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of war. The fundamental rule of the first is to do good, of the latter to inflict injuries. The former commands us to succour the oppressed, the latter to overwhelm the defenceless. The former teaches men to love their enemies, the latter to make themselves terrible even to strangers. The rules of morality will not suffer us to promote the dearest interest by falsehood, the maxims of war applaud it when employed in the destruction of others. That a familiarity with such maxims must tend to harden the heart, as well as to pervert the moral sentiments, is too obvious to need illustration. The natural consequence of their prevalence is, an unfeeling and unprincipled ambition, with an idolatry of talents and contempt of virtue; whence the esteem of mankind is turned from the humble, the benevolent, the good, to men who are qualified by a genius fertile in expedients, a courage that is never appalled, and a heart that never pities, to become the destroyers of the earth. While the philanthropist is devising means to mitigate the evils and augment the happiness of the world, a fellow-worker together with God in exploring and giving effect to the benevolent tendencies of nature, the warrior is revolving in the gloomy recesses of his capacious mind plans of future devastation and ruin. Prisons crowded with captives, cities emptied of their inhabitants, fields desolate and waste, are among his proudest trophies. The fabric of his fame is cemented with tears and blood; and if his name is wafted to the ends of the earth, it is in the shrill cry of suffering humanity, in the curses and imprecations of those whom his sword has reduced to despair."HALL'S Reflections on War.

The mighty BURKE, when with surpassing eloquence he preached up a crusade against republican France, admitted that nothing short of extreme necessity will justify war.

"The blood of man should never be shed but to redeem the blood It is well shed for our family, for our friends, for our God,

of man.
for our country, for our kind. The rest

vanity, the rest is crime."

-Letter on a Regicide Peace.

P. 153, 1. 8.

Thought, like an eagle soaring in his prime.

"Methinks I see a noble and puissant nation rousing herself like a strong man after sleep, and shaking her invincible locks; methinks I see


her as an eagle muing her mighty youth, and kindling her undazzled eyes at the full mid-day beam, purging and unsealing her long-abused sight at the fountain itself of heavenly radiance, while the whole noise of timorous and flocking birds, with those also that love the twilight, flutter about amazed at what she means."-MILTON's Speech for Unlicensed Printing.

P. 153, 1. 13.

Out-shining, e'en in grandeur, far-famed Tyre.

"The power of the city of Tyre on the Mediterranean and in the West is well known; of this Carthage, Utica, and Cadiz are celebrated monuments. We know that she extended her navigation even to the ocean, and carried her commerce beyond England to the north and the Canaries to the south."-TAV.

HERODOTUS says that in his time there was a temple dedicated to Hercules, which was enriched with many magnificent donations, especially with two pillars, the one of finest gold, the other of smaragdus see also PERRY'S View of the Levant, page 135.

See the splendid and sublime description of Tyre, in EZEKIEL, chap. 27.


Tyre was the centre to which all kinds of goods were conveyed, and from which they were again distributed in the districts where each was demanded. The vast gain thus acquired must have left a constantly increasing surplus of wealth, especially of the most compendious kinds of wealth—the precious metals, in that metropolis of the ancient commercial world."-JACOв on the Precious Metals, vol. i. page 96.

P. 154, 1. 1.

Her daughters too.

In the far-famed days of chivalry the ladies had no real influence, and while their names were passports for every sort of violence on the part of the proud chevaliers, who, self-constituted champions of justice, went about the country inflicting the very wrongs they pretended to avenge; they themselves were deprived even of the ordinary benefits of education, and were shut out from the enjoyment of air and exercise. They were too costly for ordinary use, and while mocked with the semblances of an admiration almost amounting to idolatry, were in

reality treated like infants. How many weary hours did they endeavour to beguile in employing their delicate fingers on tapestry-work!

How seldom were they admitted into the society of their affected worshippers but real tyrants! Unacquainted with the light accomplishments that gave such a grace to the female sex, they knew nothing of those more serious studies that women in the present day pursue with a success truly wonderful.

They had not even that engaging simplicity of character that almost atones for ignorance. Theirs was an affected simplicity, if I may use the term, superinduced by a cold and artificial system of education; and being only intended to shine on particular occasions, they were thrown aside like lumber when the unsubstantial pageantries over which they presided disappeared. But a veneration for the days of chivalry is one of those fallacies that reason will soon dissipate.

