, what to do, Frederick hardly knew. At first he talked of July. returning to Mannheim; but this plan he surrenHe dismisses dered in the face of Mansfeld's objections, and he service. finally determined to take refuge with the Duke of Bouillon at Sedan. On July 3, therefore, he left the army, after issuing a proclamation by which he dismissed the troops from his service, assigning as a motive his inability to find means to pay them. As far as he was concerned, the garrisons which still held out in Heidelberg, in Mannheim, and in Frankenthal, were left to their fate.

qui pilloit tout sans respect ny difference avec autres inormitez, il estoit a craindre que l'ennemie le poursuivant il serait forcé a se retirer en Lorain, et nos soldats y faire autant d'insolences commes ils ont accoutumé, ainsois je ferois sans nulle utilité plus d'ennemis, et estoit a craindre une mutination, a faute d'argent et vivres. Mansfeld a desiré que le Roi de Boheme le licentia et donnast permission de chercher autre part condition, menant toutes les officieres. Je luy ay donné cela par escrit, n'ayant aucun moyen de les entretenir. Il dit me pouvoir plus servir par diversion; le Duc de Brunswic a bien bonne intention, si le Prince d'Orange luy pouvoit envoyer quelqu'un pour l'assister de bon conseil."

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