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XXVIII.

IN the latter part of the Oration, Cicero LECT. treats of the other accufation that was brought against Cluentius, of having poisoned Oppianicus. On this, it appears, his accufers themfelves laid fmall ftrefs; having placed their chief hope in overwhelming Cluentius with the odium of bribery in the former trial; and, therefore, on this part of the cause, Cicero does not dwell long. He fhows the improbability of the whole tale, which they related concerning this pretended poisoning, and makes it appear to be altogether deftitute of any fhadow of proof.

NOTHING, therefore, remains but the Peroration, or Conclufion of the whole. In this, as indeed throughout the whole of this Oration, Cicero is uncommonly chafte, and, in the midst of much warmth and earnestness, keeps clear of turgid declamation. The Peroration turns on two points; the indignation which the character and conduct of Saffia ought to excite, and the compaffion due to a fon, perfecuted through his whole life by such a mother. He recapitulates the crimes of Saffia; her lewdnefs, her violation of every decorum, her incestuous marriages, her violence and cruelty. He places, in the most odious light, the eagerness and fury which fhe had fhown in the fuit fhe was carrying on against her fon; defcribes her journey from Larinum

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XXVIII.

LECT. Larinum to Rome, with a train of attendants, and a great store of money, that the might employ every method for circumventing and oppreffing him in this trial; while, in the whole courfe of her journey, fhe was fo detefted, as to make a folitude wherever she lodged; fhe was fhunned and avoided by all; her company, and her very looks, were reckoned contagious; the houfe was deemed polluted, which was entered into by fo abandoned a woman To this he oppofes the character of Cluentius, fair, unspotted, and refpectable. He produces the teftimonies of the magi ftrates of Larinum in his favour, given in the moft ample and honourable manner by a pub

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Cùm appropinquare hujus judicium ei nuntiatum "eft, confeftim hic advolavit; ne aut accufatoribus dili"gentia, aut pecunia teftibus deeffit; aut ne forte mater "hoc fibi optatiffimum fpectaculum hujus fordium atque "luctus, et tanti fqualoris amitteret. Jam vero quod iter "Romam hujus mulieris fuiffe exiftimatis? Quod ego

propter vicinitatem Aquinatium et Venafranorum ex "multis comperi : quos concurfus in his oppidis? Quantos "et virorum et mulierum gemitus effe factos? Mulierem "quandam Larino, atque illam ufque a mari fupero Ro"mam proficifci cum magno comitatu et pecunia, quo fa"cilius circumvenire judicio capitis, atque opprimere filium

poffit. Nemo erat illorum, pæne dicam, quin expian"dum illum locum effe arbitraretur quacunque illa inter fe"ciffet; nemo, quin terram ipfam .violari, quæ mater est " omnium, veftigiis confceleratæ matris putaret. Itaque "nullo in oppido confiftendi ei poteftas fuit: nemo ex tot hofpitibus inventus eft qui non contagionem afpectus "fugeret."

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XXVIII.

lic decree, and fupported by a great concourfe LECT. of the most noted inhabitants, who were now prefent, to fecond every thing that Cicero could fay in favour of Cluentius.

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"WHEREFORE, Judges," he concludes,

you abominate crimes, ftop the triumph of "this impious woman, prevent this most un"natural mother from rejoicing in her fon's "blood. If you love virtue and worth, re"lieve this unfortunate man, who, for fo many

years, has been exposed to moft unjust re"proach through the calumnies, raised against "him by Saffia, Oppianicus, and all their ad"herents. Better far had it been for him to "have ended his days at once by the poifon. "which Oppianicus had prepared for him, "than to have escaped those fnares, if he must "ftill be oppreffed by an odium which I have "fhown to be fo unjuft. But in you he trusts, "in your clemency, and your equity, that

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now, on a full and fair hearing of his caufe,

you will restore him to his honour; you will "reftore him to his friends and fellow citizens, "of whofe zeal and high eftimation of him.

you have seen such strong proofs; and will "fhow, by your decifion, that though faction "and calumny may reign for a while in po

pular meetings and harangues, in trial and " judgment regard is paid to the truth only."

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LE C T.
XXVIII.

I HAVE given only a skeleton of this Oration of Cicero. What I have principally aimed at, was to fhow his difpofition and method; his arrangement of facts, and the conduct and force of fome of his main arguments. But, in order to have a full view of the fubject, and of the art with which the Orator manages it, recourse must be had to the original. Few of Cicero's Orations contain a greater variety of facts and argumentations, which renders it difficult to analyse it fully. But for this reason I chose it, as an excellent example of managing at the Bar a complex and intricate cause, with order, elegance, and force.

LECTURE XXIX.

ELOQUENCE OF THE PULPIT.

BEFO

XXIX.

EFORE treating of the ftructure and LEC T. component parts of a regular Oration, I purposed making fome obfervations on the peculiar ftrain, the diftinguishing characters, of each of the three great kinds of Public Speaking, I have already treated of the Eloquence of Popular Affemblies, and of the Eloquence of the Bar. The fubject which remains for this Lecture is, the ftrain and spirit of that Eloquence which is fuited to the Pulpit.

LET Us begin with confidering the advantages and disadvantages, which belong to this field of Public Speaking. The Pulpit has plainly feveral advantages peculiar to itself, The dignity and importance of its fubjects must be acknowledged fuperior to any other. They are fuch as ought to intereft every one, and can be brought home to every man's heart; and

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