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very remote period, had driven out some still more oppressed and injured race.' The Spaniards would never have reached Mexico, but for the alliance of the Tlascalans, with which nation the Mexicans would not make peace, because the supply of prisoners of war for human sacrifices would fail. The Eries, who gave their name to the lake, were exterminated by the Iroquois. And at the present day, Cherokees and Osages, Sioux and Chippeways are much more dangerous foes to each other than whites to either. Without regarding therefore their barbarous modes of warfare, or their treatment of prisoners, it is quite plain that they have no just cause of murmuring, at the progress of the whites, who had they, from their first landing, used no other means of extending themselves and extinguishing the Indian claims than the sword, would have stood on as good a right, as the Indians themselves.

But if not an injured and oppressed race, still is not their extinction and disappearance from the face of the earth a great calamity, a subject of melancholy reflection? Dr Morse, at the close of his report, thus expresses himself: In these circumstances, they become insulated, among those who despise them as an inferior race, fit companions of those only, who have the capacity and disposition to corrupt them. In this degraded, most disconsolate and heart breaking situation, in which man can be placed, they are left miserably to waste away for a few generations, and then to become extinct for ever! This is no fancied picture. In a few years it will be sad reality, unless we change our policy toward them; unless effectual measures be taken to bring them over this awful gulf, to the solid and safe ground of civilization. How many tribes, once numerous and respectable, have in succession perished, in the manner described, from the fair and productive territories, now possessed by and giving support to TEN MILLIONS.' In confirmation of these feelings of his own, the Doctor quotes the following impassioned passage from a sermon of the Rev. Mr Clarke, of Amherst (Mass.) I hear too the voice of the savage sounding from the bosom of the trackless forest. And there is in that cry a wild and native eloquence. "You have stripped us of our hunting ground, all in life that we held dear you have corrupted our morals; our tribes, already incalculably diminished, have nothing before them but the dreary idea of being swallowed up, unless it be the more fearful apprehen


Once we were the heirs


sion of perishing for ever in our sins. of your soil; we now only ask to die the heirs of that salvation which is revealed to you in your bibles." A cry like this has been uttered and is heard. Already the heralds of salvation have gone to look up the remnants of their depopulated tribes and point them to a Savior. Their sun is setting in the west, and we should give evidence that we had their unpitying nature as well as their soil, were we willing to see it go down in total darkness. If the few that remain may live forever, it alleviates the retrospect of their wrongs, and creates one luminous spot in the Egyptian cloud, that hangs over the place of their fathers' sepulchres. I would give any price for their forgiveness and blessing; and it cheers my heart, that my country is beginning to pay the long arrears, that are due to that injured people.'

We shall presently have an opportunity of saying that we wish success as heartily as any one can, to the efforts making, particularly among the Cherokees and Choctaws, for the instruction and civilization of the Indians. We have made these quotations for the sake of offering a remark on the supposed melancholy fact of the disappearance and extinction of the natives of this country. We are much mistaken, if it be not one of those confusions of ideas, which result from rhetoric turned into logic. Has any thing happened to the native inhabitants of this country, which has not happened at the same time to the whites, which has not always happened in all ages and to all the tribes of men? The natives driven from the soil, destroyed, extinguished! What then, would they not have died; is it the Europeans, that have made them mortal and their generations transitory? To hear the language sometimes used, in this connexion, one would suppose it to be thought, that but for the arrival of the Europeans, the aborigines would have been immortal on earth; that it was the discovery of Columbus, that

Brought death into the land and all their woe.

If this is not the melancholy event, that is deplored, if it is granted that the Indians would have died in the course of nature, then nothing is left to lament but that, in proportion as the Indian generations passed off, civilized generations have come on. And is it a real subject of complaint that hunting grounds are turned into cornfields, that their vast forests which