P. 154, 1. 12.

When clerks their knowledge selfishly misused.

"When the Roman empire became a prey to the Barbarians, they gave up as little as possible of their ancient independence, and when roused by a sense of real or imaginary wrongs, they were ready at all times to assert with their swords the rights they had inherited from their ancestors.

"But in the changes that became necessary in their written laws, in the instructions to public officers for the administration of their internal government, and in the legal forms required for the secure possession and transmission of property, to which they had formerly been strangers, they were compelled to have the aid of provincial churchmen and lawyers, the sole depositaries of the religion and learning of the times. These men, trained in the despotic maxims of the imperial law, transfused its doctrines and expressions into the judicial forms and historical monuments of their rulers; and thus it happened that if the principles of imperial despotism did not regulate the government, they found their way into the legal instruments and official language of the Barbarians."—ALLEN's Inquiry into the Rise and Growth of the Royal Prerogative, page 15.

P. 155, 1. 2.

Why yearn

For mysteries, which to know e'en Seraphs vainly burn ?

Ma quell' alma nel Ciel che più si schiara,
Quel Serafin, che'n Dio più l'occhio ha fisso,
Alla domanda tua non soddisfara:

Perocchè si s'innoltra nel abisso

Dell eterno statuto quel che chiedi,

Che da ogni, e creata vista è scisso.

DANTE, Canto 21. Il Paradiso.

P. 156, 1. 1.

Yet to the Sabbath those who toil will look.

"For all that moveth doth in change delight,
But thenceforth all shall rest eternally
With Him that is the God of Sabaoth hight:

O that great Sabaoth, God, grant me that Sabaoth's sight!"


"But if there be a real and necessary, not merely a shadowy agency in heaven, as well as on earth; and if human nature is destined to act its part in such an economy, then its constitution, and the severe training it undergoes, are at once explained; and then also the removal of individuals in the very prime of their fitness for useful labour, ceases to be impenetrably mysterious.

"This excellent mechanism of matter and mind, which beyond any other of his works declares the wisdom of the Creator, and which under his guidance is now passing the season of its first preparation, will stand up anew from the dust of dissolution, and then with freshened powers, and with a store of hard-earned and practical wisdom for its guidance, shall essay new labours, we say not perplexities, perils, in the service of God, who by such instruments chooses to accomplish his design of benevolence. : Shall not the very same qualities which are here so sedulously fashioned and finished, be actually needed and used in that future world of perfection?"—Natural History of Enthusiasm, page 157.

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"The truths which we have been capable of attaining here may still, by that condensation and diffusion of which I have spoken, form an

element of that transcendent knowledge which is to comprehend all the relations of all the worlds in infinity, as we are now capable of tracing the relations of the few planets that circle our sun; and by a similar diffusion, those generous affections which it has been our delight to cultivate in our social communion on earth, may not only prepare us for a purer and more glorious communion, but be themselves constituent elements of that ever-increasing happiness which, still prolonging and still augmenting the joys of virtue, is to reward, through immortality, the sufferings and the toils and the struggles of its brief mortal career." BROWN'S Lectures on the Philosophy of the Human Mind, vol. ii. page 311.

P. 156, 1. 2.

And the seal'd volume of a world unseen.

"But his peremptory, final, unalterable decree he keeps in the cabinet of the eternal ages, never to be unlocked, till the Angel of the Covenant shall declare the unalterable final sentence."-JEREMY TAYLOR.

Man, who is of "such stuff as dreams are made of," is ever anxious to lift up the curtains of eternity, and to discover the secrets of another world; but neither Dante with his "eagles" and his "roses," nor Davy in the "Vision" that graces the mild and mellow production of his last years, ("Consolations of a Philosopher,") nor Hope, whose last work (would that instead of it he had left us as a legacy another "Anastasius!") only proves the absurdity of human speculations when employed on a subject beyond the reach of human intellect; no, none of these lights of the world can give us a glimpse of our future state of existence.



Vain are all such speculations; all we know is, that when ". immortal spirit has finished its earthly career," to use the beautiful language of a celebrated preacher, now, alas! no more, an event has occurred, the issues of which must ever baffle and elude all finite comprehension by concealing themselves in that abyss, that eternity which is the dwelling-place of Deity, where there is sufficient space for the destiny of each among the innumerable millions to develop itself, and without interference or confusion to sustain and carry forward its separate infinity of interest."

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