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We do not think that the arrangement is very judicious. Although to an American student a particular knowledge of his own country is more important than that of the other quarters of the globe, this does not furnish any conclusive reason for placing the description of America first in the arrangement of the work. There are several reasons why Europe should be described first; one of which is, that many portions of America are still dependencies on different governments of Europe, and a large proportion of its population derived from that quarter. The geography of Europe is more complete, and susceptible of being reduced to a more systematic order than that of America, and for this reason is more suited to occupy the front place in the work. There seems also to be a want of system in the order of arrangement of the different countries. In the description of the American colonies, those which depend upon the same European power should be placed by themselves. The order of arrangement of the different kingdoms of Europe appears to be entirely arbitrary. It may admit of doubt what principle of arrangement ought to be adopted, yet it cannot be doubted that there would be an advantage in some systematic order. After the head of Germany, for example, and a description of the minor German states, follows
Prussia, then Spain, Portugal, Italy, the Italian States, and Austria. It might have been expected that more regard would be had, in the arrangement, either to the political connexions of the different countries, or to their geographical position.
There is also a want of distinctness in the account of the Turkish government, one of the most important, certainly, without the pale of Christendom. As the natural division of the earth into continents is assumed as the basis of the work, a difficulty of course presents itself in describing a government like Turkey, whose territories are divided between Europe, Asia, and Africa. Nevertheless, somewhere in the book a table might be given of the Turkish empire, consisting of
Turkey in Europe,
Turkey in Africa.
The two former of these appellations are indeed retained; but the African dominions of the Porte are not given with sufficient precision. The connexion of Egypt with the Grand Seignior is dismissed with the simple epithet of nominal; while the relation of the Barbary regencies does not appear to be given at all.
We may mention as a general defect, not of this work, but of all our geographical compends, that they afford too little information on the condition of the people. A few paragraphs on the subject of the codes or systems of law in the various countries, the distribution of estates, the privileges or incapacities of the different classes might be easily furnished, and impart more light on the state of man in the different countries, than all that is contained under the rubrics of education, religion, or government. Taking England, for instance, as an example, there is no question but the condition of that country depends far more on the statute of distributions, the laws prescribing the conditions on which a settlement is obtained, and the system of parliamentary elections, than on the great nominal features of the constitution.
We speak not of this, however, as particularly a defect in the present work. We may regard it as one, that the computation by pounds sterling is retained in most statements relative to all countries, as Germany for instance, which have been derived from English sources. Our decimal notation is in itself far more beautiful and convenient; the pounds, shillings, and
pence have ceased to be familiar to Americans, and in a work like this, designed to go into the hands of the rising generation, every thing should be done to contribute to the diffusion of our admirable national notation. Having mentioned Germany, we cannot but bestow great praise, (with the slight exception now taken,) on the account of this country. In no article have most preceding compends been more erroneous. In the present work, the main facts with regard to this important country are given from authentic sources. A few general views, however, remain to be corrected, as where it is stated that Saxony is more distinguished for literature than any other part of Germany.' This cannot be regarded as correct in any acceptation in which Saxony is now used.
Under the head of Turkey in Europe, we think the modern travellers in Greece could have furnished more information than is presented. The dependence of Wallachia and Moldavia on the Porte is not accurately stated, nor are the Greek governors, appointed by the Porte for those provinces, called by one of their most common names, Hospodar.—Athens is not a part of the province of Livadia, nor is it true in any sense, that its ruins remain for the most part in a state little inferior to their original splendor.' The temple of Minerva' is not converted into a mosque; but a miserable structure, called a mosque, is built up on a part of the area of the Parthenon, of which only the porticos at the two ends and a portion of the cell are standing. The most perfect ancient building at Athens is the Theseum.-Platæa, enumerated among the towns of Turkey, is a cornfield without a habitation near it.
In several parts of the work attention has not been had to eonform the traditionary geographical statements, which have stood their ground in defiance of all improvements, to the present state of literature in general. Thus, under the head of Malacca is a description given of running amok. This practice is certainly not confined to the Malays of the coast of Malacca, and running a-muck is too well naturalized in the English language to be brought back to a foreign orthography.