yielded a precarious subsistence to wandering savages, are the seats of prosperous and civilized villages? Had not the Europeans come, the Indians would have died in the course of nature as before, and been succeeded by other generations of Indians, to lead a barbarous and wretched life, and die like their fathers. The Europeans came; and-by causes as simple and natural, as they are innocent-the barbarous population, as it has passed off, has been replaced by one much better, much happier. Does any one doubt that man, the human mind, the human soul, stands higher in a civilized, than in a barbarous country? And is it a cause of melancholy, that these dreary wildernesses, as our fathers found them, have been turned into the happy abodes of civilized christian men? But the Indians are disappearing, wasting away !'-So are we ; we are no more permanent than they, we are all disappearing, and wasting. But while we do abide, it is better that we be civilized than savage; and it is no just cause of melancholy reflection, that so much barbarity, heathenism, and moral degradation, have been succeeded by so much improvement and civilization. How many tribes once numerous and respectable have in succession perished, in the manner described, from the fair and productive territories, now possessed by and supporting ten millions of people! We can scarce persuade ourselves that it is really intended as the climax of a mournful case, that ten millions of civilized men, prosperously cultivating the arts of peaceful life, and governed by its laws and principles, have succeeded to perhaps the twentieth part of that number of wandering, abject barbarians. When we wish for the progress of knowledge, christianity, and happiness, it is not surely red and black men alone, that we wish to have them ; and we would ask what plan or device of benevolence acting upon the Indians could, in ages, have brought forth the glorious result of ten millions of a population like ours. Let others then mourn over extinguished Pequods, and lament the vanished tribes of Natics and Narragansetts ;-for ourselves, while we would not insult the inferiority of their savage races, we rejoice in the memory of the pilgrims. Ample experience has shown that the contemporary existence of the Europeans and savages was impossible, and the natives of Pennsylvania, under the mild influence of the principles of Penn, have vanished more rapidly than those of Mexico and Peru, under the merci

less oppression of Mitas and Repartimientos. Since then it was not possible that the savage races could be perpetuated and the civilized settlements flourish, we see neither matter of regret nor commiseration in the course which events have taken. Somewhere in the course of the work before us, it is in substance said, that if the governments in New England had taken the proper measures, the Indians would have existed there to the present day. We profess ourselves unable to comprehend the advantage of such a result. It is a very plain alternative of an Indian and a civilized population. For ourselves, we like our neighbors and fellow citizens so well, and have derived from history and observation such ideas of the Indian character, that we are thankful our forefathers took no effectual steps (supposing there were any such) to perpetuate it. At the same time, however, the truth ought to be told. Our fathers really omitted nothing which seemed practicable for promoting the welfare of the Indians. At one period there were thirty Indian churches within a small circuit of Boston,* all built by private or public charity,-some served by pious white men,-some by natives, on whose education no pains had been spared; while an uncommonly vigilant police watched over the rights and property of their race. If this was not all that could be asked of men, who had their own children, their own community, their own interests to work hard for, we are much deceived; and in short we regard the disappearance of the natives in New England as full and final proof, that their preservation, within the limits of a white population, is impracticable.

We beg leave then to repeat, that the commiseration, of which we have been speaking, seems founded on a figure of speech, badly applied to real life. Men have talked of the melancholy vanishing of the native tribes, as if but for the Europeans, the successive tribes would not have vanished; and forgetting that the hunting ground of fifty savage families would feed and does feed a large city of civilized christians. Had the Indians been murdered to make way for these strangers, it would have been a deed of undying infamy; and such deeds, we know, were done in many parts of the continent of America. But among the alleviations, which providence has connected with our mortal nature, is this, that it provides a way for happy improve*Neal's history of New England.

ments, without cruel substitutions. It is not necessary to kill a bad man unless the case be extreme ;-he will die. It is not necessary to exterminate a savage tribe ;-place the germ of civilization in their soil-and such is its living principle, such the vis conservatrix of the arts of civilized life, that it will strike root, shoot up, and spread. Place a settlement of civilized men on a barbarous shore, and extend to them reasonable political muniments, and they will be sure, in the course of ages, to supersede the barbarous population, and by necessity; for if barbarity were more enduring, more permanent, more conducive to the increase and stability of population, more congenial to the human nature, as it would in this case be proved to be, then it would be better than civilization.

One more remark and we close this portion of our reflections. The inconsiderateness of the commiseration of the supposed disastrous lot of the natives is in nothing more apparent, than in the suggestions made for the benefit of the savage tribes, which still subsist. We lament that they have vanished we would take measures to preserve the present stock. But what is it we would preserve? Their languages? that first great bond and symbol of national identity, curious as many of their languages are in their structure, and perhaps the only historical monument of their ancient emigrations, affinities, and fortunes ? Would we preserve these? O no. It is recommended at once, to hasten these into oblivion. Dr Morse, in his appendix, expressly says, 'as fast as possible, let Indians forget their own languages, in which nothing is written, and nothing of course can be preserved, and learn ours, which will at once open to them the whole field of useful knowledge.' Is it their mode of life, tenure of property in common, their manners, that which makes them in all externals to be what they are is it these, which we deplore as lost, and would fix and perpetuate where they still exist? No. The whole drift of Dr Morse's speculations on the subject is to gather the Indians all into convenient settlements, wean them from the chace, teach them individually to hold a farm in fee, and plough and dig it. Is it their national faith, the religion of their fathers, their traditions, that we would cherish and perpetuate among them? Far from it. Their religious conceptions are notoriously of the grossest and most degrading kind, their traditions mere bloody recollections of prisoners scalped and tomahawked.

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