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XXVII.

leaft difgrace, his feeblenefs will appear, and "his character be expofed. For, as in our "bodies, while a man is in apparent health, "the effect of fome inward debility, which has "been growing upon him, may, for a time, "be concealed; but, as foon as it comes the "length of difeafe, all his fecret infirmities "fhow themselves, in whatever part of his "frame the diforder is lodged: fo, in ftates " and monarchies, while they carry on a war "abroad, many defects efcape the general eye; but, as foon as war reaches their own territory, their infirmities come forth to general « obfervation.

"FORTUNE has great influence in all human "affairs; but I, for my part, fhould prefer the "fortune of Athens, with the leaft degree of "vigour in afferting your caufe, to this man's "fortune. For we have many better reasons "to depend upon the favour of Heaven than this man. But, indeed, he who will not "exert his own ftrength, hath no title to de"pend either on his friends, or on the Gods.

Is it at all furprising that he, who is himself "ever amidst the labours and dangers of the "field; who is every where; whom no oppor

tunity escapes; to whom no feafon is un«favourable; should be fuperior to you, who are wholly engaged in contriving delays, « and framing decrees, and enquiring after news?

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XXVII.

news? The contrary would be much more LECT. furprifing, if we, who have never hitherto d "acted as became a ftate engaged in war, "fhould conquer one who acts, in every in

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ftance, with indefatigable vigilance, It is "this, Athenians! it is this which gives him "all his advantage against you. Philip, con"ftantly furrounded by his troops, and perpetually engaged in projecting his defigns, can, in a moment, ftrike the blow where he pleafes. But we, when any accident alarms. "us, first appoint our Trierarchs; then we al"low them to exchange by fubftitution: then "the fupplies are confidered; next, we refolve to man our fleet with ftrangers and foreignthen find it neceffary to fupply their place ourselves. In the midst of these delays, what we are failing to defend, the

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enemy is already mafter of; for the time of "action is spent by us in preparing; and the "iffues of war will not wait for our flow and "irrefolute measures.

"CONSIDER then your prefent fituation, and <<< make fuch provifion as the urgent danger "requires. Talk not of your ten thousands, "or your twenty thousand foreigners; of those " armies which appear fo magnificent on paper only; great and terrible in your decc crees, in execution weak and contemptible. "But let your army be made up chiefly of the

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LECT. « native forces of the ftate; let it be an Athe

XXVII.

"nian strength to which you are to trust; and "whomfoever you appoint as general, let them "be entirely under his guidance and authority. For, ever fince our armies have been formed "of foreigners alone, their victories have been gained over our allies and confederates only, "while our enemies have rifen to an extrava

(< gance of power."

THE Orator goes on to point out the number of forces which should be raised; the places of their deftination; the feafon of the year in which they should fet out; and then propofes in form his motion, as we would call it, or his decree, for the neceffary fupply of money, and for ascertaining the funds from which it should be raised. Having finished all that relates to the business under deliberation, he concludes thefe Orations on public affairs, commonly with no longer peroration than the following, which terminates the First Philippic: "I, for

my part, have never, upon any occafion, "chofen to court your favour, by speaking any CC thing but what I was convinced would serve you. And, on this occafion, you have "heard my fentiments freely declared, with"out art, and without reserve. I fhould "have been pleased, indeed, that, as it is for your advantage to have your true interest laid. " before you, so I might have been affured,

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"that he who layeth it before you would fhare LECT. "the advantage. But, uncertain as I know "the confequence to be with respect to myself, " I yet determined to speak, because I was con"vinced, that these measures, if pursued, must "prove beneficial to the Public. And, of all "thofe opinions which shall be offered to your acceptance, may the Gods determine that to "be chofen which will beft advance the gene"ral welfare!"

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THESE Extracts may ferve to give some imperfect idea of the manner of Demofthenes. For a jufter and more complete one, recourse must be had to the excellent original.

LECT.
XXVIII.

LECTURE XXVIII.

ELOQUENCE

OF THE BAR-ANALYSIS OF CICERO'S ORATION FOR CLUENTIUS.

TREATED, in the last Lecture, of what is peculiar to the Eloquence of Popular Affemblies. Much of what was faid on that head is applicable to the Eloquence of the Bar, the next great fcene of Public Speaking to which I now proceed, and my obfervations upon which will therefore be the fhorter. All, however, that was faid in the former Lecture must not be applied to it; and it is of importance, that I begin with fhowing where the diftinction lies.

IN the first place, the ends of Speaking at the Bar, and in Popular Affemblies, are commonly different. In Popular Affemblies, the great object is perfuafion; the Orator aims at determining the hearers to fome choice or conduct, as good, fit, or useful. For accomplish

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