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XXXI.

"changed his clothes deliberately, and wait- LECT. "ed for fome time, till his wife had got all "her things ready for going with him in his "carriage to the country. He did not fet out "till fuch time as Clodius might easily have << been in Rome, if he had not been lying in By and by, "wait for Milo by the way. "Clodius met him on the road, on horseback, "like a man prepared for action, no carriage, "not his wife, as was ufual, nor any family

equipage along with him: whilft Milo, who "is fupposed to be meditating slaughter and "affaffination, is travelling in a carriage with

his wife, wrapped up in his cloak, embar"raffed with baggage, and attended by a "great train of women fervants, and boys." He goes on, defcribing the rencounter that followed, Clodius's fervants attacking those of Milo, and killing the driver of his carriage; Milo jumping out, throwing off his cloak, and making the best defence he could, while Clodius's fervants endeavoured to furround him; and then concludes his Narration with a very delicate and happy ftroke. He does not fay in plain words, that Milo's fervants killed Clodius, but that "in the midst of the tumult, Milo's fer"vants, without the orders, without the knowledge, without the prefence of their mafter, did what every mafter would have

"wifhed

LE CT. « wifhed his fervants, in a like conjuncture, "to have done *."

XXXI.

IN Sermons, where there is feldom any occafion for Narration, Explication of the fubject to be difcourfed on, comes in the place of Narration at the Bar, and is to be taken up

* Milo, cùm in Senatu fuiffet eo die, quod Senatus "dimiffus eft, domum venit. Calceos et vestimenta mu"tavit; paulifper, dum fe uxor (ut fit) comparat, com"moratus eft; deinde profectus eft, id temporis cùm jam "Clodius, fi quidem eo die Romam venturus erat, redire potuiffet. Obviam fit ei Clodius expeditus, in equo, nulla rheda, nullis impedimentis, nullis Græcis comitibus, ut folebat; fine uxore, quod nunquam fere. "Cum hic infidiator, qui iter illud ad cædem faciendam

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apparâffet, cum uxore veheretur in rheda, penulatus, "vulgi magno impedimento, ac muliebri et delicato an"cillarum puerorumque comitatu. Fit obviam Clodio "ante fundum ejus, hora fere undecima, aut non multo " fecus. Statim complures cum telis in hunc fa"ciunt de loco fuperiore impetum: adverfi rhedarium "occidunt; cùm autem hic de rheda, rejecta penula de"filuiffet, feque acri animo defenderet, illi qui erant "cum Clodio, gladiis eductis, partim recurrere ad rhedam, "ut a tergo Milonem adorirentur; partim, quod hunc "jam interfectum putarent, cædere incipiunt ejus fervos

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qui poft erant; ex quibus qui animo fideli in dominum "et præfenti fuerunt, partim occifi funt; partim cum ad "rhedam pugnare viderunt, et domino fuccurrere prohi"berentur, Milonemque occifum etiam ex ipfo Clodio “audirent, et ita effe putarent, fecerunt id fervi Milonis (dicam enim non derivandi criminis caufa, fed ut fac"tum eft) neque imperante, neque fciente, neque præ"fente domino, quod fuos quifque fervos in tali re facere " voluiffet."

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much

XXXL

much on the fame tone; that is, it must be LECT. concife, clear, and diftinct; and in a Style correct and elegant, rather than highly adorned. To explain the doctrine of the text with propriety; to give a full and perfpicuous account of the nature of that virtue or duty which forms the fubject of the Difcourf, is properly the didactic part of Preaching; on the right execution of which much depends for all that comes afterward in the way of perfuafion. The great art in fucceeding in it, is, to meditate profoundly on the fubject, fo as to be able to place it in a clear and strong point of view. Confider what light other paffages of Scripture throw upon it; confider whether it be a fubject nearly related to fome other from which it is proper to diftinguifh it; confider whether it can be illuftrated to advantage by comparing it with, or oppofing it to, fome other thing; by enquiring into caufes, or tracing effects; by pointing out examples, or appealing to the feelings of the hearers; that thus, a definite, precife, circumftantial view may be afforded of the doctrine to be inculcated. Let the Preacher be perfuaded, that by such distinct and apt illuftrations of the known truths of religion, it may both difplay great merit in the way of Compofition, and, what he ought to confider as far more valuable, render his Difcourfes weighty, inftructive, and useful.

LECTURE XXXII.

LECT.
XXXII.

CONDUCT OF A DISCOURSE — THE ARGU
MENTATIVE PART-THE PATHETIC

IN

PART-THE PERORATION.

N treating of the conftituent parts of a regular Difcourfe or Oration, I have already confidered the Introduction, the Divifion, and the Narration or Explication. I proceed next to treat of the argumentative or reasoning Part of a Difcourfe. In whatever place, or on whatever fubject one fpeaks, this, beyond doubt, is of the greatest confequence. For the great end for which men speak on any serious occafion, is to convince their hearers of fomething being either true, or right, or good; and, by means of this conviction, to influence their practice. Reafon and Argument make the foundation, as I have often inculcated, of all manly and perfuafive Eloquence.

Now, with refpect to Arguments, three things are requifite. Firft, the invention of them; fecondly, the proper difpofition and

arrange

XXXII.

arrangement of them; and thirdly, the ex- LECT. preffing of them in fuch a ftyle and manner, as to give them their full force.

THE first of thefe, Invention, is, without doubt, the moft material, and the groundwork of the reft. But, with refpect to this, I am afraid it is beyond the power of art to give any real affiftance. Art cannot go so far, as to fupply a Speaker with arguments on every cause, and every fubject; though it may be of confiderable ufe in affifting him to arrange, and exprefs thofe, which his knowledge of the fubject has difcovered. For it is one thing to discover the reasons that are most proper to convince men, and another, to manage these reasons with the most advantage. The latter is all that Rhetoric can pretend to.

THE antient Rhetoricians did indeed attempt to go much farther than this. They attempted to form Rhetoric into a more complete fyftem; and profeffed not only to affift Public Speakers in fetting off their arguments to most advantage; but to fupply the defect of their invention, and to teach them where to find arguments on every fubject and caufe. Hence their Doctrine of Topics, or, " Loci

Communes," and "Sedes Argumentorum," which makes fo great a figure in the writings of Ariftotle, Cicero, and Quinctilian. These Topics

I

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