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ter of examinations, one Corbolo hath the especial trust; he doth favour the people more than the Nobilitie, because they do bear an old grudge to the Gentlemen, and the people are the more in number, without whome the Nobilitie can doe nothing. One thing in him giveth great contentment to the fubjects, that he vouchfafeth to receive and heare all their petitions himself. And in his absence from Florence, thofe that have fuite do reforte. to the office, and there exhibit their bill endoffed; whereof within three days abfolute answer is returned them, unless the matter be of great importance, then have they direction how to proceed. He is a great justicer, and for the ease of the people; and to have the better eye over justice, hath built hard by his pallace a faire rowe of houfes for all offices together in one place.

Two years fithence he marryed la Signora Bianca his concubine, a Venetian of Cafa Capelli, whereby he entered streighter amitie with the Venetians; with the Pope he had good intelligence, and fome affinitie by the marriage of Signor Jacomo, the Pope's fonne, in Cafa Sforza.

To the Emperor he is allyed, his firft wife being the Emperor Maximylian's fifter.

With Spaine he is in ftreight league, and his mother was of the houfe of Toledo; his brother likewife D. Pietro married in the fame houfe. With Fraunce he standeth at this present in some mislikeing.

With Ferrara alwaies at jarr, as with all the Dukes

of Italye for the prefeance fome controversy.

All his revenues arife of taxes and cuftoms; his domaynes are very small,

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He hath by his first wife one fonne, of the age of four or five yeares, and four daughters; he hath a base child by this woman, and a base brother D. Joanni, fixteen yeares of age, of great expectation.

Two brothers, D. Pietro, and the Cardinal.

The Duke of Ferrara Alfonfo D'Efté the fifth Duke, now about forty yeares of age, his first wife Lucrecia, daughter to Cofmo de Medici, whom they say he poyfoned; his fecond, Daughter to Ferdinand the Emperor; his third wife now living, Anne daughter to the Duke of Mantua. He hath no child. The chief citties of his state are Ferrara, Modona, and Reggio: he is rich in money, groweing as the most of Italy of exactions; of all the Princes of Italy alone inclineth to the French, with the Pope hath some jar about the paffage of a river. The Venetians and he fall in great hatred, with Florence hath enmitye, with Lucca little fkirmishes every year for a castle, he buildeth on their confines to raise a great tole in a straight paffage, by reafon of his mother a Guife.

William of the house of Gonfaga, the third Duke of Mantua; his wife Barbara daughter to the Emperor Ferdinand, by whom he hath a sonne of twenty two yeres of age, and a daughter. His fonne is called Vincentio, his daughter Anne married of late to the Duke of Ferrara; his fon likewife marryed a yere fithence to the Prince of Parma's daughter. The Duke his felf very deformed and crook-backed, well in yeres. Montferrat likewife appertayneth to him; diverse of his house have pension alwaies, and ferve the King of Spaine; his brother the Duke of Nevers remaineth in Fraunce.



only feeketh to maintaine his estate and enrich himself; his greatest pleasure is in horfes and building.

The Duke of Urbin Francefco Maria, of the house of Urbin. Roveré, the fecond of that name, a Prince of good behaviour and wittie. In his ftate are feaven reasonable faire citties, Pefaro, Augubio, Sinigaglia, Foffombrone, Sanleo, Cagli, Urbino; Pefaro and Synigaglia are fortresses on the sea fide, Urbin and Sanleo on the Appenine, well fortified. He holdeth three provinces, Montefeltro, Maffa Trebaria, and Vicariato di Mondavio.

There have been good Princes and valiant of that house, not so great exactors as the reft of Italye, therefore better beloved of their fubjects, which love restored their house, being difplaced by Pope Leo the Xth.

His wife Leonora, fifter to the Duke of Ferrara, by whom he hath no children, and now is dyvorfed. He hath two fifters, the one marryed to the Duke of Gravina, the other to the Prince Byfignano, aud a third is to marry, whose name is Lavinia.

Ottaviano, first Duke of Caftro, then of Camerino, and Parma. after of Parma and Piacenza, with great trouble restored to his estate; nowe is aged and lyveth quietly: his wife, Marguerite daughter to Charles the Fifth, first wife to Alexandre de Medici firft Duke of Florence. He hath one fonne called Alexandre, now General for the King of Spaine in the Lowe Countries; his daughter Vittoria was mother to the Duke of Urbin.

The Cardinal Farnefe, his uncle of great credit in that colledge, long time hath aspired to be Pope, but withstood by the King of Spain; on whome thoughe now that house depend, yet forgetteth not, as he think

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eth, the death of Pier Luigi, and the lofs of Parma and Piscinza, restored to their houfe by the French. The young Princes of Myrandola, in the government of their mother Fukcia Cerreggio, and under the protectica of the King of France, who maintaineth there a garriion.

The Duke of Savoye, Carlo Emanuel, a young Prince of twenty one yeres, very little of stature, but well brought up and difpofed. His territorye is the greatest of any Duke of Itaje, having Piemont beyond the Apes, and Savoye on this fide; diverfe faire townes and strong holdes, richly left of his father, who was accompted a very wife Prince. This Duke, as is thought, is adviied to remayne alwayes indifferent between Spaine and Fraunce, being neighbour to them both, unless fome accident doe counsel him to declare himself in behalf of either. Therefore both thofe Princes go about by marryage to have him nearer allyed to them. His mother was fifter to King Frauncis the Great, his father being expulfed his dominions by the French, was restored by the King of Spaine, with whom while he lived he had straight intelligence. As yet his inclination doth not appear; he retaineth his father's alliances with Venice, efpecially in Italye, and with the Emperor. With Florence he hath queftion for preheminence.

His revenues are judged to a million of crowns yearly; now. he is in armes against Geneva and guarded against Bern.

Of free eftates, Lucca the leaft, is under the protection of the King of Spaine, fmall in territorie; the cittie


it felf well fortified and provided, becaufe of the doubt they have of the Duke of Florence.

Genoa is recommended to the King of Spaine, theire Genou. gallies ferve under him, and the chiefeft of their citie are at his devotion. Though there is a faction for the French, whereto he doth hearken fo weakly, that the Spaniard is there all in all; by whom that ftate in few yeres hath made a marvelous gaine. And the King of Spaine hath great need of their friendship, for their portes, where embarke and land all men, and whatsoever is fent between Spaine and Milan.

They hold Corfica an Ifland, and Savona a faire cittie, and the goodlieft haven in Italye, until it was deftroyed by the Genevoys; the which now make noe profeffion but of merchandize.

There is a dangerous faction amongst them, between the auncient houfes and the new, which were admitted into the auncient familyes.

St. George is their treasure house and receiver, as at Venice St. Mark.

Venice retaining ftill the auncient form of government, Venice. is alwaies for it felf in like eftate and all one; at this time between the Turk and the King of Spaine in continual watche, feeming to make more accompt of Fraunce, not fo much in hope of any great affyance at this present to be hadde in him, but for the reputation of that nation, and the amitie alwaies they have had with the fame, and behoving them fo to doe. They ufe it with good forefight and fpeedie preventing, fparing for noe charge to meet as they may with every accident. Of late they have hadde fome jarr with the


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