We could point out other little errors of this kind, but we would not be thought to find unnecessary fault. Upon the whole we entertain a very favorable opinion of the work, and cheerfully recommend it to general use. It exhibits proofs of * See Crawford's Indian Archipelago.
patient inquiry on the almost infinite number of topics, which come within the scope of such a work, and it has perhaps as few defects as ought to be expected in any production, the subject of which is perpetually changing.
ART. XI.-United States Law Journal and Civilian's Magazine. New-Haven, Gray & Hewit.
We have derived so much satisfaction from the perusal of the two numbers of this work before us, that we cannot but step a little out of our course to express our good wishes for its encouragement. Its plan must recommend it to the attention of all, who, whether by reason of their taste or their pursuits, are interested in the prosecution of inquiries connected with the national economy, the laws, and the political institutions of our country; and the execution, we feel confidently assured, has been answerable to the public expectations. It is enriched with hitherto unreported opinions of court in adjudged cases of extensive importance, and with other like pieces of a fugitive nature, which this journal will prove the means of preserving and rendering accessible to the profession. The editorial articles, consisting of essays, disquisitions and criticisms on various subjects of constitutional and municipal law, are written with much ability, and, although sometimes verging upon a less chastened style than is perfectly acceptable to a severe taste, are of such a quality as cannot fail to do credit to the character of our jurists, in England as well as in America.
To give a more complete view of the nature of the journal, we lay before our readers the contents of the two numbers as yet published. In the first are contained the following articles:
Bills of Exchange-Opinion of Judge Van Ness; Jurisdiction of the United States Courts in Bankruptcy-Opinion by the same; Equity Jurisdiction in the State of New York; Examination of President Monroe's Views on Internal Improvement-Mr Clay's Speech on the same subject; Practice under the Patent Laws of the United States-Opinion of Judge Van Ness; Notice of Cowen's Treatise on the Civil Jurisdiction of a Justice of the Peace; Notice of Anthon's Nisi Prius; Translation of M. Dupin's Historical Sketch of the Roman Law; Statute of Frauds; Will; Notice of Swift's Digest.'
In the second number are contained the following articles:
Admiralty Law-Mariners' Wages-Rand & al. vs. Ship Hercules-Williams vs. Brigantine Juno, &c.; Decision of Judge Livingston in the case of the United States vs. Jacob Barker; Examination of Cases argued and determined in the Supreme Court of Judicature of the State of New York, in the terms of May, August, and October, 1821, and January, 1822; Remarks on the Resolution of Mr Stevenson, of Virginia, for the Repeal of the 25th section of the Judiciary Act of the United States; Review of the Case of the Jeune Eugenie, determined in the Circuit Court of the United States, held at Boston, December, 1821; Penal Jurisprudence-Review of a Report made to the General Assembly of the State of Louisiana, on the plan of a Penal Code for said State; by Edward Livingston; Commission to take Foreign Testimony; Law of Corporations-Opinion of Chancellor Kent and of Judge Spencer, in the case of the North River Bank; Law of Corporations-Remarks on the case of the Corporation, styled "The Trustees of the Roman Catholic Society worshipping at the Church of St. Mary, in the city of Philadelphia," by Richard H. Bayard.'
A note to the table of contents of the second number, informs us, that a digest of all the late British and American reports, which are not included in the present British or American digests, is preparing for the third number of this work.'
Having of course no other object in the present article, but to take a friendly and respectful notice of a contemporary journal, and to pay a just tribute to its merit and promise, we forbear to enter into any discussion of the separate essays enumerated in the contents, as we have just quoted them. This enumeration will have sufficiently excited the curiosity of such of our law readers as have not already done it, to put themselves in possession of the work. We rejoice to behold in it another respectable literary enterprise, and to see springing up in different parts of our native land, writers of inquisitive minds, sterling sense, deep science, and patriotic sentiment, who devote themselves to the task of elucidating the grand, but yet unfinished system of civil polity, of which America was the first to lay the foundations, and to exhibit as a model for the imitation and guidance of other nations. It is not for Americans, who demonstrated to the world that the fetters of the feudal institutions could be burst asunder as easily as the bands on the strong man in Holy Writ, who first set mankind an ex